Interleukin 19

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IL19 Crystal Structure.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesIL19, IL-10C, MDA1, NG.1, ZMDA1, Interleukin 19, IL-19
External IDsOMIM: 605687 MGI: 1890472 HomoloGene: 17813 GeneCards: IL19
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 1 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 1 (human)[1]
Chromosome 1 (human)
Genomic location for IL19
Genomic location for IL19
Band1q32.1Start206,770,764 bp[1]
End206,842,981 bp[1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 1: 206.77 – 206.84 MbChr 1: 130.93 – 130.94 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Interleukin 19 (IL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL19 gene on the chromosome 1.[5]


The IL-19 gene contains 7 exons and is found on chromosome 1. Secreted IL-19 is made from 159 amino acids that create alpha-helix structure.


The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 cytokine subfamily. This cytokine is found to be preferentially expressed in monocytes and less in B lymphocytes. The IL-19 gene is expressed in resting monocytes and B cells. It is up-regulated in monocytes following stimulation with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), lipopolysaccharide, or Pam3CSK4.[6]

Immunoregulation function[edit]

IL-19 increases the production of Th2 cytokines in T-lymphocytes and induces expression of IL-10 in monocytes.

Disorder of the IL-19 production probably has an affect to different allergic reactions and other Th1 type athopic and skis pathogeneses, eg. psoriasis [7].

IL-19 also forms homologs with IL-20 and IL-24 and thus is able to bind the interleukin-20 receptor complex and lead to the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3 is necessary for embryonal development and Th17 differentiation [8]. The IL-20 receptors are predominantly found in the mesenchymal region of tissues, lungs and reproduction organs.

A similar cytokine in mouse is reported to up-regulate the expression of IL6 and TNF-alpha and induce apoptosis, which suggests a role of this cytokine in inflammatory responses. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the distinct isoforms have been described.[5]

IL-10 family[edit]

Interleukin-19 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-10 family of cytokines along with several other interleukins including IL-10, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and several virus-encoded cytokines. It signals through the same cell surface receptor (IL-20R) that is used by IL-20 and IL-24.


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000142224 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000016524 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: Interleukin 19".
  6. ^ Chang C, Magracheva E, Kozlov S, Fong S, Tobin G, Kotenko S, et al. (January 2003). "Crystal structure of interleukin-19 defines a new subfamily of helical cytokines". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (5): 3308–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208602200. PMID 12403790.
  7. ^ Witte E, Kokolakis G, Witte K, Philipp S, Doecke WD, Babel N, et al. (November 2014). "IL-19 is a component of the pathogenetic IL-23/IL-17 cascade in psoriasis". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 134 (11): 2757–2767. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.308. PMID 25046339.
  8. ^ "IL19 interleukin 19 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2019-07-30.

External links[edit]

  • Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9UHD0 (Interleukin-19) at the PDBe-KB.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.