KDE Software Compilation

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KDE Software Compilation
KDE4 logo preview.svg
KDE Plasma 4 (graphical shell)
Developer(s)KDE
Initial release1.0 / 12 July 1998; 21 years ago (1998-07-12)
Stable release17.12.3 (March 6, 2018; 19 months ago (2018-03-06)) [±][1]
Written inMainly C++ (Qt), some C
Operating systemEntire DE: Unix-like with X11 or Wayland and also Windows XP7.[2]
Applications only: Mac OS X 10.410.6
Available in86 languages[3]
List of languages
  • Full (52): Arabic, Basque, Bosnian, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, Catalan, Catalan (Valencian), Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Esperanto, Estonian, Farsi (Persian), Finnish, French, Galician, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Interlingua, Irish Gaelic, Italian, Japanese, Kazakh, Khmer, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Low Saxon, Marathi, Norwegian Bokmål, Norwegian Nynorsk, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Ukrainian, Uyghur
  • Partial (34): Afrikaans, Armenian, Assamese, Asturian, Belarusian (Latin), Bengali, Bengali (India), Breton, Bulgarian, Chhattisgarhi, West Frisian, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashubian, Kurdish, Macedonian, Maithili, Malay, Malayalam, Northern Sami, Oriya, Pashto, Sinhala, Tajik, Tamil, Tatarish, Telugu, Thai, Upper Sorbian, Uzbek, Uzbek (Cyrillic), Vietnamese, Walloon
TypeDesktop environment
LicenseGNU GPL, GNU LGPL, BSD License, MIT License[4]
Websitewww.kde.org

The KDE Software Compilation (KDE SC) was an umbrella term for the desktop environment plus a range of included applications produced by KDE. From its 1.0 release in July 1998 until the release of version 4.4 in February 2010, the Software Compilation was simply known as KDE, which stood for K Desktop Environment until the rebrand.[5] The then called KDE SC was used from 4.4 onward until the final release 4.14 in July 2014. It consisted of the KDE Plasma 4 desktop and those KDE applications, whose development teams chose to follow the Software Compilation's release schedule. After that, the KDE SC was split into three separate product entities: KDE Plasma, KDE Frameworks and KDE Applications, each with their own independent release schedules.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

KDE was founded in 1996 by Matthias Ettrich, who was then a student at the University of Tübingen. At the time, he was troubled by certain aspects of the Unix desktop. Among his qualms was that none of the applications looked, felt, or worked alike. He proposed the formation of not only a set of applications, but, rather, a desktop environment, in which users could expect things to look, feel and work consistently. He also wanted to make this desktop easy to use; one of his complaints with desktop applications of the time was that his girlfriend could not use them. His initial Usenet post spurred a lot of interest, and the KDE project was born.[6]

Ettrich chose to use Trolltech's Qt framework for the KDE project. Other programmers quickly started developing KDE/Qt applications, and by early 1997, a few applications were being released.

First series[edit]

K Desktop Environment 1.0

On 12 July 1998, K Desktop Environment 1.0 was released. In November 1998, the Qt toolkit was dual-licensed under the free/open source Q Public License (QPL) and a proprietary license for proprietary software developers. Debate continued about compatibility with the GNU General Public License (GPL), so in September 2000, Trolltech made the Unix version of the Qt libraries available under the GPL, in addition to the QPL. Trolltech continued to require licenses for developing proprietary software with Qt. The core libraries of KDE are collectively licensed under the GNU LGPL, but the only way for proprietary software to make use of them was to be developed under the terms of the Qt proprietary license.

Second series[edit]

K Desktop Environment 2.0

Beginning 23 October 2000, the second series of releases, K Desktop Environment 2, introduced significant technological improvements.[7] These included DCOP (Desktop COmmunication Protocol), KIO (an application I/O library), KParts (a component object model, which allows an application to embed another within itself), and KHTML (an HTML rendering and drawing engine).[7]

Third series[edit]

KDE 3.2 with Konqueror and the About screen[8]

The third series was much larger than previous series, consisting of six major releases starting on 3 April 2002. The API changes between K Desktop Environment 2 and K Desktop Environment 3 were comparatively minor, meaning that the KDE 3 can be seen as largely a continuation of the K Desktop Environment 2 series. All releases of K Desktop Environment 3 were built upon Qt 3, which was only released under the GPL for Linux and Unix-like operating systems, including Mac OS X. It is marked stable running on Mac OS X since 2008. Unlike KDE SC 4, however, it requires an X11 server to operate.[9] In 2002, members of the KDE on Cygwin project began porting the GPL licensed Qt/X11 code base to Windows.[10]

Fourth series[edit]

Latest Plasma Desktop in KDE Software Compilation 4.10

KDE Software Compilation 4, first released on 11 January 2008, is based on Qt 4, which is also released under the GPL for Windows and Mac OS X. Therefore, KDE SC 4 applications can be compiled and run natively on these operating systems as well. KDE Software Compilation 4 on Mac OS X is currently considered beta,[11] while on Windows it is not in the final state, so applications can be unsuitable for day to day use.[12][13]

KDE SC 4 includes many new technologies and technical changes. The centerpiece is a redesigned desktop and panels collectively called Plasma, which replaces Kicker, KDesktop, and SuperKaramba by integrating their functionality into one piece of technology; Plasma is intended to be more configurable for those wanting to update the decades-old desktop metaphor. There are a number of new frameworks, including Phonon (a new multimedia interface making KDE independent of any one specific media backend) Solid (an API for network and portable devices), and Decibel (a new communication framework to integrate all communication protocols into the desktop). Also featured is a metadata and search framework, incorporating Strigi as a full-text file indexing service, and NEPOMUK with KDE integration.[14]

Starting with Qt 4.5, Qt was also made available under the LGPL version 2.1,[15] a major step for KDE adoption in corporate and proprietary environments, as the LGPL permits proprietary applications to link to libraries licensed under the LGPL.

Post-fourth series[edit]

KDE Plasma 5.16 showing light and dark themes.

As of August 2014, KDE no longer provides synchronized releases of the entire software compilation; instead the software is split into three parts:

  • KDE Frameworks 5, a collection of libraries and software frameworks (5.0 released on July 7, 2014, and new major releases are made monthly)[16]
  • KDE Plasma 5, a desktop environment (5.0 released on July 15, 2014, and new major releases are made every three months)[17]
  • KDE Applications, a bundle of applications and supporting libraries (14.12 was the first version incorporating Frameworks 5 based applications, and introduced date-based version numbers).[18]

Major changes include a move from Qt 4 to Qt 5, support for the next-generation display server protocol Wayland, support for the next-generation rendering API Vulkan and modularization of the KDE core libraries.[19] Initial releases of Frameworks 5 and Plasma 5 were made available in July 2014.[16][17]

Development[edit]

Source code[edit]

KDE SC releases are made to the KDE FTP server[21] in the form of source code with configure scripts, which are compiled by operating system vendors and integrated with the rest of their systems before distribution. Most vendors use only stable and tested versions of KDE SC, providing it in the form of easily installable, pre-compiled packages. The source code of every stable and development version of KDE SC is stored in the KDE source code repository, using Git.[22] KDE Platform is licensed under the LGPL, BSD license, MIT license, or X11 license. Applications also allow GPL. Documentation also allow FDL. CMake modules must be licensed under the BSD licence.[23]

Major releases[edit]

Major releases are releases that begin a series (version number X.0). These releases are allowed to break binary compatibility with the predecessor, or to put it differently, all following releases (X.1, X.2, ...) will guarantee binary portability (API & ABI). This means, for instance, that software that was developed for KDE 3.0 will work on all (future) KDE 3 releases; however, an application developed for KDE 2 is not guaranteed to be able to make use of the KDE 3 libraries. KDE major version numbers follow the Qt release cycle, meaning that KDE SC 4 is based on Qt 4, while KDE 3 was based on Qt 3.

Qt 5.0 was released 19 December 2012, Qt 5.2 12 December 2013. And for example KDE Frameworks 5.21.0 requires Qt >= 5.4, and no longer supports Qt 5.3 (cf. Qt version history).

Standard releases[edit]

There are two main types of standard releases: Feature releases and bugfix releases.

Feature releases have two version numbers, for example 3.5 and contain new features. As soon as a feature release is ready and announced, work on the next feature release starts. A feature release needs several months to be finished and many bugs that are fixed during this time are backported to the stable branch, meaning that these fixes are incorporated into the last stable release by bugfix releases. During the KDE SC 4 series, KDE SC had a feature release roughly every six months. Since the split, KDE Plasma releases a new feature version roughly every 3–4 months.

Bugfix releases have three version numbers, e.g. KDE 1.1.1, and focus on fixing bugs, minor glitches, and making small usability improvements. Bugfix releases in general do not allow new features, although some releases include small enhancements. A shortened release schedule is used. Starting with the KDE SC 4 series, KDE SC has a maintenance release roughly every month, except during the month of a feature release, while with Plasma 5, bugfix releases tend to happen even shorter like 2–3 weeks.

Release cycle[edit]

Timeline of major releases
Date Release
14 October 1996 Project announced by Matthias Ettrich[24]
KDE 1
12 July 1998 KDE 1.0[25]
6 February 1999 KDE 1.1[26]
KDE 2
23 October 2000 KDE 2.0[27]
26 February 2001 KDE 2.1[28]
15 August 2001 KDE 2.2[29]
KDE 3
3 April 2002 KDE 3.0[30]
28 January 2003 KDE 3.1[31]
3 February 2004 KDE 3.2[32]
19 August 2004 KDE 3.3[33]
16 March 2005 KDE 3.4[34]
29 November 2005 KDE 3.5[35]
KDE SC 4 (Qt4-based software)
11 January 2008 KDE 4.0[36]
29 July 2008 KDE 4.1[37]
27 January 2009 KDE 4.2[38]
4 August 2009 KDE 4.3[39]
9 February 2010 KDE SC 4.4[40]
10 August 2010 KDE SC 4.5[41]
26 January 2011 KDE SC 4.6[42]
27 July 2011 KDE SC 4.7[43]
25 January 2012 KDE SC 4.8[44]
1 August 2012 KDE SC 4.9[45]
5 February 2013 KDE SC 4.10[46]
14 August 2013 KDE SC 4.11[47] KDE Plasma 4 feature freeze + LTS until August 2015
18 December 2013 KDE SC 4.12[48]
16 April 2014 KDE SC 4.13[49]
31 July 2014 KDE SC 4.14 released; Some Applications are based on KDE Platform 4, some on KDE Frameworks 5[50]
Post-fourth series (Qt5-based software)
Date Release Date Release Date Release
KDE Frameworks 5 KDE Plasma 5 KDE Applications
7 July 2014 KDE Frameworks 5.0[16] 15 July 2014 KDE Plasma 5.0[17]
7 August 2014 KDE Frameworks 5.1[51]
12 September 2014 KDE Frameworks 5.2[52]
7 October 2014 KDE Frameworks 5.3[53] 15 October 2014 KDE Plasma 5.1[54]
6 November 2014 KDE Frameworks 5.4[55]
11 December 2014 KDE Frameworks 5.5[56] 17 December 2014 KDE Applications 14.12[57]
8 January 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.6[58] 27 January 2015 KDE Plasma 5.2[59]
14 February 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.7[60]
13 March 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.8[61]
10 April 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.9[62] 28 April 2015 KDE Plasma 5.3[63] 15 April 2015 KDE Applications 15.04[64]
8 May 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.10[65]
12 June 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.11[66]
10 July 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.12[67]
12 August 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.13[68] 25 August 2015 KDE Plasma 5.4[69] 19 August 2015 KDE Applications 15.08[70]
12 September 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.14[71]
10 October 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.15[72]
13 November 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.16[73]
12 December 2015 KDE Frameworks 5.17[74] 8 December 2015 KDE Plasma 5.5[75] 16 December 2015 KDE Applications 15.12[76]
9 January 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.18[77]
13 February 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.19[78]
13 March 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.20[79] 22 March 2016 KDE Plasma 5.6[80]
9 April 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.21[81] 20 April 2016 KDE Applications 16.04[82]
15 May 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.22[83]
13 June 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.23[84]
9 July 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.24[85] 5 July 2016 KDE Plasma 5.7[86]
13 August 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.25[87] 18 August 2016 KDE Applications 16.08[88]
10 September 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.26[89]
8 October 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.27[90] 4 October 2016 KDE Plasma 5.8 LTS[91]
15 November 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.28[92]
12 December 2016 KDE Frameworks 5.29[93] 15 December 2016 KDE Applications 16.12[94]
14 January 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.30[95] 31 January 2017 KDE Plasma 5.9[96]
11 February 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.31[97]
11 March 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.32[98]
8 April 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.33[99] 20 April 2017 KDE Applications 17.04[100]
13 May 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.34[101] 30 May 2017 KDE Plasma 5.10[102]
10 Jun 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.35[103]
8 July 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.36[104]
13 August 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.37[105] 17 August 2017 KDE Applications 17.08[106]
9 September 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.38[107]
14 October 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.39[108]
11 November 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.40[109] 30 November 2017 KDE Plasma 5.11[110]
10 December 2017 KDE Frameworks 5.41[111] 14 December 2017 KDE Applications 17.12[112]
13 January 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.42[113]
12 February 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.43[114] 6 February 2018 KDE Plasma 5.12 LTS[115]
10 March 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.44[116]
14 April 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.45[117] 19 April 2018 KDE Applications 18.04[118]
12 May 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.46[119]
9 June 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.47[120] 12 June 2018 KDE Plasma 5.13[121]
14 July 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.48[122]
11 August 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.49[123] 16 August 2018 KDE Applications 18.08[124]
8 September 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.50[125]
15 October 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.51[126] 9 October 2018 KDE Plasma 5.14[127]
10 November 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.52[128]
8 December 2018 KDE Frameworks 5.53[129] 13 December 2018 KDE Applications 18.12[130]
12 January 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.54[131]
9 February 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.55[132] 12 February 2019 KDE Plasma 5.15[133]
09 March 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.56[134]
13 April 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.57[135] 18 April 2019 KDE Applications 19.04[136]
13 May 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.58[137]
8 June 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.59[138] 11 June 2019 KDE Plasma 5.16[139]
13 July 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.60[140]
10 August 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.61[141] 15 August 2019 KDE Applications 19.08[142]
14 September 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.62[143]
12 October 2019 KDE Frameworks 5.63[144]


The KDE team releases new versions on a regular basis.

Lines of Code[edit]

Implementation[edit]

Most KDE software uses Qt which runs on most Unix and Unix-like systems (including Mac OS X), Android and Microsoft Windows. As of 2011 CMake serves as the build tool. This allows KDE to support a wider range of platforms, including Windows.[147] GNU gettext is used for translation. Doxygen is used to generate api documentation.[148]

Overview[edit]

  • KDE Software Compilation: KDE Software Compilation (KDE SC) is the coordinated releases of new software versions, gathering elements from the previous components to build an integrated core of software. The KDE SC is not a product as a single entity.
  • Calligra Suite: Integrated office suite.
  • KDEWebdev: Web development tools.
  • KDE-Extragear: Extragear is a collection of applications associated with KDE. Those applications are not part the official software compilation, but they are still part of the project.
  • KDE-Playground: This package contains pre-release and unstable software. It is a place for applications to mature.[149]

Packages[edit]

Default login sound of KDE SC

The Software Compilation consists of the following packages:

Base technologies[edit]

Applications[edit]

The Kontact personal information manager and Konqueror file manager/web browser running on KDE Plasma 5.2

Major applications by KDE Software Compilation include:

For more applications, see list of KDE applications.

Licensing[edit]

In November 1998, the Qt framework was dual-licensed under the free and open-source Q Public License (QPL) and a commercial license for proprietary software developers. The same year, the KDE Free Qt foundation was created which guarantees that Qt would fall under a variant of the very liberal BSD license should Trolltech cease to exist or no free version of Qt be released during 12 months.[151]

Debate continued about compatibility with the GNU General Public License (GPL), hence in September 2000 Trolltech made the Unix version of the Qt libraries available under the GPL in addition to the QPL which eliminated the concerns of the Free Software Foundation.[152] Trolltech continued to require licenses for developing proprietary software with Qt. The core libraries of KDE are collectively licensed under the GNU LGPL but the only way for proprietary software to make use of them was to be developed under the terms of the Qt proprietary license.

Starting with Qt 4.5, Qt was also made available under the LGPL version 2.1,[153] now allowing proprietary applications to legally use the open source Qt version.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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