J. Philip Grime

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Philip Grime

John Philip Grime.jpg
John Philip Grime
Alma materUniversity of Sheffield (PhD)
Known forUniversal adaptive strategy theory
Intermediate disturbance hypothesis
AwardsAlexander von Humboldt Medal (2011)
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Sheffield
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
ThesisA study of the ecology of a group of Derbyshire plants with particular reference to their nutrient requirements (1960)
InfluencedSandra Díaz[1]

(John) Philip Grime FRS[2] is an ecologist and emeritus professor at the University of Sheffield.[3] He is best known for his Universal adaptive strategy theory, for the unimodal relationship between species richness and site productivity (the "humped-back model"), for the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, for the DST classification (dominants, subordinates and transients) and, with Simon Pierce (University of Milan, Italy), universal adaptive strategy theory (UAST) and the twin filter model of community assembly and eco-evolutionary dynamics.[4][5]

Grime's 1979 book Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes[6][7] has been cited more than 1,200 times. Together with many influential scientific papers, it has made him a highly cited scientist.[8] In an interview Grime has stated that "Ecology lacks a Periodic Table", quoting Richard Southwood.[9]


Grime obtained his PhD from University of Sheffield in 1960.[3]

Career and research[edit]

Grime joined the staff of the department of botany at Sheffield in 1961. He worked at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, US from 1963 to 1964. He then returned to the University of Sheffield and joined the unit of comparative plant ecology, which had been founded in 1961 by professor Ian H. Rorison.[citation needed] Grime served as deputy director of the unit 1964–1989 and as director from 1989.[citation needed]

Plant strategies[edit]

His work and his theories are focused on plant strategies, as developed along their evolutionary history. His CSR theory says that each plant species has a blend of the three strategies that he labels C (competitive), S (stress tolerant) and R (ruderal, or rapid propagation). Ruderal strategists thrive in disturbed areas.[10] He has described a method to classify herbaceous vegetations by analysing the importance of the three strategies in the genotypes of the species that are present.[11]

Selected publications[edit]

  • The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems[10]
  • Vegetation classification by reference to strategies[11]
  • Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory[12]
  • Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. [6]
  • Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties. (2nd much expanded edition of the above)[7]
  • Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects[13]
  • Trait convergence and trait divergence in herbaceous plant communities: mechanisms and consequencesre[14]
  • Plant strategy theories: a comment on Craine[15]

Awards and honours[edit]

In 1991, Grime was inducted as a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.[16] In 1997, he won the Marsh Ecology Award from the British Ecological Society and was awarded honorary membership of the Ecological Society of America. He was also Distinguished Visiting Ecologist at Pennsylvania State University in that year. In 1998, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)[2] and honorary doctor at University of Nijmegen. He has been honorary member of the British Ecological Society since 1999. He was the first ever recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Medal (2011) for his outstanding contribution to the intellectual development of plant community ecology.[17]

In 2013, the Journal of Ecology published a collection of Grime's most influential papers, for which he wrote a blog post and recorded an accompanying podcast interview.[2][18]


  1. ^ Trivedi, Bijal P. (2012). "Profile of Sandra M. Díaz". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (29): 11469–11471. doi:10.1073/pnas.1210043109. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3406846. PMID 22761316.
  2. ^ a b c "Philip Grime - Royal Society". Royalsociety.org. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Academic Staff & Independent Research Fellows". Web.archive.org. 13 October 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  4. ^ ScienceWatch – "University of Sheffield's Philip Grime: Strategic Advances in Plant Ecology" (interview)
  5. ^ "University of Sheffield's Philip Grime: Strategic Advances in Plant Ecology", Science Watch, July / August 1996
  6. ^ a b Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes Wiley. (1979) ISBN 0-471-99692-0
  7. ^ a b Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties, Wiley, (2001) ISBN 0-471-49601-4
  8. ^ "Ecology/Environment category list". ISIHighlyCited.com. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  9. ^ "Interview with Peter Moore in ScienceWatch July/August 1996". Archive.sciencewatch.com. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  10. ^ a b Grime, J. Philip. The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-470-67481-4.
  11. ^ a b Grime, J. Philip (1974). "Vegetation classification by reference to strategies". Nature. 250 (250): 26–31. doi:10.1038/250026a0. closed access
  12. ^ Grime, J. P. (1977). "Evidence for the Existence of Three Primary Strategies in Plants and Its Relevance to Ecological and Evolutionary Theory". The American Naturalist. 111 (982): 1169–1194. doi:10.1086/283244. ISSN 0003-0147.
  13. ^ Grime, J. P. (1998). "Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects". Journal of Ecology. 86 (6): 902–910. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00306.x. ISSN 0022-0477.
  14. ^ Grime, J. Philip (2006). "Trait convergence and trait divergence in herbaceous plant communities: Mechanisms and consequences". Journal of Vegetation Science. 17 (2): 255–260. doi:10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02444.x. ISSN 1100-9233.
  15. ^ Grime, J. Philip (2007). "Plant strategy theories: a comment on Craine (2005)". Journal of Ecology. 95 (2): 227–230. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01163.x. ISSN 0022-0477.
  16. ^ "J.P. Grime". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  17. ^ Jason Fridley (2011), Alexander von Humboldt Medal J. Philip Grime (PDF)
  18. ^ "In Honour of J Philip Grime - Journal of Ecology". Journalofecology.org. Retrieved 22 April 2019.