|Type of business||Public|
Type of site
|Traded as||NASDAQ: JD|
|Owner||Liu Qiangdong (15.8%)|
Tencent (20%) Walmart (12%)
|Industry||Internet, Online retailing|
|Revenue||CN¥462.019 billion (US$67.198 billion 2018)|
|Operating income||CN¥2.619 billion (2018)|
|Net income||CN¥2.492 million (2018)|
|Total assets||CN¥209.1647 billion (2018)|
|Total equity||CN¥60.867 billion (2018)|
|Alexa rank||15 (November 2018[update])|
|Launched||6 June 1998|
JD.com, Inc. (Chinese: 京东; pinyin: Jīngdōng), also known as Jingdong and formerly called 360buy, is a Chinese e-commerce company headquartered in Beijing. It is one of the two massive B2C online retailers in China by transaction volume and revenue, a member of the Fortune Global 500 and a major competitor to Alibaba-run Tmall. As of the first quarter of 2018, the platform has 301.8 million active users. JD.com, Inc. was listed on Nasdaq in the U.S. in May 2014.
The company was founded by Liu Qiangdong in July 1998, and its retail platform went online in 2004. It started as an online magneto-optical store, but soon diversified, selling electronics, mobile phones, computers and similar items. The company changed its domain name to 360buy.com in June 2007 and then to JD.com in 2013. The latter purchase is understood to have cost $5,000,000. At the same time, JD.com announced its new logo and mascot. It is partly owned by Tencent, which has a 20% stake in the company.
JD.com is the world's leading company in high tech and AI delivery through drones, autonomous technology and robots, and possesses the largest drone delivery system, infrastructure and capability in the world. It has recently started testing robotic delivery services and building drone delivery airports, as well as operating driverless delivery by unveiling its first autonomous truck.
- June 1998: The company was founded as Jingdong Century Trading Co., Ltd selling magneto-optical in Beijing, China.
- January 2004: The company’s B2C site went online as jdlaser.com.
- January 2006: Shanghai subsidiary established.
- January 2007: Guangzhou subsidiary established.
- June 2007: began using the domain name 360buy.com, and the company name was changed to Jingdong Mall.
- December 2010: 360buy.com started online bookstore. CDs, DVDs and ebooks were added in the following months.
- April 2011: 360buy.com launched platform named “POP” for brand owners.
- October 2012: en.360buy.com was launched for the international market.
- March 2013: the company's domain name was changed to JD.com.
- March 2014: Tencent acquires a 15% stake in JD.com by paying cash and handing over its e-commerce businesses Paipai, QQ Wanggou and a stake in Yixun to JD.com, in order to build a stronger competitor to Alibaba Group Holding Ltd.
- April 2014: Subsidiary's Lawsuit Against JD.com Accepted By Court.
- June 2015: JD.com launch the Russian site aims to expand its business to global.
- June 2016- Wal-Mart sells its Chinese e-Commerce business Yihaodian to JD.com in exchange for a 5.9% equity stake valued at $1.5 billion.
- October 2016: Wal-Mart files 13G revealing it has nearly doubled its stake in JD.com to 10.9% 
- February 2017: Wal-Mart increases investment in JD.com to 289.1 million shares, or 12.1%.
- June 2017: JD.com invested $397 million into Farfetch, a marketplace for luxury brands, as part of a new strategic partnership.
- July 2017: JD.com and Walmart launch the first annual JD-Walmart August 8 shopping festival.
- September 2017: JD.com has committed to further develop China's parcel delivery efficiency, investing US$101 million to subsidise merchants on JD.com for warehousing and distribution costs, occurred from stocking up goods for the upcoming 2017 Singles' Day.
- November 2017: JD.com achieved a sales record of US$19.1 billion in 2017 Singles' Day.
- January 2018: JD.com opens first of a chain of high-tech supermarket 7Fresh.
- January 2018: JD.com invest in Vietnam's online retail service tiki.vn for $50 million.
- February 2018: JD.com invest in France and the UK, and wants to be everywhere in Europe in a few years.
- February 2018: JD.com spins off JD Finance and raises $2.1 billion in a capital raise.
- May 2018: Metcash partnered with JD.Com to sell groceries in China.
- February 2019: JD.COM acquires Jade Palace Hotel in Beijing for US$400M.
- May 2019: company partners with Jiangsu Xinning Modern Logistics in order to automate its logistic services.
- June 2019: JD.COM raised $218 million to invest in logistics-related companies and technology.
In 2015, JD.com and Tencent announced the launch of the "Jingteng Plan", which will provide merchants with a complete solution to establish a brand and promote marketing effectiveness by linking JD.com consumption data with Tencent social data.
The “Jingtan Plan” provides brand owners with accurate target consumer groups and diverse marketing channels, helping brand merchants achieve more effective and accurate marketing.
The "Jingteng Plan" has made progress in three areas:
Jingdong has ~170 million e-commerce users, and Tencent has the largest WeChat and mobile QQ users in China. The plan integrates consumer behaviour data and social data. The "Jingteng Plan" integrates marketing solutions for shopping and social data. “The precise orientation, closed-loop experience, user portraits, personalized creativity, unity of product and effect, and scientific measure of effectiveness” are said to be the six major aspects of the “Jingteng Project”.
On 18 June 2013, Jingdong held its 10th anniversary and offered big discounts on its products. During the 10th anniversary campaign, Jingdong achieved over double the sales within 15 days from 1 June.
Partnership with Farfetch
Since the increasing mobile consumers in China, in 2017, Jingdong invested $397 million in Farfetch, which provided luxury e-commerce service based on the headquarters in London. The deal focussed on Farfetch's respect for intellectual property which has been contrasted with Alibaba's reputation. Jingdong and Farfetch partnership aims to increase their market share in China.
Partnership with Ruyi
On 4 September 2018, JD.com signed a strategic agreement with Ruyi, a leading textile and fashion giant who owns global fashion brands including Aquascutum, CERRUTI1881, Sandro and Maje. As stated in the press release, JD would deploy its smart logistics, supply chain solutions, big data-enabled inventory management and membership systems for Ruyi’s subsidiary brands. Based on this partnership, JD and Ruyi will jointly establish fashion and lifestyle concept stores in core cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing.
Price war with Dangdang
Price war in physical books
On December 10, 2010, JD's founder Liu Qiangdong announced through his Weibo account that every book sold on JD.com would be priced at 20 percent cheaper than its competitors. Although Liu did not give a specific name of his opponent, journalists thought Dangdang was JD.com's obvious rival in the field of online book sale. Dangdang is an electronic business platform well known for its core business, selling books, and ranked first among all online B2C book sellers of 2010 in China.
The price war between JD.com and Dangdang started on December 14; users of JD.com found out that the books were cheaper than from Dangdang. In response, Dangdang also began to offer discounts to customers such as 30 yuan off when they spend 199 yuan or more. On the morning of December 16, Dangdang stated that the company would invest 40 million Chinese yuan to give discounts to customers. As a result, JD.com launched the second promotion to sell books at a lower price than Dangdang that afternoon. On the same day, Liu Qiangdong posted through his Weibo account that JD.com would give coupons instead of reducing prices to protect the benefits of publishers, which marked a phase of the price war.
Liu said that JD.com could not get supplies from some book publishers due to contracts between Dangdang and the publishers. From Liu's perspective, Dangdang were not allowing publishers to supply books to JD.com. However, the publishers refuted the allegation. Su Huiyan, a business consultant of iResearch pointed out that JD.com wanted to attract more customers by the price war.
In November 2011, the second stage of the competition was triggered by Suning.com, a B2C shopping platform, announcing they would expand their business to include book selling. JD.com and Dangdang competed with each other on lowering prices of books again. JD.com provided its customers with 10 percent discount on books while Dangdang, sent promotional messages to its users stating that they would be offered 200 yuan if they purchased books for more than 100 yuan total. Dangdang used the slogan “争当败家子” meaning 'striving to be a spendthrift' aiming to increase their website traffic.
The sudden increase of orders not only caused network errors but also postponed transits of books, which fueled customers’ complaints.
Price war in electronic books
On December 21, 2011, Dangdang launched its electronic book service online. More than 50,000 e-books were available on dangdang.com with over 90 percent of the e-books sold at 30 percent of the price of the physical books. JD.com started the e-book selling business online on February 20, 2012 and provided customers with more than 80,000 electronic books. JD.com also offered discounts to the buyers, this situation was the unfoldment of a new round of price war.
On April 17, 2013, most of the e-books on Dangdang's website were free for users to download. Consequently, JD.com priced 50,000 electronic books at 0 yuan to match. Liu Zhenyou, an author, criticized that both of them had raised their brand awareness, but their actions caused damage to book publishers.
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