John Campbell Greenway
John Campbell Greenway
|Born||6 July 1872|
|Died||19 January 1926 (aged 53)|
New York City
|Relations||Lauder Greenway Family|
|Education||Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1897 - 1926 (with interruptions in active duty service)|
|Unit||Rough Riders (1898 - 1901)|
101st Infantry Regiment (1914 - 1918)
Office of Naval Intelligence (1919 - 1926)
|Commands||101st Infantry Regiment|
|Awards|| Distinguished Service Cross|
World War I Victory Medal
Croix de Guerre
Legion of Honor
Ordre de l'Étoile Noire
John Campbell Greenway (July 6, 1872 – January 19, 1926) was highly decorated Brigadier General in the U.S. Army whose exploits at Cambrai and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive during World War I were widely noted and celebrated.
He was also a Rough Rider with Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish–American War from which a lifelong friendship would be formed. In his book, "The Rough Riders", Roosevelt said about Greenway: "A strapping fellow, entirely fearless, modest and quiet, with the ability to take care of the men under him so as to bring them to the highest point of soldierly perfection, to be counted upon with absolute certainty in every emergency; not only doing his duty, but always on the watch to find some new duty which he could construe to be his, ready to respond with eagerness to the slightest suggestion of doing something, whether it was dangerous or merely difficult and laborious."
Outside of military service, Greenway was a noted American mining, steel and railroad executive who vastly expanded copper mining in the American Southwest. He was also the husband of pioneering U.S. Congresswoman Isabella Greenway who was lifelong friends with Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Early life and family
Greenway was born in Huntsville, Alabama, to Dr. Gilbert C. Greenway Sr. and Alice White Greenway. On both sides, Greenway was a direct descendant of a line of notable Americans dating to before, and during, the Revolutionary War including William Campbell, Isaac Shelby, Samuel McDowell, Ephraim McDowell, and Addison White.
Greenway was a member of the Book and Snake secret society, President of his class, and a member of noted the Yale Football teams from 1892–1895 that went a combined 52–1–2 and were national champions four years in a row.
Immediately following his graduation, Greenway joined the Carnegie Steel Company where he worked briefly before enlisting in the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry of the US Army at the outset of the Spanish–American War.
Greenway volunteered for service in 1898 and joined Roosevelt's Rough Riders in the Spanish–American War. Originally commissioned a second lieutenant, he was then promoted to brevet then acting captain in the field by Colonel Roosevelt. Greenway earned a Silver Star for his courageous service at the Battle of San Juan Hill.
Greenway is referenced on numerous occasions by Roosevelt in his book The Rough Riders and a book of Greenway's own correspondence was turned into a book entitled It Was the Grandest Sight I Ever Saw: Experiences of a Rough Rider As Recorded in the Letters of Lieutenant John Campbell Greenway.
World War I
Greenway was returned to active service as a lieutenant colonel at the dawn of America entering World War I. Originally based at Toul Sector, Greenway partook in the Battle of Cantigny, the first large-scale counterattack on German lines by the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) with the 1st Battalion of the 26th Infantry commanded by Major Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., the son of Greenway's commander during the Spanish–American War, Theodore Roosevelt.
Greenway was especially praised for his heroic conduct in battle and was cited for bravery at Cambrai. France awarded him the Croix de Guerre, the Legion of Honor, and the Ordre de l'Étoile Noire for commanding the 101st Infantry Regiment during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.  He also received a Distinguished Service Cross and the World War I Victory Medal.
Post-war and intelligence
After being removed from active duty at the end of the Spanish–American War in 1899, Greenway returned to steel and mining and held executive positions in a number of mine, steel, and railroad companies. He supervised development of United States Steel's open pit Canisteo Mine and Trout Lake Washing Plant in Coleraine, Minnesota, one of the first large-scale iron ore benefication plants in the world. Following the successful commissioning of the Trout Lake plant, in 1911 Greenway was recruited by the Calumet and Arizona Mining Company (led by US Steel executives, the combined entity created by J.P. Morgan which included Carnegie Steel) to develop their newly acquired New Cornelia Mine in Ajo, Arizona. He developed the Ajo townsite and developed the New Cornelia into the first large open pit copper mine in Arizona.
Marriage and Family
Greenway's brother James C. Greenway Sr. married Harriet Lauder Greenway of the Lauder Greenway Family. His nephews include renowned ornithologist and Naval Intelligence Officer James Cowan Greenway and arts patron G. Lauder Greenway, longtime chairman of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City.
In 1930 Arizona placed Gutzon Borglum's statue of Greenway in the U.S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall Collection. The statue remained there until being replaced in 2015 by one of Barry Goldwater; the Greenway statue was moved to the Polly Rosenbaum Archives and History Building near the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix.
- Biographical information: National Statuary Hall
- Greenway & Ajo: an article about John Campbell Greenway and Ajo, at the website of the Ajo Copper News.
- Thomas, Clara Chapline (1908). "The Young Man Strenuous". The World To-Day. United States: Hearst International. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- Kinsolving, Arthur Barksdale (1922). The Story of a Southern School. The Norman, Remington Co. p. 305. ISBN 9781331302483.
- Murdock, Myrtle Chaney, National Statuary Hall in the Nation's Capitol, Monumental Press, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1955 pp. 88-89
- Theobald, Bill (February 11, 2015). "Goldwater statue dedicated in National Statuary Hall". The Arizona Republic. Phoenix. Retrieved March 1, 2015.