Khandaghosh (community development block)

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Khandaghosh
Community development block
Khandaghosh is located in West Bengal
Khandaghosh
Khandaghosh
Location in West Bengal
Coordinates: 23°12′47″N 87°41′23″E / 23.21306°N 87.68972°E / 23.21306; 87.68972
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictPurba Bardhaman
Parliamentary constituencyBishnupur
Assembly constituencyKhandaghosh
Area
 • Total102.41 sq mi (265.23 km2)
Elevation
161 ft (49 m)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total189,336
 • Density1,800/sq mi (710/km2)
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PIN
713142 (Khandaghosh)
Telephone/STD code03451
Vehicle registrationWB-37,WB-38,WB-41,WB-42,WB-44
Literacy Rate77.28 per cent
Websitehttp://bardhaman.gov.in/

Khandaghosh is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Bardhaman Sadar South subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Administrative set up[edit]

In Peterson's District Gazetteer of 1910 there is mention of Khandaghosh and other police stations in Bardhaman subdivision.[1]

Movements[edit]

Damodar floods wrought havoc in the area and Dasarathi Tah initiated the ‘Nakrah hana embankment movement’ and even published a weekly newspaper named Damodar to focus on the problems faced by the people in the area.[2] The August movement of 1942 had a great impact in the area. The post office at Khandaghosh was burnt down.[3] In 1942, the Communist Party started building its rural peasant bases under the leadership of Benoy Choudhury. Leaders in the area were Sahedullah and Panchu Guha.[4]

People[edit]

Rash Behari Ghosh and Batukeshwar Dutt, the revolutionary leader, were from Khandaghosh.[5]

Geography[edit]

Khandaghosh is located at 23°12′47″N 87°41′23″E / 23.2131°N 87.6898°E / 23.2131; 87.6898.

Khandaghosh CD Block is part of the Khandaghosh Plain, which lies in the south-western part of the district, The Damodar flows through the area. The bed of the Damodar is higher than the surrounding areas and the right bank is protected against floods with embankments in portions of the south of the Damodar River. The region has alluvial soil of recent origin.[6] Unlike the rest of Bardhaman district, which lies to the north of the Damodar River, the Khandaghosh-Jamalpur-Raina area lies on the alluvial plains between the Damodar on its northern/ eastern side and the Dwarakeswar River. As a result, it has been a flood prone area.[7]

Khandaghosh CD Block is bounded by Galsi II and Burdwan I CD Blocks on the north, Raina I and Raina II CD Blocks on the east, Goghat II CD Block, in Hooghly district, in a small section of the south, and Indas CD Block, in Bankura district, on the south and west.[8]

Khandaghosh CD Block has an area of 265.23 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 143 gram sansads (village councils), 111 mouzas and 107 inhabited villages. Khandaghosh police station serves this block.[9] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Sagrai.[10]

Gram panchayats of Khandaghosh block/panchayat samiti are: Berugram, Gopalbera, Kaiyor, Khandaghosh, Lodna, Sagrai, Sankari I, Sankari II, Sasanga and Ukhrid.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Khandaghosh CD Block had a total population of 189,336, all of which were rural. There were 97,092 (51%) males and 92,244 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 21,168. Scheduled Castes numbered 73,478 (38.81%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 4,345 (2.29%).[12]

As per 2001 census, Khandaghosh block had a total population of 170,310, out of which 87,671 were males and 82,639 were females. Khandaghosh block registered a population growth of 15.03 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Bardhaman district was 14.36 per cent.[13] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[14] Scheduled castes at 64,192 formed more than one-third the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 4,180.[15]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Khandaghosh CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Khandaghosh (7,717), Berugram (6,852), Bonwai (4,054), Ukhrid (6,896), Sankari (4,776), Onari (6,008), Kamalpur (9,757) and Induti (4,610).[12]

Other villages in Khandaghosh CD Block include (2011 census figures in brackets): Badulia (3,905), Sashanga (1,253), Lodna (2,780), Sagrai (1,755), Gopalbera (3,095), Kumirkola (1,731) and Muidhara (1,376).[12]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Khandaghosh CD Block was 129,963 (77.28% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 72,449 (83.96% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 57,514 (70.25% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 13.71%.[12]

As per 2001 census, Khandaghosh block had a total literacy of 72.82 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 81.55 per cent female literacy was 63.57 per cent. Bardhaman district had a total literacy of 70.18 per cent, male literacy being 78.63 per cent and female literacy being 60.95 per cent.[16]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages and religion[edit]

As per census definition, mother-tongue is the language spoken in childhood by the person's mother to the person. As a mother-tongue, Bengali has decreased its share from 82.3% of the population of Bardhaman district in 1961 to 79.9% in 2001, Hindi has increased its share from 8.5% in 1961 to 10.9% in 2001 Santali has remained steady at around 4.9% during the period, and Urdu has increased its share from 2.4% in 1961 to 2.6% in 2001. Other mother-tongues spoken in 2001 were: Odiya (0.3%), Punjabi (0.2%), Koda/Kora (0.2%), Telugu (0.1%), Bhojpuri (0.1%), Nepali (0.1%) and Kurukh/ Oraon (0.1%).[17]

Religion in Khandaghosh CD Block
Hindu
67.17%
Muslim
32.47%
Christian
0.04%
Others
0.32%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 127,175 and formed 67.17% of the population in Khandaghosh CD Block. Muslims numbered 61,482 and formed 32.47% of the population. Christians numbered 74 and formed 0.04% of the population. Others numbered 605 and formed 0.32% of the population.[18]

In Bardhaman district the percentage of Hindu population has been declining from 84.3% in 1961 to 77.9% in 2011 and the percentage of Muslim population has increased from 15.2% in 1961 to 20.7% in 2011.[19]

Rural poverty[edit]

As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Khandaghosh CD Block was 32.35%.[20]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

In Khandaghosh CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 18.90%, agricultural labourers 55.37%, household industry workers 2.13% and other workers 23.60%.[9]

Khandaghosh CD Block is part of the area where agriculture dominates the scenario but the secondary and tertiary sectors have shown an increasing trend.[21]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 107 inhabited villages in Khandaghosh CD block. All 107 villages (100%) have power supply. All 107 villages (100%) have drinking water supply. 31 villages (28.97%) have post offices. 102 villages (95.33%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 61 villages (57.01%) have a pucca (paved) approach road and 79 villages (73.83%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 23 villages (21.50%) have agricultural credit societies. 14 villages (13.08%) have banks.[22]

In 2013-14, there were 114 fertiliser depots, 18 seed stores and 55 fair price shops in the CD Block.[9]

Agriculture[edit]

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Khandaghosh CD Block

  Bargadars (9.37%)
  Patta holders (15.21%)
  Small farmers (5.91%)
  Marginal farmers (18.26%)
  Agricultural labourers (51.25%)

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[23] Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture Khandaghosh could be classified as follows: bargadars 9.37%, patta (document) holders 15.21%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 5.91%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 18.26% and agricultural labourers 51.25%.[9]

In 2003-04 net cropped area in Khandaghosh Block was 21,000 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 12,690 hectares.[24]

In 2013-14, Khandaghosh CD Block produced 62,838 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 21,257 hectares, 1,143 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 427 hectares, 23,098 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 8,386 hectares, 121 tonnes of wheat from 45 hectares and 44,164 tonnes of potatoes from 2,092 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[9]

In Bardhaman district as a whole Aman paddy constituted 64.32% of the total area under paddy cultivation, while the area under Boro and Aus paddy constituted 32.87% and 2.81% respectively. The expansion of Boro paddy cultivation, with higher yield rates, was the result of expansion of irrigation system and intensive cropping.[25] In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Khandaghosh CD Block was 16,100.23 hectares, out of which 15,232.80 hectares were irrigated by canal water and 867.43 hectares by deep tube wells.[9]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Khandaghosh CD Block had offices of 9 commercial banks and 3 gramin banks.[9]

Transport[edit]

Khandaghosh CD Block has 8 originating/ terminating bus routes.[9]

DEMU services are available between Bankura and Masagram on the Bankura-Masagram line.[29]There are stations at Kaiyar and Guir Saranga.[30]

SH 7 running from Rajgram (in Birbhum district) to Midnapore (in Paschim Medinipur district) passes through this CD Block.[31]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Khandaghosh CD Block had 142 primary schools with 11,221 students, 6 middle schools with 427 students, 13 high schools with 7,279 students and 11 higher secondary schools with 9,256 students. Khandaghosh CD Block had 1 general college with 1,123 students and 303 institutions for special and non-formal education with 10,424 students.[9]

As per the 2011 census, in Khandaghosh CD block, amongst the 107 inhabited villages, 2 villages did not have schools, 43 villages had two or more primary schools, 37 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 26 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[32]

More than 6,000 schools (in erstwhile Bardhaman district) serve cooked midday meal to more than 900,000 students.[33]

Sir Rashbehari Ghosh Mahavidyalaya was established at Ukhrid in 2010.[34]

Healthcare[edit]

A dispensary was set up at Khandaghosh as early as 1804.[35]

In 2014, Khandaghosh CD Block had 1 block primary health centre and 3 primary health centres with total 29 beds and 4 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 26 family welfare subcentres. 397 patients were treated indoor and 204,044 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[9]

Khandaghosh block primary health centre at Khandaghosh (with 15 beds) is the main medical facility in Khandaghosh CD block. There are primary health centres at Khudkuri, PO Sankari (with 4 beds), Kuley (Gayeshpur), PO Chagram (with 10 beds) and Torkona (with 4 beds).[36]

Khandaghosh CD Block is one of the areas of Bardhaman district which is affected by a low level of arsenic contamination of ground water.[37]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori,Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), (in Bengali), Vol I, p. 369, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  2. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p. 478
  3. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p. 454
  4. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, pp. 476-477
  5. ^ Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Ghosh, Rashbehari". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  6. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Physiography, pages 13-14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  7. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, pp. 15-18
  8. ^ "Tehsil Map of Barddhaman". CD Block/ Tehsil. Maps of India. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bardhaman". Tables 2.7, 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  10. ^ "District Census Handbook: Barddhaman" (PDF). Map of Barddhaman with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Bardhaman - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  13. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Barddhaman District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  14. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  15. ^ "TRU for all Districts (SC & ST and Total)". Census 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  16. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 5, Bardhaman District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  17. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Mother-tongue: Table 11, page 51. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  18. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Census of Indiia 2011: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Table 9: Population by religion in Bardhaman district (1961-2011), Page 50. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  20. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Table 4.2: Empirical Measurement of Rural Poverty in Bardhaman 2005, page 94. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  21. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Block/ Sub-division wise Variation in Occupational Distribution of Workers, page 47. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  22. ^ "District Census Handbook Barddhaman, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 102 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  23. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  24. ^ "District Human Development Report, Bardhaman" (PDF). Table 3.10, Gross Cropped Area, Net Cropped Area and Cropping Intensity of different blocks of Bardhaman district 2003-04, Page 53. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  25. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Occupational Structure, Status and levels of Livelihood, page 55. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Bankura-Masagram DEMU 78052". India Rail Info.
  27. ^ "Adra Division Railway Map". South Eastern Railway.
  28. ^ "South Eastern Railway Pink Book 2017-18" (PDF). Indian Railways Pink Book.
  29. ^ "78056 Bankura-Masagram DEMU". India Rail Info. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  30. ^ Google maps
  31. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  32. ^ "District Census Handbook, Barddhaman, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 1082, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Midday Meal – Burdwan, WB". District Authorities. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  34. ^ "Sir Rashbehari Ghosh Mahavidyalaya". SRGM. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  35. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p. 868
  36. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  37. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Bardhaman. SOES. Retrieved 9 September 2011.