Insect farming

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Insect farming is the practice of raising, eating, and breeding insects as livestock. Insects may be farmed for the commodities they produce, or for them themselves; to be used as food, as a dye, as feed and otherwise.

Farming of popular insects[edit]

Silkworms[edit]

Silkworms, the caterpillars of the domestic silkmoth, are kept to produce silk, an elastic fiber made when they are in the process of creating a cocoon. Silk is commonly regarded as a major cash crop and is used in the crafting of many textiles.

Mealworms[edit]

The mealworm (Tenebrio Molitor L.) is the larvae form of beetles (Coleoptera). The optimum incubation temperature is 25 ̊C - 27 ̊C and its embryonic development lasts 4 - 6 days. It has a long larvae period of about half a year with the optimum temperature and low moisture terminates [1]. The protein content of Tenebrio Molitor larvae, adult, exuvium and excreta are 46.44, 63.34, 32.87, and 18.51% respectively [2].

Buffaloworms[edit]

Buffaloworms, also called lesser mealworms, is the common name of Alphitobius diaperinus. Its larvae superficially resemble small wireworms or true mealworms (Tenebrio spp.). They are approximately 7 to 11 mm in length at last instar. Freshly-emerged larvae are a milky color. The pale color tinge returns to that of the first/second instar larva when preparing to molt, while a yellowish-brown appearance after molting [3]. In addition, they are in the It was reported that it has the highest level of iron bioavilability [4].

Honeybees[edit]

Commodities harvested from honeybees include beeswax, bee bread, bee pollen, propolis, royal jelly, brood, and honey. All of the aforementioned are mostly used in food, however, being wax, beeswax has many other uses, such as being used in candles, and propolis may be used as a wood finish. In recent years, wild populations of honeybees[verification needed] have declined significantly.

Lac insects[edit]

Lac insects secrete a resinous substance called lac. Lac is used in many applications, from its use in food to being used as a colorant or as a wood finish. The majority of lac farming takes place in India and Thailand, with over 2 million residential employees.

Cochineal[edit]

Made into a red dye known as carmine, cochineal are incorporated into lots of products, ranging cosmetics, food, paint, fabric, etc. About 100,000 insects are needed to make a single kilogram of dye. The shade of red the dye yields depends on how the insect is processed. France is the world’s largest importer of carmine.

Crickets[edit]

Among the hundreds of different types of crickets, the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) is the most common type used for human consumption.[5] The cricket is one of the most nutritious edible insects, and in many parts of the world, crickets are consumed dry-roasted, baked, deep-fried, and boiled. Cricket consumption may take the form of cricket flour, a powder of dried and ground crickets, which is easily integrated in to many food recipes. Crickets are commonly farmed for non-human animal food, as they provide much nutrition to the many species of reptiles, fish, birds and other mammals that consume them. Crickets are normally killed by deep freezing, where they feel no pain and are sedated before neurological death.

Waxworms[edit]

Waxworms are the larvae of wax moths. These caterpillars are used widely across the world for food, fish bait, animal testing and plastic degradation. Low in protein but high in fat content, they are a valuable source of fat for many insectivorous organisms. Waxworms are popular in many parts of the world, due to their ability to live in low temperatures and their simplicity in production.[6]

Cockroaches[edit]

Cockroaches are farmed by the million in China, and became an area of growth in the early 2000s.

As feed and food[edit]

Insects are promising to be used as the animal feed. For instance, fly larvae can replace the fish meal due to the similar amino acid composition. It is possible to formulate the fish meal to increase unsaturated fatty acid [7]. Wild birds and free-range poultry can consume insects inform an adult, larval and pupal naturally [8]. Grasshoppers and moth, as well as the housefly, are reported as the feed supplements of poultry [9]. Apart from that, insects have the potential as the feeds for reptile, soft monkey as well as birds [10].

Insects are farmed to be eaten in a practice referred to as entomophagy. Entomophagy has lasted for as long as, as some sources suggest, 30,000 years.[11] Insects are becoming increasingly viable as a source of protein in the modern diet, as conventional meat forms are very land-intensive and produce large quantities of methane, a greenhouse gas.[5] Insects bred in captivity offer a low space-intensive, highly feed efficient[citation needed], relatively pollution-free, high-protein source of food for both humans and non-human animals. Insects have a high nutritional value, dense protein content and micronutrient and probiotic potential. Insects such as crickets and mealworms have high concentrations of complete protein, vitamin B12, riboflavin and vitamin A.[5] Insects offer an economical solution to increasingly pressing food security and environmental issues concerning the production and distribution of protein to feed a growing world population. Hundreds of species of crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, moths and various other insects are farmed for human consumption.[5]

Benefits[edit]

Purported benefits of entomophagy include:

  • Significantly less amounts resource and space use, less amounts of waste produced, and emissions of very trace amounts of greenhouse gases.[12]
  • They include many vitamins and essential minerals, contain dietary fiber (which is not present in meat),[13] and are a complete protein.[14] The protein count of 100g of cricket is nearly equivalent to the amount in 100g of lean ground beef.[15]
  • As opposed to meat, lower costs are required to care for and produce insects.[5]
  • Faster growth and reproduction rates. Crickets mature rather quickly and are typically full-grown within 3 weeks to a month,[5] and an individual female can lay from 1,200 to 1,500 eggs in three to four weeks. Cattle, however, become adults at 2 years, and the breeding ratio is four breeding animals for each market animal produced.[16]
  • Unlike meat, insects rarely transmit diseases such as H1N1, mad cow disease, or salmonella.[17]

Reduced feed[edit]

Cattle use 12 times the amount of feed that crickets do to produce an equal amount of protein.[5] Crickets also only use a quarter of the feed of sheep and one half the amount of feed given to swine and chicken to produce an equivalent amount of protein.[5] Crickets require only two pounds of feed to produce one pound of the finished product.[5] Much of this efficiency is a result of crickets being ectothermic, as in they get their heat from the environment instead of having to expend energy to create their own body heat as typical mammals do.

Nutrient efficiency[edit]

Insects are nutrient efficient compared to other meat sources. The insect protein content is comparable to most meat products. Likewise, the fatty acid composition of edible insects is comparable to fish lipids, with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs).In addition, all parts on edible insect are efficiently used however, some parts on conventional livestock are not directly available for human consumption [18] The nutritional contents of insects vary with species as well as within species depending on their metamorphic stage, their habitat and their diet. For instance, the lipid composition of insects is largely dependent on their diet and metamorphic stage. Insect is abundant in other nutrients, Locusts for example contain between 8 and 20 milligrams of iron for every 100 grams of raw locust. Beef on the other hand contains roughly 6 milligrams of iron in the same amount of meat. Crickets as well are very efficient when you compare nutrients. For every 100 grams of substance crickets contain 12.9 grams of protein, 121 calories, and 5.5 grams of fat. Beef contains more protein containing 23.5 grams in 100 grams of substance, but also has roughly 3 times the calories, and four times the amount of fat as crickets do in 100 grams. So, per 100 grams of substance, crickets contain only half the nutrients of beef, except for iron. High levels of iron are implicated in bowel cancer[19] and heart disease.[20]. When considering the protein transition, cold-blood insects are enabling to convert food more efficiently. A fact about that is crickets only need 2.1kg feed for 1kg ‘meat’ while poultry and cows need about more than 2 times and 12 times of the feed[21]

Greenhouse gas emissions[edit]

The raising of livestock is responsible for 18% of all greenhouse gases emitted.[5] Alternative sources of protein, such as insects, replace protein sourced from livestock and help decrease the number of greenhouse gases emitted from food production. Insect raising has negligible emissions compared to livestock since no farmed insect species besides termites release methane,[5] and none create ammonia.

Land usage[edit]

Livestock raising accounts for 70% of agricultural land use.[22] This results in a tremendous amount of land-cover change which destroys local ecosystems and displaces people and wildlife. Insect farming is minimally space intensive compared to other conventional livestock,[22] and can even take place in populated urban centers.

Processing methods[edit]

With the concerning on animal health and welfare about the tolerance on pain [23], processing on the insects can be mainly concluded as: Harvesting and cleaning, Inactivation, heating and drying depending on the final product and rearing methods [24].

Harvesting and cleaning[edit]

Insects at different life stages can be collected by sieving followed by water cleaning when it is necessary to remove needless biomass or excretion. And before processing, the insects were sieved to stored alive at 4 ℃ for about one day without any feed [25].

Inactivation[edit]

An inactivation step was needed to inactive the enzyme and the microbial on the insects. The enzymatic browning reaction (mainly phenolase or phenol oxidase [26]) can cause the brown or black color on the insect, which leads to discoloration and the off-flavor.

Heat-treatment[edit]

Sufficient heat treatment is required to kill Enterobacteriaceae so that the product can meet the safety requirement. D-value and Z-value can be used to estimate the effectiveness of heat treatments. The temperature and duration of the heating will cause insect proteins denaturation so that change the functional properties of proteins.

Drying[edit]

To prevent spoilage, the products are dried up to lower the moisture content and prolong the shelf life. However, longer drying time results from a low evaporation rate due to the Chitin layer, which can prevent the insect from dehydration during their lifetime. So the product in granules form give the advantages of further drying. In general, insects have a moisture level in the range of 55-65%. A drying process decreasing the moisture content to a level of less than 10% is good for preservation.

Besides the moisture level, oxidation of lipids can cause high levels of unsaturated fatty acids in products. Hence the processing steps influencing the final fat stability in products are necessary to be considered during drying.

Regulations in Europe[edit]

The use of insect meal as feed and food is limited by the legislation. Insects can be incorporate to the Novel Food according to the guidelines for market authorization of products of the European Union [27]. Luckily, the Europe union commission accepts the use of insects for fish feed in July 2017 [28]. However, the power to promote the scale-up of insects production becomes difficult when only little participates in this market to change the rules. In Europe, documents of safety demonstration of certain insects and accompanying products are required by the European Union (EFSA) and NVWA [29].

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Siemianowska, E., Kosewska, A., Aljewicz, M., Skibniewska, K. A., Polak-Juszczak, L., Jarocki, A., & Jędras, M. (2013). "Larvae of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) as European novel food". Agricultural Sciences,. 4 (06): 287.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Ravzanaadii, N., Kim, S. H., Choi, W. H., Hong, S. J., & Kim, N. J. (2012). "Nutritional value of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as food source". . International Journal of Industrial Entomology. 25 (1): 93-98.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Dunford, J. C., & Kaufman, P. E. (2006). "Lesser Mealworm , Litter Beetle , Alphitobius diaperinus ( Panzer ) ( Insecta : Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae )". Entomology and Nematology Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida: 1–12.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Dobermann, D., Swift, J. A., & Field, L. M. (2017). "Opportunities and hurdles of edible insects for food and feed. Nutrition Bulletin". 42 (4): 293–308.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Joost,, Van Itterbeeck,; Harmke,, Klunder,; Nations,, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United. Edible insects : future prospects for food and feed security. ISBN 9789251075968. OCLC 893013301.
  6. ^ Martin, Daniella (2011-07-18). "What Do Bugs Taste Like, Anyway?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  7. ^ "New trends in sustainable and healthy food sources: land shrimps and sea crickets".
  8. ^ Sánchez-Muros, M. J. (2014). "Insect meal as renewable source of food for animal feeding: a review". Journal of Cleaner Production (65): 16-27.
  9. ^ Rumpold, B. A. (2013). "Potential and challenges of insects as an innovative source for food and feed production". Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies (17): 1-11.
  10. ^ "insect product".
  11. ^ Encyclopedia of entomology. Springer. 2006-01-01. ISBN 0792386701. OCLC 964770230.
  12. ^ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/10/eating-bugs-food_n_4726371.html?slideshow=true name="Huffington Post" title=Here’s Why You Should Start Eating (More) Bugs
  13. ^ https://www.livestrong.com/article/301054-list-of-non-fiber-foods/
  14. ^ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/10/eating-bugs-food_n_4726371.html?slideshow=true name="Huffington Post" title=Here’s Why You Should Start Eating (More) Bugs
  15. ^ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/10/eating-bugs-food_n_4726371.html?slideshow=true name="Huffington Post" title=Here’s Why You Should Start Eating (More) Bugs
  16. ^ Capinera, John L. (2004). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-8670-1.
  17. ^ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/10/eating-bugs-food_n_4726371.html?slideshow=true name="Huffington Post" title=Here’s Why You Should Start Eating (More) Bugs
  18. ^ "New trends in sustainable and healthy food sources: land shrimps and sea crickets".
  19. ^ http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/502752_4
  20. ^ http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/news/20001025/too-much-iron-may-lead-to-heart-attack
  21. ^ "Resources for our Future: Key issues and best practices in Resource Efficiency" (PDF). THE HAGUE CENTRE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES (HCSS) AND TNO. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  22. ^ a b van Huis, A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, J.J.A. van. "Insects to feed the world". Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 1 (1): 3–5. doi:10.3920/jiff2015.x002.
  23. ^ Hakman,Peters & van Huis (1 September,2013). Admission procedure for insects such as mini-cattle (Dutch version). Check date values in: |date= (help)
  24. ^ "New trends in sustainable and healthy food sources: land shrimps and sea crickets".
  25. ^ Yi, L., Lakemond, C. M., Sagis, L. M., Eisner-Schadler, V., van Huis, A., & van Boekel, M. A. (2013). "Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species". Food chemistry. 141 (4): 3341-3348.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ Janssen, R. H., Lakemond, C. M., Fogliano, V., Renzone, G., Scaloni, A., & Vincken, J. P. (2017). "Involvement of phenoloxidase in browning during grinding of Tenebrio molitor larvae". PloS one. 12 (12): e0189685.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ "Food Safety First – First time Right Regulatory roadmap for insect products in Feed and Food applications" (PDF).
  28. ^ "Green light for insect protein in fish feed in EU".
  29. ^ "Mealworms and foods: Food for people and fish" (PDF).

References[edit]

See also[edit]