King Zhuangxiang of Qin

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King Zhuangxiang of Qin
King of Qin
Reign15 September 250 – 7 May 247 BC
Born281 BC
Died247 BC (aged 33–34)
SpouseQueen Dowager Zhao
IssueQin Shi Huang
Chengjiao, Lord Chang'an
Full name
Family name: Ying
Given name: Yiren / Zichu
FatherKing Xiaowen of Qin
MotherQueen Dowager Xia
King Zhuangxiang of Qin
Traditional Chinese秦莊襄王
Simplified Chinese秦庄襄王
Traditional Chinese異人
Simplified Chinese异人

King Zhuangxiang of Qin (281–247 BC), personal names Yiren and Zichu, was a ruler of the Qin state during the third century BC in the Warring States period of ancient China.[1]


Yiren was born to Lord Anguo, the second son and heir apparent of King Zhaoxiang, and Lord Anguo's concubine Lady Xia. He was chosen to serve as a political hostage in the Kingdom of Zhao. In Handan (the capital of Zhao) he met a merchant, Lü Buwei, who saw Yiren as extraordinary and detected in him the potential to become the king of Qin in the future. Lü Buwei treated Yiren well and presented his concubine Lady Zhao to Yiren. Lady Zhao later bore Yiren a son, Ying Zheng.

In the meantime, through rewards and machinations, Lü Buwei helped Yiren return to Qin. He also successfully conditioned Lord Anguo's primary spouse, the childless Lady Huayang, to adopt Yiren as her own son, thereby making Yiren become Lord Anguo's legitimate heir apparent. As Lady Huayang was a native of the Chu state, she renamed Yiren to "Zichu" (lit. "son of Chu"). Upon the death of King Zhaoxiang in 251 BC, Lord Anguo ascended the throne and became historically known as "King Xiaowen", but he died in the following year just three days after his coronation. Zichu succeeded his father as the king of Qin and became historically known as "King Zhuangxiang of Qin". He named Lü Buwei as his chancellor, Lady Zhao as his queen consort, and Ying Zheng as his crown prince.

King Zhuangxiang died in 247 after reigning for three years. Ying Zheng succeeded him and eventually unified China through a series of wars beside the other six major states, established the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC, and became historically known as "Qin Shi Huang" (First Emperor of Qin).

He was posthumously declared as Taishang Huangdi by his son Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang).[2]


  • Parents:
    • Crown Prince Zhu (太子柱; 303–251 BC), ruled as King Xiaowen of Qin in 251 BC
    • Queen Dowager Xia, of the Xia lineage (夏太后 夏氏; 300–240 BC)
  • Queens:
    • Empress Dowager, of Zhao (帝太后; 280–229 BC), married in 259 BC; the mother of Crown Prince Zheng
  • Sons:
    • Crown Prince Zheng (太子政; 259–210 BC), ruled as Qin Shi Huang from 247–210 BC
    • Prince Chengjiao (公子成蟜; 256–239 BC)
      • Known by his title, Lord Chang'an (長安君)


  1. ^ ‘‘Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty (English translation). (1996). Ssu-Ma, Ch'ien. Sima, Qian. Burton Watson as translator. Edition: 3, reissue, revised. Columbia. University Press. ISBN 0231081693, 9780231081696. pg 35. pg 59.
  2. ^ Eisenberg, Andrew (2008). Kingship in Early Medieval China. Leiden: Brill. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9789004163812.
King Zhuangxiang of Qin
 Died: 247 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King Xiaowen
King of Qin
250–247 BC
Succeeded by
Ying Zheng