In phonetics, the labiodental flap is a speech sound found primarily in languages of Central Africa, such as Kera and Mangbetu. It has also been reported in the Austronesian language Sika. It is one of the few non-rhotic flaps. The sound begins with the lower lip placed behind the upper teeth. The lower lip is then flipped outward, striking the upper teeth in passing.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ⱱ⟩, which resembles Cyrillic izhitsa, ⟨ѵ⟩, but is composed of a V and the hook of the flap ⟨ɾ⟩. In 2005, the International Phonetic Association, responding to Dr. Kenneth S. Olson's request for its adoption, voted to include a symbol for this sound, and selected a v with a right hook. This symbol is a combination of ⟨v⟩ + ⟨ɾ⟩ (the letters for the voiced labiodental fricative and the alveolar flap). As of version 5.1.0, the Unicode character set encodes this character at U+2C71 (ⱱ). In earlier literature, it is often transcribed by a v modified by the extra-short diacritic, ⟨v̆⟩, following a 1989 recommendation of the International Phonetic Association. Another historic symbol for this sound was v with curl ⟨ⱴ⟩, which had been employed in articles from the School of Oriental and African Studies, by Joseph Greenberg, and others.
Features of the labiodental tap:
- Its manner of articulation is flap, which normally means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that the tongue makes very brief contact. In this case, being a non-rhotic consonant, the flap is made with the lower lip.
- Its place of articulation is dental, which means it is articulated behind upper front teeth.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
The labiodental flap is found primarily in Central Africa, in as many as a few hundred languages found in the Chadic family (Margi, Tera), Ubangian (Ngbaka, Ma'bo, Sera), Mbum (eg Kare), Central Sudanic (Mangbetu, Kresh), and Bantoid (Ngwe, some Shona dialects). It is extremely rare outside Africa, though it has been reported from Sika in Flores.
|Bana||[ɡə̀ⱱéŋ]||'fishhook'||Mainly restricted to ideophones, and between high central vowels. Contrasts with /v/.|
|Kera||[ⱱə̃ə̃ti]||'push your head out of a hole or out of water'||Since most of the lexical items are ideophones, it is not definitively the case that the labial flap has been fully incorporated into the phonological system of Kera.|
|Mono||vwa||[ⱱa]||'send'||Contrasts with /v/ and /w/. In free variation with bilabial flap|
|Sika||[ⱱoːtɛr]||'I stand a pole in the ground'||Contrasts with /v/ and /β/. May also be realized as [b̪]|
The bilabial flap [ⱳ] is a variant of the labiodental flap in several languages, including Mono. This sound involves striking the upper lip rather than the upper teeth. The two sounds are not known to contrast in any language; the term labial flap can be used as a broader description encompassing both sounds.
In Sika, the flap is heard in careful pronunciation, but it may also be realized as a voiced labiodental stop, [b̪], or an affricate. It contrasts with both a bilabial and a labiodental fricative:
|[ⱱoːtɛr]||"I stand a pole in the ground"|
|[voːtɛr]||"We (inclusive) buy"|
- Olson & Hajek (2003:162–164)
- Olson & Hajek (1999:104)
- International Phonetic Association (2005:261)
- Olson & Hajek (2003:158)
- International Phonetic Association (1989:70)
- Olson & Hajek (1999:112)
- Priest, Lorna A. (23 August 2004). Revised Proposal for Additional Latin Phonetic and Orthographic Characters (PDF) (Report). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2. p. 16. N2906 L2/04-348.
- Hofmann (1990:35)
- Hofmann (1990:35)
- Hofmann (1990:52)
- Olson & Hajek (2003:27)
- Olson (2004:233)
- Olson & Hajek (1999:106)
- Olson & Hajek (2003:181)
- Hofmann, Erica (1990). A Preliminary Phonology of Bana (PDF) (M.A. thesis). University of Victoria. OCLC 27946722.
- International Phonetic Association (1989), "Report on the 1989 Kiel Convention", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 19 (2): 67–80, doi:10.1017/S0025100300003868
- International Phonetic Association (2005), "IPA news", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 261–262, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002227
- Olson, Kenneth S; Hajek, John (1999), "The phonetic status of the labial flap", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 101–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006484
- Olson, Kenneth S; Hajek, John (2003), "Crosslinguistic insights on the labial flap", Linguistic Typology, 7 (2): 157–186, doi:10.1515/lity.2003.014
- Olson, Kenneth S; Hajek, John (2004), "A crosslinguistic lexicon of the labial flap", Linguistic Discovery, 2 (2): 21–57, doi:10.1349/ps1.1537-0852.a.262
- Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (02): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
- Olson, Kenneth; Schrag, Brian (2000), "An overview of Mono phonology", in Wolff, H.E.; Gensler, O. (eds.), Proceedings from the 2nd World Congress of African Linguistics, Leipzig 1997, Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe, pp. 393–409
- List of languages with [ⱱ] on PHOIBLE
- Olson and Hajek, 2001. 'The Geographic and Genetic Distribution of the Labial Flap'
- A Crosslinguistic Lexicon of the Labial Flap (has video & sound files)
- SIL Linguist Successfully Proposes New Phonetic Symbol
- Kenneth S. Olson's research website (has information on the labiodental flap)