Karmanasa River

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Karmanasa River
Location
CountryIndia
StateUttar Pradesh, Bihar
Physical characteristics
Source 
 ⁃ locationSarodag, Kaimur district, Kaimur Range
 ⁃ elevation350 m (1,150 ft)
MouthGanges
 ⁃ location
Chausa
 ⁃ coordinates
25°30′54″N 83°52′30″E / 25.51500°N 83.87500°E / 25.51500; 83.87500Coordinates: 25°30′54″N 83°52′30″E / 25.51500°N 83.87500°E / 25.51500; 83.87500
Length192 km (119 mi)

The Karmanasa River (Hindi: कर्मनाशा नदी) is a tributary of the Ganges. It originates in Kaimur district of Bihar and flows through the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Along the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar it has the districts of Sonbhadra, Chandauli, Varanasi and Ghazipur on its left (UP side); and the districts of Kaimur and Buxar on its right (Bihar side).[1][2][3][4]

Disambiguation[edit]

Karmanasa is also the name of a river in the Garhwal Himalayas.[5]

Etymology[edit]

The name of the river means "destroyer of religious merit". There are several legends about it.[6]

According to one legend, the sage Vishvamitra through tapasya (penance, meditation and correct practices) acquired the power to create a whole new universe. When he set out to create a new universe it aroused consternation in Indra. However, he continued and after creating a copy of our universe, he started creating people, the first being Trishanku whom he decided to send up to rule his new universe. Indra stopped his progress. That is how Trishanku ended up suspended head down in mid-air. The Karmanasa was born out of the saliva dripping from his mouth.[7]

Course[edit]

The Karmanasa originates at a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) on the northern face of Kaimur Range near Sarodag in Kaimur district of Bihar.[1][8] It flows in a north-westerly direction through the plains of Mirzapur, then forms the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and finally joins the Ganges near Village Bara (East Side) Ghazipur Uttar Pradesh and Chausa (Bihar). The length of the river is 192 kilometres (119 mi), out of which 116 kilometres (72 mi) lies in Uttar Pradesh and the rest 76 kilometres (47 mi) forms the boundary between Uttar Pradesh (Bara-Ghazipur and Bihar (Chausa). Total drainage area of the Karmnasa along with its tributaries is 11,709 square kilometres (4,521 sq mi).[8]

Tributaries[edit]

Its tributaries are the Durgavati, the Chandraprabha, the Karunuti, the Nadi and the Khajuri.[8]

Waterfalls[edit]

The Karmanasa reaches the plains by a succession of leaps, including two falls known as the Devdari and the Chhanpathar, which, from their height and beauty, are deserving of special notice.[9] Chhanpathar Falls is 100 feet (30 m) high.[10] Devdari Falls, at an edge of the Rohtas Plateau, along the course of the Karmanasa is 58 metres (190 ft) high.[11] However, Chandauli district administration mentions Devdari Fall as being on the Chandraprabha River.[12]

Dams and bridges[edit]

There are two dams across the Karmanasa – the Latif Shah bund and the Nuagarh dam. There also is a dam across the Chandraprabha.[13]

The Grand Trunk Road passes over a bridge on the Karmanasa.[14]

Archaeology[edit]

UP State Archaeology department after excavations has unearthed iron artifacts dated between 1200 – 1300 BC at Raja Nal Ka Tila site in Karmanasa river valley of north Sonebhadra. It throws new light on the history of iron-making in India.[15]

History[edit]

The Karmanasa was the eastern boundary of Awadh. It also possibly was the western boundary of the Sena dynasty.[16][17]

At the Battle of Chausa, situated on the banks of the Karmanasa, on 26 June 1539, Sher Shah defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun and assumed the royal title of Farīd al-Dīn Shēr Shah.[18][19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "RASHTRIYA SAM VIKASH YOJANA - Revised District Plan" (PDF). Rivers. District administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  2. ^ "Chandauli". Chandauli district administration. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  3. ^ "Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory: proceedings of the international .. By Virendra N. Misra, Peter Bellwood". p. 473. Google books. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  4. ^ "Ghazipur". Ghazipur district administration. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  5. ^ "Environmental studies for Vishnugad Pipalkoti Hydro Electric Project" (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  6. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Karamnasa" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 676.
  7. ^ "One - Myself". Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  8. ^ a b c "Hydrology and Water Resources of India By Sharad K. Jain, Pushpendra K. Agarwal, Vijay P. Singh". pp. 356-357. Google books. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  9. ^ Hunter, William Wilson. "The Imperial Gazetter of India (Volume 9), page 54 of 64". Mirzapur 45.5. Electronic Library. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  10. ^ Kapoor, Subodh. The Indian Encyclopaedia:. Google books. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  11. ^ K.Bharatdwaj. ".Physical Geography: Hydrosphere". p. 154. Google books. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  12. ^ "Tourism". Chandauli district administration. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  13. ^ "Naugarh falls short of water for irrigation". Times of India, Varanasi, 3 February 2010. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  14. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, p. 180, Orient Longmans, 1949
  15. ^ "Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients By David Hatcher Childress". p. 80. Google books. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  16. ^ "History of Delhi sultanate". p. 36. Google books. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  17. ^ Pratiyogita Darpan June 2008. Google books. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  18. ^ "Battle of Chausa". Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  19. ^ "Encyclopaedia Of Bangladesh (Set Of 30 Vols.) By Nagendra Kr. Singh". p. 117. Google books. Retrieved 5 May 2010.

External links[edit]