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|History of Japan|
Jian (治安) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,, lit. "year name"), also known as Chi'an, after Kannin and before Manju. This period spanned the years from February 1021 through July 1024. The reigning emperor was Go-Ichijō-tennō (後一条天皇).
Change of Era
- 1021 Jian gannen (治安元年): The era name was changed to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kannin 5, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month of 1021.
Events of the Jian era
- 1023 (Jian 3, 4th month): An epidemic in Kyoto was so severe that there were corpses in the streets; disease spread throughout the country.
- 1023 (Jian 3, 10th month): Fujiwara no Michinaga visits Mt. Koya.
- December 29, 1023 (Jian 3, 14th day of the 11th month): a lunar eclipse.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kannin" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 474, p. 474, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File Archived 2012-05-24 at Archive.today.
- Nussbaum. "Manjū" at p. 607., p. 607, at Google Books
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 156-159; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 307-310; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 195-196.
- Brown, p. 310.
- Dykstra, Yoshiko Kurata. (2001). The Konjaku Tales: from a Medieval Japanese Collection, Vol. 2, p. 13.
- Horton, Sarah J. (2007). Living Buddhist Statues in Early Medieval and Modern Japan, p. 143., p. 143, at Google Books
- Nihon Kiristokyō Kyōgikai. (2001). Japanese Religions, Vols. 26-27, pp.34-35.
- Pankenier, David. (1999). Archaeoastronomy in East Asia: Historical Observational Records of Comets and Meteor Showers from China, Japan, and Korea, p. 89., p. 89, at Google Books
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405; OCLC 6042764
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
| Era or nengō
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