The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines. It belongs to the Manobo subgroup of the Austronesian language family, and is the only member of this subgroup that is not spoken on Mindanao or nearby islands.
Kagayanen is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).
- Palawan Province: Cagayancillo Island between Negros and Palawan
- Palawan coastal communities
- southern Palawan: Balabac Island
- northern Palawan: Busuanga and Coron
- other areas around the Philippines: Iloilo Province; Silay, Negros; Manila; Quezon and Rizal areas
/i/ ranges between [i] and [e], except in unstressed syllables (as well as before consonant clusters) where it lowers to [ɪ] or [ɛ]. Similarly, /u/ lowers to [ʊ] in unstressed syllables, before consonant clusters, and word-finally. It is otherwise [u].
- Kagayanen at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kagayanen". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Olson et al. (2010:206)
- Olson et al. (2010:206), citing MacGregor (1995:365)
- Olson et al. (2010:207)
- Olson et al. (2010:207–209)
- Olson & Mielke (2007)
- Olson & Mielke (2007:845)
- Olson & Mielke (2007:847)
- MacGregor, Louise A. (1995), "Kagayanen: Introduction and wordlist", in Tryon, Darrell T. (ed.), Comparative Austronesian dictionary: An introduction to Austronesian studies, part 1: fascicle 1, Trends in Linguistics., 10, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 363–368
- Olson, Kenneth S.; Mielke, Jeff (2007), "Acoustic properties of the Kagayanen vowel space", in Trouvain, Jürgen; Barry, William (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (PDF), Universität des Saarlandes, pp. 845–848, retrieved 2009-03-15
- Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
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