List of Internet top-level domains

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This list of Internet top-level domain (TLD) extensions contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) at the Root Zone Database.[1][2] IANA also oversees the approval process for new proposed top-level domains. As of April 2018, the root domain contains 1534 top-level domains,[3] while a few have been retired and are no longer functional.

Types[edit]

IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[4]

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and predate the creation of ICANN in 1998.

Name Entity Administrator[5] Notes IDN DNSSEC
.com commercial Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools, and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name[citation needed], to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. Yes Yes
.org organization Public Interest Registry This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes
.net network Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes
.int international organizations Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, a few grandfathered domains do not meet these criteria. No Yes
.edu education Educause (via Verisign) The .edu TLD is limited to specific higher educational institutions such as, but not limited to, trade schools and universities. In the U.S., its use was restricted in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions, such as the Exploratorium, that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes
.gov U.S. national and state government agencies General Services Administration (via Verisign) The .gov TLD is limited to United States governmental entities and agencies as well as qualifying state, county and local municipal government agencies. No Yes
.mil U.S. military United States Department of Defense The .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military. No Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa "Address and Routing Parameter Area" Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. No Yes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

As of May 20, 2017, there were 255 Country code top-level domains. (For comparison, at the same time the United Nations comprised 193 countries.)

Table legend
Name DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions.
Entity Country, dependency, or region
Explanation Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German name for Germany).
Notes General remarks
IDN Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD Allows second-level domain registration (restrictions may apply)
IPv6 Registry fully supports IPv6 access

A[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (.ac.uk), India (.ac.in) or Indonesia (.ac.id). Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[6][7] Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates No Yes
.af  Afghanistan Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft) Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla Also unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence) No Yes
.al  Albania Citizenship no longer required No Yes
.am  Armenia Also unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business No Yes Yes Yes
.an  Netherlands Antilles Local presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on 10 October 2010. No Yes
.ao  Angola No Unknown
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ? Yes Yes ?
.ar  Argentina Spanish[cctld 1] Yes Yes Yes
.as  American Samoa (United States) Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain Yes Yes Yes
.at  Austria Yes[cctld 2] Yes Yes Yes
.au  Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years.[8] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. No Yes No Yes
.aw  Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens Yes Yes
.ax  Åland (Finland) .al, .an, .ad already allocated Yes Yes
.az  Azerbaijan Yes Yes

B[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Yes
.bb  Barbados No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh Yes No Yes
.be  Belgium Also unofficially used in the canton of Bern, Switzerland Latin[9] Yes Yes Yes[10]
.bf  Burkina Faso No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria See also .бг (.bg in cyrillic) for IDN ccTLD Yes Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain Yes Yes
.bi  Burundi Yes Yes
.bj  Benin Yes Yes
.bl  Saint Barthélemy (France) Not in use
.bm  Bermuda Local corporate registration required Yes Yes
.bn  Brunei Yes No
.bo  Bolivia Yes Yes
.bq  Bonaire .bo, .bn, .ba, .br, .bi, .be already allocated Not yet assigned as of 1 December 2015
.br  Brazil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[11] Yes[12] Yes No[cctld 3]
.bs  Bahamas Yes Yes
.bt  Bhutan Yes No
.bv  Bouvet Island Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no). No No No
.bw  Botswana Yes Yes
.by  Belarus Byelarus’ Also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany Yes Yes
.bz  Belize Also unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) Yes Yes

C[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ca  Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements.[13] French[cctld 4] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica Yes[cctld 5] Yes Yes
.ci  Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands No Yes
.cl  Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China China A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan also maintain TLDs. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.co  Colombia Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register. Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica Yes Yes
.cu  Cuba No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde No Yes
.cw  Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Curaçao, West Indies No Unknown
.cx  Christmas Island Christmas Xmas Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus No No
.cz  Czech Republic No[cctld 6] Yes Yes

D[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. Yes[cctld 7] Yes Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti No Yes
.dk  Denmark Danmark Yes[cctld 8] Yes Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic No Yes
.dz  Algeria El Djazair No Yes

E[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ec  Ecuador In Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "base.in" and "official.ec".[15] No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Yes[cctld 9] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara Saguia el-Hamra .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root.
.er  Eritrea Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains. No No
.es  Spain España Yes Yes
.et  Ethiopia No No
.eu  European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[cctld 10] Yes Yes Yes[16]

F[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.fi  Finland Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[cctld 11] Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia Also unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business. No Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark) Føroyar Yes Yes
.fr  France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes

G[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ga  Gabon Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.gb  United Kingdom Great Britain And Northern Ireland Deprecated.[17][citation needed]The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk. No No
.gd  Grenada Yes Yes
.ge  Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[18] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana (France) Guyane française No
.gg  Guernsey (United Kingdom) Guernsey / Guernesey Commonly used in reference to the gamer slang for "good game". No Yes
.gh  Ghana No No
.gi  Gibraltar (United Kingdom) Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark) Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia Domain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. No Yes
.gn  Guinea A local contact is required Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe (France) Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale Also used as a free domain service to the public. No
.gr  Greece Yes[cctld 14] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala Yes No Yes
.gu  Guam (United States) No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau No Yes
.gy  Guyana No Yes

H[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.hk  Hong Kong Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Yes Yes Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands No Yes
.hn  Honduras Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska Yes Yes
.ht  Haiti Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary Citizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU   Yes Yes

I, J[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.id  Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[19] Yes Yes Yes
.ie  Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[20][21] Yes Yes Yes Yes
.il  Israel Yes Yes Yes
.im  Isle of Man (United Kingdom) No Yes
.in  India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). Yes [cctld 15] Yes Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output that is useful for domain hacks. Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq Partial[22] Yes
.ir  Iran Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[cctld 16] No Yes
.je  Jersey (United Kingdom) No Yes
.jm  Jamaica No No
.jo  Jordan No Yes
.jp  Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. Yes Yes Yes Yes[23]

K[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ke  Kenya Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer No No
.ki  Kiribati Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis No Yes
.kp  North Korea Korea Democratic People's Republic Restricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea No No
.kr  South Korea Korea Republic Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait No No
.ky  Cayman Islands Yes Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan No Yes

L[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.la  Laos Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[24] Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein Also unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka Yes Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia Partial[22] No
.ls  Lesotho No No
.lt  Lithuania Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya No Yes

M[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ma  Morocco Maghrib, or Maroc Partial[22] Yes
.mc  Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco No Yes
.md  Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. No Yes
.me  Montenegro Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.) Yes Yes
.mf  Collectivity of Saint Martin (France) Martin, French Not in use
.mg  Madagascar Yes Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands No
.mk  North Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia No Yes
.ml  Mali Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.mm  Myanmar Yes No
.mn  Mongolia The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register. No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands (United States) Marianas Pacific No Yes
.mq  Martinique (France) No No
.mr  Mauritania No Yes
.ms  Montserrat Unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. No Yes
.mt  Malta No No
.mu  Mauritius No Yes
.mv  Maldives No Yes
.mw  Malawi No Yes
.mx  Mexico Yes Yes
.my  Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[cctld 17] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique No No

N[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.na  Namibia Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia (France)   Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. Yes Yes
.ne  Niger No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua No No
.nl  Netherlands First official country code TLD.[25] No Yes Yes
.no  Norway Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. Yes Yes Yes
.np    Nepal All .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. Foreign businesses must provide proof of local presence in Nepal. No No
.nr  Nauru Was previously used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.[26] No Yes
.nu  Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[cctld 18] Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand Māori[cctld 19] Yes Yes[27]

O, P, Q[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.om  Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. No No
.pa  Panama No No
.pe  Peru Yes[cctld 20] Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia (France) Polynésie française With Clipperton Island No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea No No
.ph  Philippines No Yes
.pk  Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 No Yes
.pl  Poland Yes[cctld 21] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France) Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico (United States) Yes Yes
.ps  Palestine[28] West Bank and Gaza Strip. No Yes
.pt  Portugal Portuguese Yes Yes Yes[29]
.pw  Palau Pelew Yes Yes Yes Yes[30]
.py  Paraguay No No
.qa  Qatar No No

R[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.re  Réunion (France) Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania Yes[31] Yes[32] Yes Yes[33]
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija Yes No Yes {yes}}
.ru  Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. No Yes Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda No Yes

S[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.sa  Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[34] Arabic[9] Yes[35] Yes Yes[36]
.sb  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands, British Yes No
.sc  Seychelles Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan No Yes
.se  Sweden S/E are the only letters occurring in both Sverige and Sweden Yes[cctld 22] Yes Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore Yes Yes
.sh  Saint Helena Yes[cctld 23] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia Yes[cctld 24] Yes Yes
.sj  Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no). No Yes[37] No
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens No Yes Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone No Yes
.sm  San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark No Yes
.sn  Senegal Registration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. Yes Yes
.so  Somalia Relaunched on 1 November 2010 No No Yes
.sr  Suriname No Yes
.ss  South Sudan Added to the DNS root zone in February 2019
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe Also unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz) No Yes
.su  Soviet Union Still in use. Yes[cctld 25] Yes Yes Yes[cctld 26]
.sv  El Salvador No No
.sx  Sint Maarten Yes No
.sy  Syria Yes Yes
.sz  Eswatini Swaziland Registration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses. No No

T[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Chadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Domains must be longer than two characters. It has also been adopted by the community of the game Team Fortress 2.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo No Yes
.th  Thailand Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan No Yes
.tk  Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp is deactivated since 2015. Yes Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan Yes[cctld 27] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia Yes Yes Yes Yes
.to  Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins Yes No Yes
.tp  East Timor Timor Português ISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned and .tp is deactivated since 2015. No Yes
.tr  Turkey .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[cctld 28] No Yes Yes[38]
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan."[39] Yes[cctld 29] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania Yes No

U, V[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ua  Ukraine Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[17] Yes Yes
.us  United States of America Registrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[40] Yes Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan No Yes
.va   Vatican City Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State) No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Partial[22] Yes
.ve  Venezuela No No
.vg  British Virgin Islands No Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands (United States) No Yes
.vn  Vietnam Yes[cctld 30] Yes Yes
.vu  Vanuatu Yes Yes

W, X, Y, Z[edit]

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.wf  Wallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Western Samoa Marketed for use in general Websites Yes Yes[41] Yes
.xk  Kosovo Based off of Kosovo's ISO 3166-1 Code Likely to be the future Country Code Top Level Domain for the Republic of Kosovo since CCTLDs are based off a country's ISO code. Unknown whether ICANN will add it to the root zone or not, currently Kosovans use .rs
.ye  Yemen No No
.yt  Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika Yes Yes
.zm  Zambia Yes Yes[cctld 31]
.zw  Zimbabwe No No

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (17 November 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see IDN Zeichentabelle (PDF, in german language).
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  4. ^ "About Internationalized Domain Names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  5. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  6. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[14]
  7. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  8. ^ (1 January 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from 13 June 2011 "Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN)". Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  10. ^ Supported characters (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic): see details Archived 20 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (Latin): see details
  12. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs"..
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  14. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Now, get Internet domain names in regional languages". The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  16. ^ "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  17. ^ ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  18. ^ see [1]
  19. ^ "F.A.Q. for Domain Names with macrons (IDNs) - .nz Domain Name Commission". Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  20. ^ (8 December 2007): see details[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "www.dns.pl: IDN". Retrieved 11 September 2003.
  22. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  23. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  24. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  25. ^ (28 April 2008) see details Archived 19 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "ccTLD.su". Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  27. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  28. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  29. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  30. ^ "TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  31. ^ Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm

ref name="TLD_status">"TLD DNSSEC Report". ICANN Research. Retrieved 9 September 2014.

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر.  Algeria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Jazā'ir .dz No
xn--y9a3aq .հայ  Armenia Armenian Armenian hay .am Yes
xn--mgbcpq6gpa1a البحرين.  Bahrain Arabic Arabic al-Bahrain Not delegated .bh No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bengali Bengali Bangla .bd Yes
xn--90ais .бел  Belarus Belarusian Cyrillic bel .by No
xn--90ae .бг[42]  Bulgaria Bulgarian Cyrillic bg .bg No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c مصر.  Egypt Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Miṣr / Maṣr[43] .eg Yes
xn--e1a4c .ею  European Union Bulgarian Cyrillic eyu .eu Yes
xn--node .გე  Georgia Georgian Georgian (Mkhedruli) GE .ge No
xn--qxam .ελ[42]  Greece Greek Greek el In use since July 2018 .gr No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Hoeng1 gong2 .hk Yes
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Hindi Devanagari Bhārat Became available 27 August 2014 [44] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت.  India Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Telugu Telugu Bhārata Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Gujarati Gujarati Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Punjabi Gurmukhī Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Tamil Tamil Intiyā Became available 2015 .in Yes
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bengali Bengali Bharôt Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--2scrj9c .ಭಾರತ  India Kannada Kannada Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--rvc1e0am3e .ഭാരതം  India Malayalam Malayalam Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--45br5cyl .ভাৰত  India Assamese Bengali Bharatam Not in use .in
xn--3hcrj9c .ଭାରତ  India Oriya Oriya Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgbbh1a بارت.  India Kashmiri Arabic (Kashmiri) Bārat Not in use .in
xn--h2breg3eve .भारतम्  India Sanskrit Devanagari Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--h2brj9c8c .भारोत  India Santali Devanagari Bharot Not in use .in
xn--mgbgu82a ڀارت.  India Sindhi Arabic (Sindhi) Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران.  Iran Persian Arabic (Persian) Īrān .ir No
xn--mgbtx2b عراق.  Iraq Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿIrāq Not in use .iq No
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن.  Jordan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Urdun .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan Kazakh Cyrillic (Kazakh) qaz .kz No
xn--mix082f .澳门  Macao Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mix891f .澳門  Macao Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا.  Malaysia Malay Arabic (Jawi) Malaysīyā .my Yes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd موريتانيا.  Mauritania Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Mūrītāniyā .mr No
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia Mongolian Cyrillic (Mongolian) mon .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  Morocco Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Maġrib .ma No
xn--d1alf .мкд  North Macedonia Macedonian Cyrillic (Macedonian) mkd .mk No
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  Oman Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿUmān .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان.  Pakistan Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Pākistān .pk Yes
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين.  Palestinian Authority Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Filasṭīn .ps No
xn--wgbl6a قطر.  Qatar Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Qaṭar .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rf .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية.  Saudi Arabia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) as-Suʿūdīya .sa Yes[35]
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia Serbian Cyrillic (Serbian) srb .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Xīnjiāpō .sg Yes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Tamil Tamil Cinkappūr .sg Yes
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Korean Hangul Han-guk .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Sinhalese Sinhalese Lanka .lk Partial[22]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Tamil Tamil Ilaṅkai .lk Partial[22]
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان.  Sudan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūdān .sd No
xn--ogbpf8fl سورية.  Syria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūriyya .sy Yes
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai Thai .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh تونس.  Tunisia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Tūnis .tn Yes
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine Ukrainian Cyrillic (Ukrainian) ukr .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات.  United Arab Emirates Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Imārāt .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن.  Yemen Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Yaman Not delegated .ye No

Source:[45]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

English[edit]

A[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.academy academic institutes Donuts[donuts 1] Yes Yes
.accountant accountants and accounting firms Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.accountants accountants and accounting firms Donuts[donuts 2] Yes Yes
.active general The Active Network Unknown Yes
.actor actors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.ads Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.adult adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. SITA No No
.agency business associations Donuts[donuts 3] Yes[9] Yes
.airforce defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.analytics Campus IP LLC [46]
.apartments apartments Donuts Yes Yes
.app Apps[47] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.archi architects and architect firms[48] Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[49] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.army defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.art artists, museums, art galleries, dealers, service providers and contractors UK Creative Ideas Yes Yes
.associates business associations Donuts[donuts 4] Yes Yes
.attorney attorneys and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.auction Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.audible Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.audio stereo/sound systems, music Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.author Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.auto Cars Registry Limited[46]
.autos DERAutos Unknown Yes
.aws Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]

B[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.baby Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.[46]
.band Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.bank banks Restricted to banks and savings associations fTLD Registry Services, LLC Unknown Yes
.bar Bars and related industry Punto 2012 Yes Yes
.barefoot Gallo Vineyards, Inc.[46]
.bargains coupons and online sellers Donuts[donuts 5] Yes Yes
.baseball MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC[46]
.basketball Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA) [46]
.beauty L'Oréal[46]
.beer breweries and beer aficionados Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.best BestTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.bestbuy BBY Solutions, Inc.[46]
.bet Afilias plc[46]
.bible Respect for "the Bible", "God as He is revealed in the Bible", and "orthodox" Christianity [51][52] American Bible Society [46]
.bid auctions dot Bid Limited Yes Yes
.bike bicycles Donuts[donuts 6] Yes[53] Yes
.bingo bingo Donuts Yes Yes
.bio biodiversity, biographies May require compliance with organic agriculture principles.[54] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.biz business Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. NeuStar Yes[9] Yes
.black those who like the color black[55] Afilias Yes Yes
.blackfriday Black Friday, retail Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.blockbuster Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.blog Blogs Automattic [56] Unknown Yes
.blue those who like the color blue[57] Afilias Yes Yes
.boo - Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.book Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.boots THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC [46]
.bot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.boutique specialized businesses Donuts[donuts 7] Yes Yes
.box individuals and businesses, in order to promote personal cloud storage NS1 Limited Yes Yes
.broadway Celebrate Broadway, Inc.[46]
.broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD[46]
.build construction industry Open Top Level Domain—[58] Plan Bee LLC Yes Yes
.builders construction workers Donuts[donuts 8] Yes Yes
.business businesses Donuts[donuts 9] Yes Yes
.buy Amazon Registry Services, INC[46]
.buzz marketing and social networking DOTSTRATEGY Yes Yes

C[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.cab cabs and taxi companies Donuts[donuts 10] Yes Yes
.cafe coffee industry Donuts Yes Yes
.call Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.cam entertainment[59] Acwebconnecting[60] Yes Yes
.camera camera-related businesses Donuts[donuts 11] Yes Yes
.camp camps and camping Donuts[donuts 12] Yes Yes
.cancerresearch Organizations, research institutes and individuals interested in ending cancer through research [61] Australian Cancer Research Foundation Unknown Yes
.capital financial firms Donuts[donuts 13] Yes Yes
.car Cars Registry Limited [46]
.cards general Donuts[donuts 14] Yes Yes
.care healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 15] Yes Yes
.career dotCareer LLC Yes Yes
.careers Employment Donuts[donuts 16] Yes Yes
.cars Automotive Uniregistry Yes Yes
.case CNH Industrial N.V.[46]
.cash financial Donuts[donuts 17] Yes Yes
.casino casinos Donuts Yes Yes
.catering Food service Donuts[donuts 18] Yes Yes
.catholic Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[46]
.center general Donuts[donuts 19] Yes Yes
.cern CERN CERN Unknown Unknown
.ceo CEOs [62] CEOTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.cfd DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD[46]
.channel Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.chat online chat Donuts Yes Yes
.cheap Resellers Donuts[donuts 20] Yes Yes
.christmas Christmas Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.church churches Donuts[donuts 21] Yes Yes
.cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl [46]
.circle Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.city general Donuts[donuts 22] Yes Yes
.claims retail, auctions Donuts[donuts 23] Yes Yes
.cleaning Cleaning services Donuts[donuts 24] Yes Yes
.click Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.clinic healthcare clinics Donuts[donuts 25] Yes Yes
.clothing Apparel Donuts[donuts 26] Yes Yes
.cloud Aruba S.p.A.
.club groups, organizations, assemblies, communities, general [63] .CLUB DOMAINS Yes[64] Yes
.coach travel (flights and motor coaches) Donuts Yes Yes
.codes computer and/or encryption code enthusiasts Donuts[donuts 27] Yes Yes
.coffee cafés and coffee aficionados Donuts[donuts 28] Yes Yes
.college Educational XYZ.com Yes Yes
.community social groups, neighborhoods Donuts[donuts 29] Yes Yes
.company business associations Donuts[donuts 30] Yes Yes
.compare iSelect Ltd [46]
.computer Technology Donuts[donuts 31] Yes Yes
.condos Real estate Donuts[donuts 32] Yes Yes
.construction Construction industry Donuts[donuts 33] Yes Yes
.consulting hired advisors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.contact Top Level Spectrum, Inc.[46]
.contractors Remodeling and independent businesses Donuts[donuts 34] Yes Yes
.cooking sharing recipes Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.cool General interests Donuts[donuts 35] Yes Yes
.coop cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. DotCooperation No Yes
.country general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.coupon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.coupons coupons Donuts Yes Yes
.courses OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[46]
.credit Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 36] Yes Yes
.creditcard Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 37] Yes Yes
.cruise Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.[46]
.cricket cricket Famous Four Media[ffm 1] Unknown Yes
.cruises cruise businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 38] Yes Yes

D[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.dad families Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.dance Dance studios and companies Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.data Dish DBS Corporation [46]
.date online dating Unknown Yes
.dating online dating Donuts[donuts 39] Yes Yes
.day general Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.deal Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.deals online shopping and couponing Donuts[donuts 40] Yes Yes
.degree general Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.delivery general Donuts[donuts 41] Yes Yes
.democrat Democratic Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.dental dentists Donuts[donuts 42] Yes Yes
.dentist dentists Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.design graphic art and fashion Top Level Design Yes Yes
.dev development - Google Unknown Yes
.diamonds diamond and jewelry industry Donuts[donuts 43] Yes Yes
.diet Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.digital general Donuts[donuts 44] Yes Yes
.direct general Donuts[donuts 45] Unknown Yes
.directory general directory Donuts[donuts 46] Yes Yes
.discount general Donuts[donuts 47] Yes Yes
.diy Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.docs Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.doctor Brice Trail, LLC[46]
.dog dog stores and owners Donuts Yes Yes
.domains domain registries Donuts[donuts 48] Yes Yes
.dot Dish DBS Corporation [46]
.download technology Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.drive Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.duck Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[46]

E[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.earth Interlink Co., Ltd.[46]
.eat restaurants and foodies Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.eco Sustainability minded companies, non-profits and professionals.[65] Open to anyone pledging a commitment to sustainability action.[66] Big Room Inc.[67] No Yes
.education educational institutes Donuts[donuts 49] Yes Yes
.email email Donuts[donuts 50] Yes Yes
.energy energy industry and marketing Donuts[donuts 51] Yes Yes
.engineer engineers and engineering firms Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.engineering engineering firms Donuts[donuts 52] Yes Yes
.enterprises business associations Donuts[donuts 53] Yes Yes
.equipment equipment-related businesses Donuts[donuts 54] Yes Yes
.esq lawyers, law firms, legal professionals To be restricted to verified lawyers and attorneys[68] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.estate real estate businesses Donuts[donuts 55] Yes Yes
.events happenings Donuts[donuts 56] Yes Yes
.exchange generic trade Donuts[donuts 57] Yes Yes
.expert generic expertise Donuts[donuts 58] Yes Yes
.exposed general interest Donuts[donuts 59] Yes Yes
.express shipping Donuts Yes Yes

F[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.fail general Donuts[donuts 60] Yes Yes
.faith religion and churches Unknown Yes
.family families Unknown Yes
.fan Asiamix Digital Ltd[46]
.fans general Unknown Yes
.farm farms and agriculture Donuts[donuts 61] Yes Yes
.fashion clothing industry Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fast Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.feedback Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.film Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd[46]
.final Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br[46]
.finance financial Donuts[donuts 62] Yes Yes
.financial financial Donuts[donuts 63] Yes Yes
.fire Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.fish fishing businesses, sports, and interests Donuts[donuts 64] Yes Yes
.fishing fishing businesses, sports, and interests Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fit Fitness and exercise Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.fitness Fitness and exercise Donuts[donuts 65] Yes Yes
.flights airline businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 66] Yes Yes
.florist florists Donuts[donuts 67] Yes Yes
.flowers florists and gardens Uniregistry Yes Yes
.fly travel To be restricted to verified airlines, travel agencies and travel resellers[69] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.foo web development [70] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.food Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.foodnetwork Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.football soccer and American football Donuts Yes Yes
.forsale online retail Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.forum Fegistry, LLC[46]
.foundation charitable organizations Donuts[donuts 68] Yes Yes
.free Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.frontdoor Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.fun Radix Registry Unknown Unknown
.fund financial Donuts[donuts 69] Yes Yes
.furniture furniture businesses Donuts[donuts 70] Yes Yes
.fyi "for your information" Donuts Yes Yes

G[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.gallery photo and art galleries Donuts[donuts 71] Yes Yes
.game Uniregistry, Corp.[46]
.games United TLD Holdco Ltd.[46]
.garden gardening Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.gdn none, anyone GDN Registry Unknown Unknown
.gift gift-giving Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.gifts gift-giving Donuts[donuts 72] Yes Yes
.gives charities and gift-giving Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.glass window sales and repairs Donuts[donuts 73] Yes Yes
.global general Dot GLOBAL Yes Yes
.gold gold and luxury Donuts Unknown Yes
.golf golf Donuts Yes Yes
.gop Republican Party politics Republican State Leadership Committee Spanish[71] Yes
.graphics graphics Donuts[donuts 74] Yes Yes
.green the environmentally-focused "As a Registrant you may not ... use a .green name or its content in a way that negatively affects the mission, purpose of the .green TLD, or its brand."[72] Afilias Unknown Yes
.gripe opinion sites Donuts[donuts 75] Yes Yes
.grocery Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.[46]
.group Romeo Town, LLC[46]
.guide help sites Donuts[donuts 76] Yes Yes
.guitars Guitars Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.guru generic expertise Donuts[donuts 77] Yes[73] Yes

H[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.hair L'Oreal[46]
.hangout Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.health DotHealth, LLC[46]
.healthcare healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 78] Unknown Yes
.help help sites Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.here generic geographic Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.hiphop Hip hop culture Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.hiv AIDS and HIV dotHIV Unknown Yes
.hockey hockey Donuts Yes Yes
.holdings real estate or financial business Donuts[donuts 79] Yes Yes
.holiday holiday gift industry Donuts[donuts 80] Yes Yes
.homegoods The TJX Companies, Inc.[46]
.homes real estate professionals Dominion Enterprises Unknown Yes
.homesense The TJX Companies, Inc.[46]
.horse horse-related businesses and interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.hospital Ruby Pike, LLC [46]
.host network companies Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.hosting Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.hot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.hotels Booking.com B.V.[46]
.house real estate and construction businesses Donuts[donuts 81] Yes Yes
.how how-to guides Google[n 2] Unknown Yes

I[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.ice IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.[46]
.icu entrepreneurs and business owners ShortDot SA
.industries industrial businesses Donuts[donuts 82] Yes Yes
.info information Afilias German[9] Yes
.ing Verbal suffix: e.g., "jump.ing". Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[74] Top Level Design Yes Yes
.institute[75] Donuts[donuts 83] Yes Yes
.insurance fTLD Registry Services LLC[46]
.insure Insurance companies Donuts[donuts 84] Yes Yes
.international international entities Donuts[donuts 85] Yes Yes
.investments financial Donuts[donuts 86] Yes Yes

J, K[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.jewelry jewelry stores Donuts Yes Yes
.jobs Employment For websites with job opportunities and job listings.[76] Employ Media No Yes
.joy Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.kim Kim (Korean surname) Afilias Unknown Yes
.kitchen food industry and remodeling Donuts[donuts 87] Yes Yes

L[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.land real estate Donuts[donuts 88] Yes Yes
.latino Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.law Restricted to qualified lawyers, courts of law, law schools, and legal regulators.[77] Minds + Machines Group Limited[46]
.lawyer lawyers and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.lease financing Donuts[donuts 89] Yes Yes
.legal lawyers and legal organizations Donuts Yes Yes
.lgbt the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community "Registrants are prohibited from using the .LGBT domain in a manner that is harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, defamatory, or hateful with respect to the LGBT community."[78] Afilias Unknown Yes
.life general Donuts[donuts 90] Yes Yes
.lifeinsurance American Council of Life Insurers[46]
.lighting lighting Donuts[donuts 91] Yes Yes
.like Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.limited general Donuts[donuts 92] Yes Yes
.limo limousine businesses Donuts[donuts 93] Yes Yes
.link connecting to information[79] Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.live United TLD Holdco Ltd.[46]
.living Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.loan banks and lenders Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.loans banks and lenders Donuts[donuts 94] Yes Yes
.locker Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.lol LOL: laughing out loud Uniregistry[80] Unknown Yes
.lotto Afilias Unknown Yes
.love dating sites Unknown Yes
.ltd Donuts Unknown Yes
.luxury businesses catering to the wealthy Luxury Partners Yes Yes

M[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.makeup L'Oréal[46]
.management business management Donuts[donuts 95] Yes Yes
.map Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.market marketing services and retailers Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.marketing marketing services Donuts[donuts 96] Yes Yes
.markets financial and stock markets IG Group Unknown Yes
.mba Masters in Business Administration Donuts Yes Yes
.med Medistry LLC [46]
.media general media interests Donuts[donuts 97] Yes Yes
.meet social gatherings, meeting new people Afilias Unknown Yes
.meme Internet memes Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.memorial memorial sites Donuts Yes Yes
.men men Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.menu restaurants Wedding TLD2 Yes Yes
.mint Intuit Administrative Services, Inc.[46]
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. Afilias Yes Yes
.mobile Dish DBS Corporation [46]
.mobily GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[46]
.moe Japanese otaku culture; see moe (slang) Interlink Yes Yes
.mom Uniregistry, Corp.[46]
.money financial Donuts Yes Yes
.mortgage mortgage lenders Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.motorcycles motorcycles DERMotorcycles Unknown Yes
.mov Digital video Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.movie movies and cinemas Donuts Yes Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Museum Domain Management Association Latin script[9] Yes
.music Music dissemination and appreciation Under contention

N, O[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.name individuals, by name Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Verisign Yes[9] Yes
.navy defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.network general Donuts[donuts 98] Yes Yes
.new general Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.news news sites Unknown Yes
.ngo Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ong.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.ninja general expertise Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.now Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.observer news organizations Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
.off Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[46]
.one general .one (top-level domain) Unknown Yes
.ong Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ngo.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.onl short for "online" I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.online generic Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.ooo general Infibeam No Yes
.open American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.[46]
.organic organic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc. Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[81] Afilias Unknown Yes
.origins The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.[46]

P, Q[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.page Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.partners businesses Donuts[donuts 99] Yes Yes
.parts manufacturing and consumer auto Donuts[donuts 100] Yes Yes
.party nightclubs and social gatherings Famous Four Media[ffm 2] Unknown Yes
.pay Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.pet Afilias plc[46]
.pharmacy pharmacies "All registrants within the .pharmacy gTLD are vetted prior to registration to confirm that they meet all applicable regulatory standards, including pharmacy licensure and valid prescription requirements, in the jurisdictions where they are based and where they serve patients."[82] National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Unknown Yes
.phone Dish DBS Corporation [46]
.photo photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.photography photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 101] Yes Yes
.photos photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 102] Yes Yes
.physio physical therapists Must be eligible for membership within an association that is a member of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, have proper training as a physical therapist outside WCPT's reach, or otherwise supports physical therapy.[83][84] PhysBiz Unknown Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.pictures photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 103] Yes Yes
.pid Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.pin Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.pink those who like the color pink Afilias Yes Yes
.pizza pizza parlors Donuts[donuts 104] Yes Yes
.place general Donuts[donuts 105] Yes Yes
.plumbing plumbing businesses Donuts[donuts 106] Yes Yes
.plus generic Donuts Yes Yes
.poker Poker players and sites Afilias[n 4] Unknown Yes
.porn adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[85] Universal Postal Union No[86] Yes
.press publishing and journalism Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.prime Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.pro professions/professionals Registry Services Corporation No Yes
.productions studio/art businesses Donuts[donuts 107] Yes Yes
.prof Professors, teachers and learning Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.promo Afilias plc[46]
.properties real estate Donuts[donuts 108] Yes Yes
.property real estate Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.protection XYZ.COM LLC[46]
.pub bars and pubs Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.qpon coupons dotCOOL Unknown Yes

R[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.racing racing Famous Four Media Unknown Yes
.radio European Broadcasting Union (EBU)[46]
.read Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.realestate dotRealEstate LLC[46]
.realtor realtors To be restricted to members of the National Association of Realtors and the Canadian Real Estate Association, and related associations.[87] Real Estate Domains Unknown Yes
.realty Fegistry, LLC[46]
.recipes recipes and cooking Donuts[donuts 109] Yes Yes
.red those who like the color red[88]
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Afilias Yes Yes
.rehab Rehab centers and support sites Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.reit real estate investment trusts Restricted to REITs, as determined by national law.[89] National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts Unknown Yes
.ren Renren users (ren means "people/person" in Mandarin Chinese pinyin) Restricted TLD[90] Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co. Unknown Yes
.rent Real estate professionals and small businesses xyz.xyz Unknown Yes
.rentals short-term ownership Donuts[donuts 110] Yes Yes
.repair general repair/maintenance businesses Donuts[donuts 111] Yes Yes
.report business services Donuts[donuts 112] Yes Yes
.republican Republican Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rest Restaurants and related industry Punto 2012 Yes[91] Yes
.restaurant restaurants Donuts[donuts 113] Yes Yes
.review public reviews Unknown Yes
.reviews public reviews Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.rip memorial sites[92] Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rocks general Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rodeo Rodeo interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.room Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.rugby World Rugby Strategic Developments Limited [46]
.run running and jogging Donuts Yes Yes

S[edit]

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.safe Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.sale retail Unknown Yes
.save Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.scholarships scholarship related Scholarships.com[93]