Interleukin 26

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IL26
Identifiers
AliasesIL26, AK155, IL-26, interleukin 26
External IDsOMIM: 605679 HomoloGene: 81862 GeneCards: IL26
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 12 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 12 (human)[1]
Chromosome 12 (human)
Genomic location for IL26
Genomic location for IL26
Band12q15Start68,201,349 bp[1]
End68,225,810 bp[1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_018402

n/a

RefSeq (protein)

NP_060872

n/a

Location (UCSC)Chr 12: 68.2 – 68.23 Mbn/a
PubMed search[2]n/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human

Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL26 gene.[3][4][5]

IL-26 is a 171-amino acid protein, which is similar in amino acid sequence to interleukin 10. It was originally called AK155 and is composed of a signal sequence, 6 helices, and 4 conserved cysteine residues. IL-26 is expressed in certain herpesvirus-transformed T cells but not in primary stimulated T cells.[4] IL-26 signals through a receptor complex comprising two distinct proteins called IL-20 receptor 1 and IL-10 receptor 2.[6] By signaling through this receptor complex, IL-26 induces rapid phosphorylation of the transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3, which enhance IL-10 and IL-8 secretion and as expression of the CD54 molecule on the surface of epithelial cells.[7]

Role[edit]

Interleukin 26 (IL-26), is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death. IL-26, a human TH17 cell–derived cytokine, is a cationic amphipathic protein that kills extracellular bacteria via membrane-pore formation. Furthermore, TH17 cell–derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells. The IL-26–DNA complexes triggered the production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells via activation of Toll-like receptor 9, but independently of the IL-26 receptor.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000111536 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: interleukin 26".
  4. ^ a b Knappe A, Hör S, Wittmann S, Fickenscher H (April 2000). "Induction of a novel cellular homolog of interleukin-10, AK155, by transformation of T lymphocytes with herpesvirus saimiri". J. Virol. 74 (8): 3881–7. doi:10.1128/JVI.74.8.3881-3887.2000. PMC 111897. PMID 10729163.
  5. ^ Goris A, Marrosu MG, Vandenbroeck K (August 2001). "Novel polymorphisms in the IL-10 related AK155 gene (chromosome 12q15)". Genes Immun. 2 (5): 284–6. doi:10.1038/sj.gene.6363772. PMID 11528524.
  6. ^ Sheikh F, Baurin VV, Lewis-Antes A, Shah NK, Smirnov SV, Anantha S, Dickensheets H, Dumoutier L, Renauld JC, Zdanov A, Donnelly RP, Kotenko SV (February 2004). "Cutting edge: IL-26 signals through a novel receptor complex composed of IL-20 receptor 1 and IL-10 receptor 2". J. Immunol. 172 (4): 2006–10. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.4.2006. PMID 14764663.
  7. ^ Hör S, Pirzer H, Dumoutier L, Bauer F, Wittmann S, Sticht H, Renauld J, de Waal Malefyt R, Fickenscher H (2004). "The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor 2 chains". J Biol Chem. 279 (32): 33343–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405000200. PMID 15178681.
  8. ^ Meller, Stephan; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Voo, Kui S.; Friedrich, Heike C.; Chamilos, Georgios; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Conrad, Curdin; Gregorio, Josh; Le Roy, Didier (2015-09-01). "T(H)17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26". Nature Immunology. 16 (9): 970–979. doi:10.1038/ni.3211. ISSN 1529-2916. PMC 4776746. PMID 26168081.

Further reading[edit]

Meller, S., Di Domizio, J., Voo, K. S., Friedrich, H. C., Chamilos, G., Ganguly, D., ... & Ladbury, J. E. (2015). TH17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26. Nature immunology, 16(9), 970-979.