KAI T-50 Golden Eagle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

T-50 Golden Eagle
RoKAF T-50 Golden Eagle.jpg
A Republic of Korea Air Force FA-50
Role Advanced trainer (T-50), Lead-in fighter trainer/Light combat aircraft (TA-50) / Multirole fighter (FA-50)
National origin South Korea / United States
Manufacturer Korea Aerospace Industries / Lockheed Martin
First flight 20 August 2002[1]
Introduction 22 February 2005[2]
Status In service
Primary users Republic of Korea Air Force
Indonesian Air Force
Philippine Air Force
Iraqi Air Force
Produced 2001–present
Unit cost
T-50: US$21 million (2008)[3]
TA-50: US$25 million (2011)[4]
FA-50: US$30 million (2012)[5]

The KAI T-50 Golden Eagle (골든이글) is a family of South Korean supersonic advanced trainers and light combat aircraft, developed by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) with Lockheed Martin. The T-50 is South Korea's first indigenous supersonic aircraft and one of the world's few supersonic trainers.[6] Development began in the late 1990s, and its maiden flight occurred in 2002. The aircraft entered active service with the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) in 2005.

The T-50 has been further developed into aerobatic and combat variants, namely T-50B, TA-50, and FA-50. The F-50 single-seat multirole fighter variant was considered. The T-50B serves with the South Korean air force's aerobatics team. The TA-50 light attack variant has been ordered by Indonesia. The Philippines ordered 12 units of the FA-50 variant. The T-50A was marketed as a candidate for the United States Air Force's next-generation T-X trainer program but failed to win.[7][8] Thailand ordered 12 units of the T-50 advanced trainer variant.[9][10]



The T-50 program was originally intended to develop an indigenous trainer aircraft capable of supersonic flight, to train and prepare pilots for the KF-16 and F-15K, replacing trainers such as T-38 and A-37 that were then in service with the ROKAF.[11] Prior South Korean aircraft programs include the turboprop KT-1 basic trainer produced by Daewoo Aerospace (now part of KAI), and license-manufactured KF-16.[1] In general, the T-50 series of aircraft closely resembles the KF-16 in configuration.[11]

An ROKAF T-50, 2005

The mother program, code-named KTX-2, began in 1992,[12] but the Ministry of Finance and Economy suspended KTX-2 in 1995 due to financial constraints.[13] The basic design of the aircraft was set by 1999.[1] The development of the aircraft was funded 70% by the South Korean government, 17% by KAI, and 13% by Lockheed Martin.[1]

The aircraft was formally designated as the T-50 Golden Eagle in February 2000.[1] The T-50A designation was reserved by the U.S. military to prevent it from being inadvertently assigned to another aircraft model.[14][15] Final assembly of the first T-50 took place between 15 January and 14 September 2001.[1] The first flight of the T-50 took place in August 2002, and initial operational assessment from 28 July to 14 August 2003.[1]

KAI and Lockheed Martin are currently pursuing a joint marketing program for the T-50 internationally. The ROKAF placed a production contract for 25 T-50s in December 2003, with aircraft scheduled to be delivered between 2005 and 2009.[16] Original T-50 aircraft are equipped with the AN/APG-67(v)4 radar from Lockheed Martin.[17] The T-50 is equipped with a GE F404 engine with Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) built under license by Samsung Techwin.[18] Under the terms of the T-50/F404-102 co-production agreement, GE provides engine kits directly to Samsung Techwin who produces designated parts as well as performing final engine assembly and testing.[19]

Improved variants[edit]

The program has expanded beyond a trainer concept to include the TA-50 light attack aircraft and the FA-50 light combat aircraft, similar to the multirole KF-16.[vague][20][21] The TA-50 variant is a more heavily armed version of the T-50 trainer, intended for lead-in fighter training and light attack roles. It is equipped with the Elta EL/M-2032 fire control radar.[22] The TA-50 is designed to operate as a full-fledged combat platform for precision-guided weapons, air-to-air missiles,[23] and air-to-ground missiles.[24] The TA-50 can mount additional utility pods for reconnaissance, targeting assistance, and electronic warfare. Reconnaissance and electronic warfare variants are also being developed, designated as RA-50 and EA-50.[25][26]

FA-50 on a test flight

The FA-50 is the most advanced version of the T-50, possessing more internal fuel capacity, enhanced avionics, a longer radome and a tactical datalink.[27][28] It is equipped with a modified Israeli EL/M-2032 pulse-Doppler radar with Korean-specific modifications by LIG Nex1.[29] The engine could be either Eurojet EJ200 or General Electric F414, upgraded to 20,000 lb or 22,000 lb thrust, roughly 12–25% higher than the F404's thrust;[8][30] and are offered to prospective customers for the T-50. The radar of the FA-50 has a range two-thirds greater than the TA-50's radar.[31] The EL/M-2032 was initially chosen over Lockheed Martin's preferred AN/APG-67(V)4 and SELEX Vixen 500E active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars. Other AESA radars such as Raytheon Advanced Combat Radar and Northrop Grumman's Scalable Agile Beam Radar are options for future production,[32][33] and may be shared with the radar chosen for USAF and ROKAF F-16 fighters.[5] Samsung Thales is also independently developing a domestic multi-mode AESA radar for the FA-50.[34]

In December 2008, South Korea awarded a contract to KAI to convert four T-50s to FA-50 standard by 2012. In 2012, the ROKAF ordered 20 FA-50 fighters to be delivered by the end of 2014.[5] The maiden flight of the FA-50 took place in 2011.[35] 60 FA-50 aircraft are to be produced for the ROKAF from 2013 to 2016.[36] KAI received a 1.1 trillion won ($1 billion) order for FA-50 fighter aircraft in May 2013.[37]

In December 2015, KAI announced and revealed the new KAI-LM T-50 T-X upgrade intended to compete in the U.S. T-X program that will start testing in 2016. This variant features a dorsal hump for extra internal fuel and an aerial refuelling receptacle, large area display (LAD), and embedded ground training systems.[38][39][40]

In October ADEX 2017, KAI unveiled the T-50A as a new variant based on the FA-50 multirole combat aircraft, including fifth generation cockpit, an aerial refuelling receptacle, cockpit multifunction display, dorsal hump for extra internal fuel, and an embedded training suite.[41]

In January 2019, KAI has begun development on an improved FA-50 known as block 10 and block 20 upgrades. Block 10 is a software upgrade so it can use the Lockheed Martin AN/AAQ-33 Sniper targeting pod, while the block 20 is improvement capability to conduct beyond-visual-range air-to-air missions, carrying munitions such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM.[42]



The T-50 Golden Eagle design is largely derived from the F-16 Fighting Falcon, and they have many similarities: use of a single engine, speed, size, cost, and the range of weapons.[12] KAI's previous engineering experience in license-producing the KF-16 was a starting point for the development of the T-50.[43]

The trainer has seating for two pilots in a tandem arrangement. The high-mounted canopy developed by Hankuk Fiber is applied with stretched acrylic, providing the pilots good visibility. The trainer has been tested to offer the canopy with ballistic protection against 4-lb objects impacting at 400 knots.[44] The altitude limit is 14,600 metres (48,000 ft), and airframe is designed to last 8,000 hours of service.[45] There are seven internal fuel tanks with capacity of 2,655 litres (701 US gal), five in the fuselage and two in the wings. An additional 1,710 litres (452 US gal) of fuel can be carried in the three external fuel tanks.[16] T-50 trainer variants have a paint scheme of white and red, and aerobatic variants white, black, and yellow.[46]

The T-50 uses a single General Electric F404-102 turbofan engine license-produced by Samsung Techwin,[47] upgraded with a FADEC system jointly developed by General Electric and KAI.[48] The engine consists of three-staged fans, seven axial stage arrangement, and an afterburner.[16] The aircraft has a maximum speed of Mach 1.5.[49] Its engine produces a maximum of 78.7 kN (17,700 lbf) of thrust with afterburner.[16] The more powerful F414 and EJ200 engines have been suggested as the new engine for the T-50 family.[8]


The T-50's central processing unit and its operating system are developed by MDS Technology.[50] The T-50's NEOS avionics operating system is the first and only real-time operating system to be developed by an Asian company, and holds both DO-178B and IEEE POSIX certification.[50][51][52][53] Samsung Thales and LIG Nex1 are the main avionics and electronic warfare equipment developers for T-50 and its variants.[54][55] Other South Korean companies and defense institutes such as DoDAAM Systems, Aeromaster, Intellics, and Korea Institute of Defense Analysis are responsible for the aircraft's secondary avionics and embedded systems, including store management computers,[56] avionics testing equipment,[57] flight data recorders,[58] portable maintenance aids,[59] data analysis software,[60] post-flight data processing system,[61] aircraft structure and engine management software,[62][63] and mission planning and support systems.[64] The TA-50 version is equipped with an ELTA EL/M-2032 fire control radar.[65]

The T-50 is equipped with a Honeywell H-764G embedded global positioning/inertial navigation system and HG9550 radar altimeter.[16] The aircraft is the first trainer to feature triple-redundant digital fly-by-wire controls.[45] The cockpit panels, switches, and joysticks are produced by South Korea's FirsTec and Sungjin Techwin, head-up display by DoDaaM Systems, and multi-function display by Samsung Thales.[64][66][67][68] Other South Korean subcontractors such as Elemech, Dawin Friction, and Withus cooperate in T-50 components production.[69] Hanwha supplies the mechanical parts for the flight control system,[70] and WIA supplies the undercarriage.[71]

Armament and equipment[edit]

The TA-50 version has a three-barrel cannon version of the M61 Vulcan mounted internally behind the cockpit, which fires linkless 20 mm ammunition.[16] Wingtip rails can accommodate the AIM-9 Sidewinder missile, and a variety of additional weapons can be mounted to underwing hardpoints.[16] Compatible air-to-surface weapons include the AGM-65 Maverick missile, Hydra 70 and LOGIR rocket launchers, CBU-58 and Mk-20 cluster bombs, and Mk-82, −83, and −84 general purpose bombs.[1]

The FA-50 can be externally fitted with Rafael's Sky Shield or LIG Nex1's ALQ-200K ECM pods, Sniper or LITENING targeting pods, and Condor 2 reconnaissance pods to further improve the fighter's electronic warfare, reconnaissance, and targeting capabilities.[72][73] Other improved weapon systems include SPICE multifunctional guidance kits,[74] Textron CBU-97/105 Sensor Fuzed Weapon with WCMD tail kits, JDAM, JDAM-ER for more comprehensive air-to-ground operations, and AIM-120 missiles for BVR air-to-air operations.[75] FA-50 has provisions for, but does not yet integrate, Python and Derby missiles, also produced by Rafael, and other anti-ship missiles, stand-off weapons, and sensors to be domestically developed by Korea.[76][77][78] The South Korean military is reviewing whether to arm the FA-50 with a smaller version of the KEPD 350 missile to give it a stand-off engagement capability of 400 km (250 mi).[79]

In February 2018, European maker MBDA, in Singapore air show showcased an offer of its Meteor and ASRAAM medium and short-range air-to-air missiles available for integration for the KAI platforms FA-50 and future KF-X fighter jets.[80]


A T-50B of the Black Eagles aerobatic team in 2012

Republic of Korea[edit]

In 2011, the first squadron with the TA-50, the T-50's light attack variant, become operational with the ROKAF.[81] The ROKAF's Black Eagles aerobatic team operates the T-50B version. In 2014, the FA-50 was officially deployed by the ROKAF with President Park Geun-hye officially leading a ceremony during which a flight demonstration was held showing its capabilities. 20 FA-50s was assigned its own Air Force wing. 60 FA-50s were ordered by ROKAF.[82] On 9 October 2014, an FA-50 successfully test fired an AGM-65 Maverick at a stationary target, a retired ship.[83]


T-50I Indonesian Air Force version

Indonesia had been considering the T-50, along with four other aircraft to replace its BAE Systems Hawk Mk 53 trainer and OV-10 Bronco attack aircraft.[84] In August 2010, Indonesia announced that T-50, Yak-130 and L-159 were the remaining candidates for its requirement for 16 advanced jet trainers.[85] In May 2011, Indonesia signed a contract to order 16 T-50 aircraft for US$400 million.[86] The aircraft is to feature weapons pylons and gun modules, enabling light attack capabilities.[4][87] The Golden Eagles are to replace the Hawk Mk 53 in Indonesian Air Force service.[88] Indonesia's version has been designated T-50i. Deliveries began in September 2013.[89] The last pair of T-50i aircraft were delivered in January 2014.[90]


Iraq was negotiating the acquisition of T-50 trainer jets, having first publicly expressed official interest during the Korea-Iraq summit in Seoul on 24 February 2009.[91] In April 2010, Iraq reopened the jet lead-in fighter-trainer competition for 24 aircraft, in which TA-50 competed.[92] In December 2013, it was announced that Iraq signed a contract for 24 aircraft of the FA-50 variant designated T-50IQ, plus additional equipment and pilot training over the next 20 years.[93][94] Deliveries were to begin in April 2016, with all aircraft to be delivered over the next 12 months.[95][96]


Philippine Air Force FA-50PH escorting presidential plane.

The Philippine Air Force chose 12 KAI TA-50 aircraft to fulfill its requirement for a light attack and lead-in fighter trainer aircraft. The Department of National Defense (DND) announced the selection of the type in August 2012.[65] Funding for 12 aircraft was approved by Congress on September 2012,[97] but by late January 2013, state media reported that the FA-50, not the TA-50 as previously reported, was selected for the procurement.[98]

In October 2013, President Aquino said the DND was close to finalizing the FA-50 deal,[99] and on 19 October 2013, President Aquino and President Park Geun-hye of South Korea signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with provisions for acquisitions.[100] On 13 February 2014, President Aquino approved the payment scheme for purchasing 12 lead-in fighter trainers with P18.9 billion ($415.7 million) budgeted.[101] On 28 March 2014, the Philippines' Department of National Defense signed a contract for 12 FA-50 light attack aircraft worth P18.9 billion (US$421.12 million).[102][103]

Deliveries began in November 2015[104] and are expected to be completed in May 2017.[105] The first four FA-50PH aircraft delivered were displayed on 1 December 2016.[106] All deliveries were completed by 31 May 2017.[107][108]

Plans call for 3 or 4 of the 12 aircraft to be fitted with capability for beyond visual range (BVR) intercept.[109] In March 2015, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) reported that the Philippines plans to order additional FA-50s,[110][111] which is supported by the PAF Flight Plan 2028 that lists another 12 FA-50s planned for the future.[112]

In June 2018, it was discussed that the Philippine Air Force is reviewing the possibility of acquiring 12 more units.[113][114]


In September 2015, the Thai government chose the KAI T-50 variant for its air force over the Chinese Hongdu L-15 to replace its aging L-39 Albatros trainers. The 4 T-50TH aircraft are scheduled to be delivered by March 2018.[115][116] In July 2017, Thailand's government approved the procurement of 8 more aircraft[117] with a contract signing expected later in the month.[118] Deliveries began in January 2018.[119]

Operational history[edit]

Philippine Air Force[edit]

On 26 January 2017, two Philippine Air Force FA-50PHs conducted a nighttime attack on terrorist hideouts in Butig, Lanao del Sur province in Mindanao, the first combat sorties flown by these aircraft.[120][121]

In June 2017, FA-50s were deployed to conduct airstrikes against Maute terrorists entrenched in the city of Marawi starting in May 2017.[122][123]

On 12 July 2017, an FA-50 was involved in a friendly fire incident during the Battle of Marawi when a bomb landed approximately 250 meters off target, killing two Philippine soldiers and injuring 11 more.[124] Investigation resulted in clearing the aircrew and aircraft of fault and the type was allowed to return to active service in August.[125]

On 2 February 2019, two Air Force FA-50s dropped eight 250-pound bombs on the lair of the ISIS-linked Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) in response to the bomb attack on the Our Lady of Mount Carmel Cathedral in Barangay Walled City, Jolo, Sulu.[126]

Possible sales[edit]

The Spanish Air Force is interested in a cooperation agreement with South Korea for use of training aircraft, including the T-50.[127] In November 2018, Spain is in talks with South Korea to swap 50 basic T-50 jet trainers for 4 to 5 Airbus A400M airlifters.[128][129][130]

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is seeking 35–40 fighter-trainers. In February 2009, the UAE selected the M-346 over the T-50.[131] In January 2010, the UAE reopened the trainer contest.[132] In 2011, it was confirmed that the T-50 was still competing for the UAE purchase.[133]

Azerbaijan has expressed interest in purchasing T-50 trainers.[134]

Brunei has expressed interest in the FA-50.[135]

South Korea also plans to offer the FA-50 to Colombia and Peru.[136][137]

The Pakistan Air Force is considering purchase of the South Korean KAI T-50 Lead In Fighter Trainer (LIFT) to revamp its air force training program.[138]

Vietnam looks to purchase FA-50 light fighters from U.S. and South Korea.[139]

Taiwan is looking to replace its current fleet of AT-3 jet trainers and F-5 LIFT planes with 66 advanced trainers, the Republic of China Air Force released a request for information (RFI) and two companies have responded including Lockheed Martin for the T-50 and Alenia Aermacchi's M-346 responded to the request. The planes are expected to be license produced in Taiwan with a local partner firm, and the overall estimated contract value is 69 billion New Taiwan dollars (US$2.2 billion).[140] However, Taiwan decided to build 66 XT-5 Blue Magpie supersonic trainers based on Taiwan's old indigenous fighter for NT$68.6 billion instead of selecting the T-50 or M-346.[141]

The FA-50 is also being offered to Croatia, which is deciding on a replacement for its aging fleet of MiG-21BIS aircraft.[142] However, in October 2017, KAI did not bid[143] as the FA-50 could not satisfy Croatian fighter requirements.

The Argentine Air Force is evaluating the FA-50 as a potential new platform.[144] The Argentine government is seeking to buy the FA-50 through repatriation in Korea. MSN reported the Argentine defense minister said that when the financial aid is secured a contract for the FA-50 with KAI can be signed by December 2017.[145]

The Royal Malaysian Air Force is looking for a light combat aircraft that also can serve as a lead-in fighter trainer LIFT, platform and should be ready for fielding in about 2021/22. The official noted that others are being considered but a preference for the T-50/FA-50 aircraft in service with near-neighbours the Philippines and the Republic of Korea.[146]

Local media reported that the FA-50 could be a more affordable option than the Saab Gripen for the Botswana Defence Force Air Wing, citing Korean Aerospace Industries, signaling potential interest by the country.[147]

Failed bids[edit]

In the U.S., the T-50 was one of the contenders for the U.S. Air Force's T-X program, with an opportunity to export 300 to 1,000 aircraft.[8][148]

Poland stated tender for new AJTs, in which T-50 was participating. M-346 was chosen.[149]

Singapore evaluated the T-50 against the Italian Alenia Aermacchi M-346 and the BAE Systems Hawk for a $500 million trainer acquisition program contract for 12–16 aircraft.[150] The Singapore Ministry of Defense eventually selected the M-346 aircraft ahead of T-50 and BAE Hawk in July 2010.[151]

Israel had been evaluating the T-50 as a possible replacement for its McDonnell Douglas A-4N Skyhawk II trainers since 2003.[152] On 16 February 2012, Israel announced its decision to procure 30 M-346s instead.[153][154]

In October 2015, the U.S. refused to approve the sale of the KAI T-50 advance trainer to Uzbekistan.[155][156] The T-50 uses a US-made engine, the F414, which requires a US export license to re-export to another country along the T-50. However, due to political considerations related to Uzbekistan, US refused to approve this.[citation needed]


TA-50 group display at ROKAF air base


Map with T-50 operators in blue
 South Korea
  • Royal Thai Air Force – 12 T-50TH aircraft ordered total; 4 T-50TH advanced trainers on order to be delivered by March 2018.[158] 8 more T-50THs ordered in July 2017.[172][173] First four aircraft delivered in April 2018.[174][175]

Accidents and incidents[edit]


FA-50 Fighting Eagle
FA-50 landing for ROKAF's first delivery
TA-50 Lead In Fighter Trainer at KAI
T-50 Golden Eagles lining up

Data from Korea Aerospace,[49] Lockheed Martin[179]

General characteristics




Note: armament for TA-50 and FA-50 only.

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Korean Aerospace T-50 Golden Eagle". Flug Revue, 8 July 2004. copy archived 11 June 2008.
  2. ^ First T-50 Golden Eagles Delivered to Korean Air Force; Only Supersonic Trainer in Production Today. Lockheed Martin, 22 February 2006.
  3. ^ "S. Korea To Tout T-50 Trainer to Singapore"[permanent dead link]. Defense News, 26 August 2008.
  4. ^ a b "Indonesia Orders 16 T-50s From Korea". Aviation Week
  5. ^ a b c "Seoul places $600m order for 20 FA-50s". 4 January 2012.
  6. ^ "Domestic Light Attack Jets Due in 2013". The Korea Times, 30 December 2008.
  7. ^ "Lockheed-KAI consortium fails to win US jet contract". The Korea Times. 28 September 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Trimble, Stephen (24 May 2011). "Lockheed ponders T-50 re-engining for T-X programme". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  9. ^ "Gov't to export four T-50 training jets to Thailand". koreajoongangdaily.joins.com.
  10. ^ "KAI added 8 T-50s to Thailand". http://www.sedaily.com. External link in |work= (help)
  11. ^ a b "Korea's T-50 Family Spreads Its Wings". Defenseindustrydaily.com, 21 August 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  12. ^ a b Korean Aerospace Industries T-50 Golden Eagle. Aeroflight
  13. ^ "KTX-2 Indigenous Trainer". GlobalSecurity.org
  14. ^ DOD 4120.15-L – Addendum, MDS Designators, Designation-Systems.net.
  15. ^ Parsch, Andreas. ""Missing" USAF/DOD Aircraft Designations". Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g T-50 Golden Eagle Jet Trainer and Light Attack Aircraft, South Korea. Air Force Technology.[unreliable source?]
  17. ^ "Korean T-50 displays fast-jet credentials". AIN Online, 11 December 2006.
  18. ^ "Black Eagles aerobatic display team". bainesplanes.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  19. ^ a b "Republic of Korea orders 57 F404 Engine Kits for T-50 Trainers". GE Aviation. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  20. ^ "KAI / Lockheed Martin T-50 / FA-50 Golden Eagle Advanced Jet Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft - South Korea".
  21. ^ "FA-50 Light Combat Aircraft - Airforce Technology".
  22. ^ "PICTURES: KAI rolls out first production T/A-50". 26 January 2011.
  23. ^ "[사진] 국산 초음속 경공격기 "발사"". 9 January 2007. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012.
  24. ^ "A-50 Successful AGM-65 Launch".
  25. ^ "A-50 Growth Capability".
  26. ^ "South Korea to develop EA aircraft. Nexgen missile warning RFP released".
  27. ^ T/A-50 makers plan Israeli pitch. Flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 2011-06-05.
  28. ^ KAI / Lockheed Martin T-50 / TA-50 / FA-50 Golden Eagle. Militaryfactory.com
  29. ^ International, Forecast. (2009-07-28) South Korea and Israel to Jointly Develop Radar. Defencetalk.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  30. ^ "Eurojet offers Korea chance to join consortium". 14 October 2011.
  31. ^ "'국산 공격기' FA-50 시범 비행 최초 공개". Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  32. ^ South Korea orders KAI F/A-50 light attack fighter prototypes. Flightglobal.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  33. ^ "KAI bids to spread wings with Golden Eagle". 14 October 2011.
  34. ^ http://www.samsungthales.com/eng/main.asp Samsung Thales: Multi-Mode Active Phase Array Radar (FA50)
  35. ^ FA-50 prototype Archived 13 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "S. Korea to mass-produce armed version of trainer jet starting in 2013".
  37. ^ "KAI wins W1.1tn contract for FA-50 fighters".
  38. ^ "Testing Of KAI-LM T-50 T-X Upgrade To Start In 2016".
  39. ^ "PICTURES: KAI, Lockheed rollout T-X prototype". 17 December 2015.
  40. ^ Lockheed proposes KAI T-50A for T-X over Skunk Works design – Flightglobal.com, 11 February 2016
  41. ^ "ADEX 2017: KAI unveils T-50A variant". shephardmedia.com.
  42. ^ a b https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2019-01-22/kai-developing-smarter-fa-50-golden-eagle
  43. ^ "KF-16 Korea Fighter Program KFP". GlobalSecurity.org.
  44. ^ "Hankuk Fiber T-50 Canopy".[permanent dead link]
  45. ^ a b T-50 Golden Eagle. GlobalSecurity.org, updated 31 August 2005.
  46. ^ "서울신문 – 맛있는 정보! 신선한 뉴스!".
  47. ^ Repair & overhaul services for USFK helicopter engines, 2009
  48. ^ GE – Aviation: F404. Geae.com (2011-05-25). Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  49. ^ a b c d T-50 Family, Specification & Performance. Korea Aerospace.
  50. ^ a b "MDS Technology NEOS RTOS". MDS Technology. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011.
  51. ^ "MDS Technology relies on VectorCAST for DO-178B Level A certification testing" (PDF). vectorcast.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  52. ^ "MDS Technology NEOS Version 3.0 RTOS IEEE POSIX certification".
  53. ^ "Software Accomplishments Summary for the NEOS-178S Operating System".
  54. ^ "Samsung Thales Avionics/Electronic Warfare Systems". ?.
  55. ^ "LIG Nex1 Avionics". ?. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012.
  56. ^ "DoDAAM Systems SMC". Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.
  57. ^ "DoDAAM Systems ATE". ?. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.
  58. ^ "DoDAAM Systems DPS". ?. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.
  59. ^ "DoDAAM Systems PMA". Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.
  60. ^ "DoDAAM Systems MDAS". ?. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.
  61. ^ 인크루트(주). "도담시스템스 채용은 인크루트 – 인크루트 기업 홈 : 취업포털 인크루트".
  62. ^ "DoDAAM Systems IEMMS". ?. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.
  63. ^ "Aeromaster ASIP/ENSIP". ?.
  64. ^ a b "T-50 Avionics Embedded Software Development Using Java".
  65. ^ a b Cohen, Michael. "Philippines confirms T/A-50 purchase"(subscription required). Janes Defence Weekly, Vol 49, Issue 32, 8 August 2012.
  66. ^ "FirsTec T-50 Cockpit Panel". ?.
  67. ^ "F-35전투기 조종간 만드는 한국 벤처".
  68. ^ "T-50 Components Exhibition".
  69. ^ "T-50 Industrial Participants".
  70. ^ "Hanwha T-50 flight control system". ?.
  71. ^ "WIA T-50 undercarriage". ?. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  72. ^ "Sniper Targeting Pod for FA-50".
  73. ^ "Condor 2 Reconnaissance Pod for FA-50".
  74. ^ "Rafael SPICE 1000 Guided Bomb".
  75. ^ FA-50 Expanded Weapons and Avionics. bemil.chosun.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  76. ^ "AMRAAM and Derby for FA-50".
  77. ^ "Python 5 and New Weapons Developed by Korea for FA-50".
  78. ^ "IN FOCUS: South Korea outlines strategy for indigenous fighter". 27 October 2011.
  79. ^ South Korea plans to arm its FA-50 light combat fighters with new variant of the Taurus missile – Airrecognition.com, 23 October 2015
  80. ^ "MBDA To Show New Munitions in Singapore".
  81. ^ "Air Force to deploy 20 TA-50 light attack aircraft by next year".
  82. ^ "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea – Korea Deploys Home-Grown FA-50 Fighter Jets".
  83. ^ "South Korean KAI FA-50 successfully test-fired an AGM-65 Maverick guided missile".
  84. ^ "Indonesian air force seeks to revive light attack, trainer procurements". Flightglobal.com, 14 January 2010. Retrieved on 26 July 2013.
  85. ^ "Indonesia shortlists T-50 for trainer jet requirement". Koreatimes.co.kr, 9 August 2010. Retrieved on 26 July 2013.
  86. ^ a b "Export T-50 advanced trainer to Indonesia" (Press release). Korea Aerospace Industries, LTD. (KAI). 25 May 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  87. ^ Sung-Ki, Jung. "Indonesia To Buy 16 S. Korean T-50 Trainers". Defense News, 26 May 2011. Retrieved on 26 July 2013.
  88. ^ T-50 "Perkuat TNI AU". AntaraNews.com, 9 April 2011. Retrieved on 5 June 2011.
  89. ^ a b Waldron. "Indonesia receives first pair of T-50i advanced jet trainers". Flight International, 13 September 2013. Retrieved on 30 September 2013.
  90. ^ a b TNI, PUSPEN TNI, Puspen Mabes. "T-50i Golden Eagle Siap Kawal NKRI - WEBSITE TENTARA NASIONAL INDONESIA". www.tni.mil.id.
  91. ^ "Iraq Asks for Korea's T-50 Trainer Jets". Korea Times, 15 March 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  92. ^ "Iraq's New Trainer-Fighters: FA-50 Bounces the Czech". Defense Industry Daily, 12 December 2013.
  93. ^ "Iraq signs $1.1 bn deal to buy S. Korean fighters". Yahoo! News. AFP. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  94. ^ a b "KAI has signed the contract with Iraq for exportin" (Press release). Korea Aerospace Industries, LTD. (KAI). 12 December 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  95. ^ Iraqi air force orders 24 KAI T-50s – Flightglobal.com, 12 December 2013
  96. ^ a b "S. Korea to export 24 FA-50 light attackers to Iraq".
  97. ^ "Philippines defence budget gets green light"(subscription required). Janes Defence Weekly, 21 September 2012.
  98. ^ "PH to buy 12 S. Korean fighter jets". Agence France-Presse c/o ABS-CBN News. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  99. ^ Ramos, Marlon. "PH buying SK fighter jets".
  100. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  101. ^ "Palace OKs payment scheme for S. Korean fighter jets". Archived from the original on 1 March 2014.
  102. ^ "KAI won a contract to export 12 FA-50s to the Phil" (Press release). Korea Aerospace Industries, LTD. (KAI). 28 March 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  103. ^ Foundation, arirang, Arirang International Broadcasting. "Korean government to sell 12 FA-50 fighter jets to Philippines".
  104. ^ a b "Philippines receives first two FA-50s". IHS Jane's 360. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  105. ^ "AFP: Final batch of FA-50 fighter jets delivered by May". inquirer.net, 23 March 2017.
  106. ^ "Air Force puts up show for 4 new fighter jets". inquirer.net, 2 December 2016.
  107. ^ a b Dominguez, Gabriel (1 June 2017). "South Korea's KAI completes deliveries of FA-50PH aircraft to Philippines". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  108. ^ Santos, Ruben (31 May 2017). "South Korea completes delivery of FA-50PH squadron". Update Philippines. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  109. ^ "philippines eyes bvr upgrades for fa-50".
  110. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  111. ^ "Phl to buy 24 more combat aircraft from South Korea".
  112. ^ http://www.paf.mil.ph/PAFflightplan2028/PAF%20Flight%20Plan%20Presentation%20Audio%20Dubbed.pptx[permanent dead link]
  113. ^ "Philippines seeks additional FA-50 light attack aircraft from South Korea".
  114. ^ "Duterte makes turnaround, wants more FA-50 fighters". malaya.com.ph. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  115. ^ "KAI will export T-50s to Thailand". Korea Times. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  116. ^ "Korea to Sell Four T50 Trainer Jets to Thailand". September 2015.
  117. ^ http://www.defensenews.com/articles/thailand-to-buy-additional-kai-t-50s-from-south-korea-for-258m
  118. ^ Waldron, Greg. "Thailand orders eight additional T-50TH trainers". Flight Global, 12 July 2017.
  119. ^ "Delivery of T-50TH trainer jets to Thailand begins". Yonhap News Agency. Seoul. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  120. ^ ABS-CBN News (26 January 2017). "TV Patrol: DND, kinumpirma ang ugnayan ng ISIS at teroristang grupo sa Pilipinas" – via YouTube.
  121. ^ "Bombs drop on terror groups’ lair".
  122. ^ "Military resumes airstrikes in Marawi - Philstar.com". philstar.com.
  123. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "New air strike vs Maute rebels as officials vow to end Marawi siege".
  124. ^ Dizon, Nikko. "It was FA-50 jet in 2nd friendly fire incident in Marawi – military source".
  125. ^ "FA-50s now fighting again in Marawi City - Update Philippines". 3 August 2017.
  126. ^ "Bombs rain on ASG lair; 8 die". manilastandard.net.
  127. ^ "Spain is interested in KAI T-50" Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ https://www.defensenews.com/air/2018/11/05/south-korea-and-spain-seek-deal-to-swap-trainer-jets-for-airlifters/
  129. ^ http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20181112000223
  130. ^ https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20181112002551315
  131. ^ UAE chooses M-346 as advanced lead-in fighter trainer. Flightglobal.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  132. ^ "UAE Reopens Talks To Buy T-50 Trainer". Defense News,
  133. ^ "Lee's UAE trip raises hopes for first sale of T-50s". 2 March 2011.
  134. ^ "Azerbaijan intends to purchase weapons and military equipment from South Korea". Armyrecognition.com, 29 August 2013
  135. ^ "ASEAN leaders show interest in Korean fighter plane :: KOREA.NET Mobile Site". Archived from the original on 8 June 2015.
  136. ^ Seoul's vice defense chief to visit Colombia, Peru this week Yonhap News Agency
  137. ^ "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea – Seoul Eyeing Export of 24 Fighter Jets to Peru".
  138. ^ "Pakistan Eyes T-50 as Trainer Option".
  139. ^ "Vietnam wants Western warplanes to counter China".
  140. ^ "空軍高級教練機轉自製 美、義爭與台廠合作拚690億商機-風傳媒".
  141. ^ "'Blue Magpie' program to be inked today".
  142. ^ "Ratno zrakoplovstvo dobilo novu ponudu" [Air Force Received a New Proposal]. Večernji list (in Croatian). 15 May 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  143. ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (4 October 2017). "4 nations bid for Croatian fighter jet deal; F-16 and Gripen under consideration". Defense News. Warsaw. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  144. ^ Gareth Jennings (12 September 2016). "Argentina evaluates Korean FA-50 fighter". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  145. ^ "[단독]KAI, 12월 아르헨과 6천억대 FA-50 수출 계약..차환 제공 방식". www.msn.com.
  146. ^ "Malaysia seeks Light Combat Aircraft as part of wider modernisation plans - Jane's 360". www.janes.com.
  147. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (23 August 2017). "Details of Botswana FA-50 bid emerge". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  148. ^ Jeong Yong-soo, Nam Koong-wook. "Contractor is nabbed for ripping off the military". Korea JoongAng Daily, 16 April 2011.
  149. ^ "MON wybrało włoską ofertę M-346 w przetargu na samoloty szkolne".
  150. ^ "South Korea's Black Eagles to fly KAI T-50". Flightglobal.com, 19 March 2008.
  151. ^ Alenia Aermacchi's M-346 wins Singapore jet trainer race. Janes.com (2010-12-07). Retrieved on 2011-06-05.
  152. ^ "KAI steps up T-50 pitch to Israel". 6 May 2011.
  153. ^ Arie Egozi. "Israel selects Alenia Aermacchi M-346 for trainer deal". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  154. ^ Katz, Yaakov (16 February 2012). "Italy wins IAF with combat trainer jet bid". JPost.
  155. ^ "Negative signs involving KFX, T-50 projects: The DONG-A ILBO".
  156. ^ "US Stops Export of Korean Fighter Jets to Uzbekistan". The Diplomat, 27 October 2015.
  157. ^ a b c d "T-50 Family". KAI. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  158. ^ a b "KAI will export T-50s to Thailand". 17 September 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  159. ^ "Lockheed Martin presents T-50A". 11 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  160. ^ "Lockheed Martin Publication". Code One Magazine
  161. ^ "KAI makes first delivery of its indigenous FA-50PH". KAI Press Release, 27 November 2015.
  162. ^ News, Defense. "404". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  163. ^ "KAI Flies First FA-50PH for Philippines Air Force". Korea Aerospace Industries c/o DefenseAerospace.com. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  164. ^ "KJCLUB". Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
  165. ^ "Indonesian T-50 crashes during aerial display". 21 December 2015.
  166. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (16 March 2017). "Iraq takes delivery of first South Korean jets". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  167. ^ "PH Air Force now has 8 FA-50 fighter jets".
  168. ^ "LOOK: Air Force formally accepts 2 FA-50PH jets - Update Philippines". 2 March 2017.
  169. ^ "Duterte eyes 12 more fighter jets for military". 2 June 2017.
  170. ^ "Domestic light aircraft FA-50, delivered to the Air Force this month / 예천 비행단 무장훈련용으로 TA-50 22대 전력화(TA-50 powering 22 units for Yecheon Wing Armament training)". Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  171. ^ "Domestic light aircraft FA-50, delivered to the Air Force this month". Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  172. ^ "KAI, 태국과 T50-TH 8대 추가 수출 계약…2900억원 규모".
  173. ^ Yeo, Mike (11 July 2017). "KAI scores additional Thai T-50 orders for $258M". Defense News. Melbourne, Australia. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  174. ^ Waldron, Greg (9 April 2018). "Thailand commissions four T-50 trainers". FlightGlobal. Singapore. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  175. ^ Dominguez, Gabriel (5 April 2018). "RTAF commissions first four T-50TH LIFT aircraft". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  176. ^ "Two pilots die in terrifying plane crash at air show in Yogyakarta, Indonesia". News.com.au. 20 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  177. ^ "Fighter jet crashes at Indonesian air show".
  178. ^ Prima Gumilang (12 February 2016). "Defense: T-50i fighter jet falls due to human technical error". CNN Indonesia Jumat.
  179. ^ a b T-50 Golden Eagle Product Specification Archived 16 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Lockheed Martin.
  180. ^ http://bemil.chosun.com/nbrd/bbs/view.html?b_bbs_id=10158&pn=1&num=5525
  181. ^ http://bemil.chosun.com/nbrd/bbs/view.html?b_bbs_id=10158&pn=1&num=5525
  182. ^ http://bemil.chosun.com/nbrd/bbs/view.html?b_bbs_id=10158&pn=1&num=5525
  183. ^ "Taurus seeks to supply mid-range missiles on Korea's FA-50". 23 October 2015.
  184. ^ "South Korea plans to arm its FA-50 light combat fighters with new variant of the Taurus missile".

External links[edit]