Kainantu–Goroka languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kainantu–Goroka
East Highlands
Geographic
distribution
highlands of Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
  • Morobe – Eastern Highlands
    • Kainantu–Goroka
Subdivisions
Glottologkain1273[1]
Kainantu-Goroka languages.svg
Map: The Kainantu–Goroka languages of New Guinea
  The Kainantu–Goroka languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kainantu–Goroka language are a family of Papuan languages established by Arthur Capell in 1948 under the name East Highlands. They formed the core of Stephen Wurm's 1960 East New Guinea Highlands family (the precursor of Trans–New Guinea), and are one of the larger branches of Trans–New Guinea in the 2005 classification of Malcolm Ross.

Languages[edit]

The constituent Kainantu and Goroka families are clearly valid groups, and William A. Foley considers their TNG identity to be established. However, the internal classification is merely impressionistic.

Pronouns[edit]

The pronouns reconstructed for proto-Kainantu–Goroka, proto-Kainantu, and proto-Goroka are as follows:

proto-Kainantu–Goroka
sg pl
1 *ná *tá[za]
2 *ká[za] *tá-na-
3 *[y]á, *wá *yá[na]
proto-Kainantu
sg du pl
1 *né *té[ze]- *té[ze]
2 *é[ze] *[te]né-
3 *wé
proto-Goroka
sg pl
1 *ná *tá[za]
2 *ká *tá-na-gaza, *tí-na-gaza
3 *[y]á *[y]á-na-gaza, *í-na-gaza

The possessive forms are:

proto-Kainantu–Goroka
sg pl
1 *na-i *ta-i
2 *ka *tana-i
3 *[y]a, *wa *ya-i, *yana-i

Evolution[edit]

Kainantu–Goroka reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[2]

Awa language:

  • are ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • nu ‘louse’ < *niman

Tairora language:

  • ato ‘ear’ < * kand(e,i)k(V]
  • ir ‘tree’ < *inda
  • (n)am ‘breast’ < *amu
  • nume ‘louse’ < *niman,
  • kubu ‘short’ < *k(a,u)tu(p,mb)aC
  • mi- ‘give’ < *mV-

Fore language:

  • na- ‘eat’ < *na-
  • numaa ‘louse’ < *niman
  • mi- ‘give’ < *mV-
  • amune ‘egg’ < *mun(a,i,u)ka
  • kasa ‘new’ < *kVndak
  • mone ‘nose’ < *mundu

Gende language:

  • ami ‘breast’ < *amu
  • mut ‘belly’ < *mundun ‘internal organs’
  • mina- ‘stay’ < *mVna-
  • nogoi ‘water < *[n]ok, (tu)
  • nima ‘louse’ < *niman
  • me- ‘give’ < *mV-

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kainantu–Goroka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.

Bibliography[edit]