Jefferson F. Long

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Jefferson Franklin Long
Jefferson F. Long - Brady-Handy.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 4th district
In office
January 16, 1871 – March 3, 1871
Preceded bySamuel F. Gove
Succeeded byThomas J. Speer
Personal details
Born(1836-03-03)March 3, 1836
near the city of Knoxville in Crawford County, Georgia
DiedFebruary 4, 1901(1901-02-04) (aged 64)
Macon, Georgia
Political partyRepublican

Jefferson Franklin Long (March 3, 1836 – February 4, 1901) was an American politician from Georgia. He was the second African American sworn into the US House of Representatives, and the only African American to represent Georgia until Andrew Young was elected in 1972.[1] Long was the first African American to speak on the floor of the US House,[2] opposing the Amnesty Bill that exempted former confederate serving in the House from swearing allegiance to the Constitution.[3]

Long was born a slave by a slave mother and a white father[4] near the city of Knoxville in Crawford County, Georgia on March 3, 1836. He taught himself to read and write, an illegal act for slaves. Long became a successful merchant tailor in Macon, Georgia. Long was elected as a Republican to the Forty-first Congress to fill the vacancy caused when the U.S. House declared Samuel F. Gove not entitled to the seat and served from January 16, 1871 to March 3, 1871. Long was not a candidate for renomination in 1870 because of anti-Reconstruction efforts by the white-majority Georgia GOP,[5] but did serve as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1880.

Despite Long's brief tenure in the US House, he was able to promote several Reconstruction efforts.

He resumed business in Macon, Georgia, and died there on February 4, 1901. He was interred in Linwood Cemetery.

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Congressional Globe, House, 41st Cong., 3rd sess. (1 February 1871): 881–882.
  4. ^ Hardwick, Grace (August 5, 2007). "Jefferson Franklin Long". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  5. ^


  • Matthews, John M. "Jefferson Franklin Long: The Public Career of Georgia's First Black Congressman." Phylon 42 (June 1981): 145-56.
  • Logan, Rayford W. "Long, Jefferson Franklin." In Dictionary of American Negro Biography, edited by Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. Winston, pp. 405. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1982.
  • Hardwick, Grace. "Jefferson Franklin Long (1836-1901)." New Georgia Encyclopedia. 5 January 2017. Web. 28 March 2018.

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Samuel Francis Gove
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 4th congressional district

December 22, 1870 – March 3, 1871
Succeeded by
Thomas J. Speer