# Indonesian units of measurement

A number of units of measurement were used in Indonesia to measure length, mass, capacity, etc. Metric system adopted in 1923 and has been compulsory in Indonesia since 1938.^{[1]}

## Contents

## System before metric system[edit]

Old Dutch and local measures were used under Dutch East Indies. Local measures were very variable, and later they have been legally defined with their metric equivalents.^{[2]}

### Length[edit]

A number of units were used to measure length. One depa was equal to 1.70 m by its legal definition.^{[2]}^{[1]} Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 hasta = ^{1}⁄_{4} depa

1 kilan = ^{1}⁄_{8} depa.^{[2]}^{[1]}

### Mass[edit]

A number of units were used to measure mass.

#### Ordinary[edit]

One pikol (or one pecul) was equal to 61.7613025 kg by its legal definition.^{[2]} Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 thail = ^{1}⁄_{1600} pikol

1 catti = ^{1}⁄_{100} pikol

1 kabi = ^{1}⁄_{100} pikol

1 kulack = 0.0725 pikol

1 amat = 2 pikol

1 small bahar = 3 pikol

1 large bahar = 4.5 pikol

1 timbang = 5 pikol

1 kojang (Batavia) = 27 pikol = 1667.555 kg

1 kojang (Semarang) = 28 pikol = 1729.316 kg

1 kojang (Soerabaya) = 30 pikol = 1852.839 kg.^{[2]}

#### For precious metals[edit]

One thail was equal to 54.090 kg by its legal definition.^{[2]} Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 wang = ^{1}⁄_{48} thail

1 tali = ^{1}⁄_{16} thail

1 soekoe = ^{1}⁄_{8} thail

1 reaal = ^{1}⁄_{2} thail.^{[2]}

#### For opium[edit]

One thail was equal to 38.601 kg by its legal definition.^{[2]} Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 tji = ^{1}⁄_{10} thail

1 tjembang Mata = ^{1}⁄_{1000} thail

1 hoen = ^{1}⁄_{1000} thail.^{[2]}

### Area[edit]

Several units were used to measure area. One bahoe (or 1 bouw) was equal to 7096.5 m^{2} and lieue^{2} (Geographic) was equal to 55.0632 km by its legal definition.^{[2]}

### Capacity[edit]

Two systems, dry and liquid, were used to measure capacity.

#### Dry[edit]

Several units were used to measure dry capacity. One kojang was equal to 2011.2679 l by its legal definition.^{[2]} One pikol was equal to ^{1}⁄_{30} kojang.^{[2]}

#### Liquid[edit]

A number of units were used to measure liquid capacity. Some other units and their legal equivalents are given below:

1 takar (for oil) = 25.770 l

1 kit (for oil) = 15.159 l

1 koelak (for oil) = 3.709 l

1 kan (for various products) = 1.575 l

1 mutsje (for various products) = 0.1516 l

1 pintje (for oil) = 0.0758 l.^{[2]}

### Sumatra[edit]

Several local units were used in Sumatra.

#### Length[edit]

Units for length included:

1 etto = 2 jankal

1 hailoh = 2 etto

1 tung = 4 hailoh = 12 feet.^{[3]}

#### Capacity[edit]

Units for capacity included:

1 koolah = 2.1173 bushel

1 pakha = 0.14535 gallon.^{[3]}

#### Mass[edit]

Units for mass included:

1 catty = 2.118 lb

1 maund = 77 lb

1 pecul = 133 ^{1}⁄_{3} lb

1 candil = 423 ^{1}⁄_{2} lb

1 ootan (for camphor) = 4 lb.^{[3]}

#### Java[edit]

Several local units were used in Java. Old Dutch units too were in use, and other units were varied for example one town to another.:^{[4]}

#### Length[edit]

One covid was equal to ^{3}⁄_{4} yard and other units were Dutch.^{[4]}

#### Mass[edit]

Units for mass included:

1 gantang (for coffee) = 10 catties

1 pecul = 100 catties = 135.6312 lb

1 bahar (at Bantam; used for pepper) = 406.78 lb

1 bahar (at Batavia) = 610.17 lb

1 timbang (for grain) = 677.9625 lb

1 tael (at Bantam) = 0.1511 lb

1 tael (at Batavia) = 0.0847 lb.^{[3]}

#### Capacity[edit]

Units for capacity included:

1 kanne = 0.394 gallons

1 legger (for arrack) = 160.0 gallons

1 bambou (at Bantam) = 0.09223 bushels

1 koyang = 147.568 bushels

1 koyang (at Batavia; measure for rise) = 62432 bushels.^{[3]}

### Celebes (Modern Sulawesi)[edit]

Units were resemble or identical with the units of neighbouring islands under Netherlands.^{[5]}

#### Mass[edit]

One pecul was equal to 135.64 lb.^{[5]}

### Molucca Islands[edit]

Dutch units and other units resembling the units in Java, Sumatra, etc. were used.^{[6]}

#### Amboyna[edit]

##### Mass[edit]

Units included:

1 bahar = 597.61 lb

1 mace = 28 ^{1}⁄_{2} grain

1 tael = 55.3371 bushel.^{[6]}

#### Ternate[edit]

##### Mass[edit]

One catty was equal to 1.3017 lb.^{[6]}

## References[edit]

- ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}Cardarelli, F. (2003).*Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins*. London: Springer. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1. - ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}^{d}^{e}^{f}^{g}^{h}^{i}^{j}^{k}^{l}^{m}Washburn, E.W. (1926).*International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology*. New York: McGraw-Hil Book Company, Inc. pp. 5, 6. Retrieved 8 February 2015. - ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}^{d}^{e}Clarke, F.W. (1891).*Weights Measures and Money of All Nations*. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 71. - ^
^{a}^{b}Clarke, F.W. (1891).*Weights Measures and Money of All Nations*. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 49. - ^
^{a}^{b}Clarke, F.W. (1891).*Weights Measures and Money of All Nations*. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 22. - ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}Clarke, F.W. (1891).*Weights Measures and Money of All Nations*. New York: D. Appleton & Company. pp. 52–53.