List of Muisca and pre-Muisca sites

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List of Muisca and pre-Muisca sites is located in the Altiplano Cundiboyacense
A
A
Ti
Ti
Su
Su
Te
Te
C
C
Ag
Ag
Sa
Sa
H
H
I
I
ST
ST
CZ
CZ
Important pre-Muisca sites on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense
White pog.svg Rock shelters
Lightgreen pog.svg Open area settlements
Yellow pog.svg Constructed sites
A - El Abra
Ti - Tibitó
Su - Sueva
Te - Tequendama
C - Checua/Nemocón
Ag - Aguazuque
Sa - Sáchica
H - Lake Herrera
I - El Infiernito
ST - Sun Temple
CZ - Cojines del Zaque

This is a list of Muisca and pre-Muisca archaeological sites; sites on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, where archaeological evidence has been discovered of the Muisca and their ancestors of the Herrera, preceramic and prehistorical periods.

Over the course of the centuries and mainly in the 21st century, many sites with evidences of Muisca and pre-Muisca presence have been found and reported.[1][2][3][4][5]

The possibly oldest evidence of human settlement in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes has been discovered just west of the former Muisca territories, at Pubenza in Tocaima, Cundinamarca. Eight stone tools have been found with bone remains, consisting of among others Haplomastodon and turtles, which have been dated at 16,400 ± 420 years BP. Due to the location at an inundated platform, it is unclear if the bones and thus age were in situ.[6]

Background[edit]

Stage Start age End age
Prehistory
10,000
Preceramic
10,000
2800
Herrera
2800
1200
Muisca
1200
479
Colonial period
479
206
Colombia
206

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense, with its valleys of Sogamoso-Duitama, Tunja and Ubaté-Chiquinquirá and the southeastern flatlands of the Bogotá savanna, as well as the Tenza Valley to the east, was inhabited for 12,000 years by indigenous peoples. At the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, the area of approximately 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi) was populated by the Muisca, organised in a loose confederation; the Muisca Confederation.

While various classifications of the archaeological history of the Andean high plateau exist,[7] the most commonly accepted sequence, in years BP, is shown to the right.

Timeline of inhabitation[edit]

Timeline of inhabitation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia
TequendamaAguazuquePiedras del Tunjo Archaeological ParkGalindo, BojacáBD BacatáLake HerreraChía (Cundinamarca)ZipaquiráEl AbraChecuaTibitóSuevaEl InfiernitoHistory of ColombiaSpanish EmpireSpanish conquest of the MuiscaMuisca peopleHerrera PeriodMuisca Confederation#PrehistoryBochicaMuisca mummificationCeramicAndean preceramicMuisca agricultureHunter-gatherer
Altiplano Cundiboyacense.png

Altiplano

Mapa del Territorio Muisca.svg

Muisca Confederation

Altiplano Cundiboyacense (subdivisions).png


List of Muisca and pre-Muisca sites[edit]

Site name Image Municipality Department Start End Oldest date
years BP
Finds Notes Map
El Abra
Alb.jpg
Zipaquirá Cundinamarca Prehistory Herrera 12,560 Rock art
Stone tools
[1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Zipaquirá.svg
Tibitó Tocancipá Cundinamarca Prehistory Herrera 11,850 Stone & bone tools
Carbon
[1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tocancipá.svg
Sueva Junín Cundinamarca Prehistory Herrera 11,180 Rock shelter [1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Junín.svg
Tequendama Soacha Cundinamarca Prehistory Spanish conquest 11,120 Stone tools
Domestication of guinea pigs
[1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Soacha.svg
Piedras del Tunjo
Facatativá - Piedras del Tunjo.JPG
Facatativá Cundinamarca Prehistory or
Preceramic
Muisca unknown Rock art
Stone tools
[3]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Facatativá.svg
Galindo Bojacá Cundinamarca Preceramic Herrera 8800 Open area settlement [1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Bojacá.svg
Checua Nemocón Cundinamarca Preceramic Herrera 8500 Stone tools [1][8]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Nemocón.svg
Nemocón Cundinamarca Preceramic 7630 Rock shelter
Main salt producing town
[1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Nemocón.svg
Piedra del Indio
Chía I-VIII
Moon Temple
Chía Cundinamarca Preceramic 5140 Rock art
Burial site
Religious place
[1][9]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Chía.svg
Zipaquirá Cundinamarca Preceramic 5140 Main salt producing town [1][10]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Zipaquirá.svg
Aguazuque Soacha Cundinamarca Preceramic Herrera 4065 Stone tools
Burial grounds
Human remains
Guinea pigs, deer
[1][11]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Soacha.svg
Lake Herrera Madrid
Mosquera
Bojacá
Cundinamarca Preceramic Herrera 3410 Stone tools
Ceramics
[12]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Madrid.svg
SO10-IX
Muisca mummy - Museo del Oro, Bogotá.jpg
Sativanorte Boyacá Preceramic Preceramic 3386 Muisca mummy [13]
Colombia - Boyaca - Sativanorte.svg
Zipacón Cundinamarca Preceramic 3270 Rock shelter
Rock art
Oldest agriculture
[1]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Zipacón.svg
El Infiernito
Villa de Leyva el infiernito.jpg
Villa de Leyva Boyacá Preceramic Muisca 2975 Archaeoastronomical site
Muisca mummy
[14][15]
Colombia - Boyaca - Villa de Leyva.svg
Muisca raft - detail - Museo del Oro, Bogotá.jpg
Pasca Cundinamarca Herrera 1400 Muisca raft [16]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Pasca.svg
Buenavista Boyacá Herrera 1396 Nose piece and pectoral
dated at 620 & 990 AD
[17]
Colombia - Boyaca - Buenavista.svg
Suesca Cundinamarca Muisca 150 Muisca mummies
Petrographs
Ceramics
[2][3][4]
[5][14]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Suesca.svg
Gachantivá Boyacá Muisca Muisca mummy
Muisca copper mines
[18][19][14]
Colombia - Boyaca - Gachantiva.svg
Gachancipá Cundinamarca Muisca Muisca mummy [14]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Gachancipá.svg
Ubaté Cundinamarca Muisca Muisca mummy [14]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Ubaté.svg
BICOLOR.jpg
Tenjo Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tenjo.svg
Piedra del diablo pictografia cumaca.JPG
Tibacuy Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tibacuy.svg
Jeroglíficos Berbeo 02.JPG
Berbeo Boyacá Muisca Petroglyphs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Berbeo.svg
Sachica rupestre.JPG
Sáchica Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Sachica.svg
Ocetá Páramo
Muisca Petroglyphs - Páramo de Ocetá.jpg
Monguí Boyacá Muisca Petroglyphs
Birth sites
Myths
[20]
Colombia - Boyaca - Mongui.svg
Payará Tausa Cundinamarca [21]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tausa.svg
Choachí Cundinamarca Muisca Choachí Stone [22]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Choachí.svg
La Calera Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - La Calera.svg
Chipaque Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Chipaque.svg
Cogua Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Cogua.svg
Cota Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Cota.svg
Cucunubá Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Cucunubá.svg
Guachetá Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Guachetá.svg
Guasca Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Guasca.svg
Guatavita Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Guatavita.svg
Machetá Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Machetá.svg
Madrid Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Madrid.svg
Mosquera Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Mosquera.svg
San Antonio
del Tequendama
Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - San Antonio del Tequendama.svg
San Francisco Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - San Francisco.svg
Sibaté Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Sibaté.svg
Subachoque Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Subachoque.svg
Tena Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tena.svg
Tibiritá Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tibirita.svg
Tocancipá Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Tocancipá.svg
Une Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Cundinamarca - Une.svg
Bosa Cundinamarca Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Bogotá - Bosa.svg
Usme Cundinamarca Muisca Muisca mummy
Petrographs
[2][3][4]
[5][14]
Bogotá - Usme.svg
Boavita Boyacá Muisca Muisca mummy [14]
Colombia - Boyaca - Boavita.svg
Tasco Boyacá Muisca Muisca mummy [14]
Colombia - Boyaca - Tasco.svg
Tópaga Boyacá Muisca Muisca mummy [14]
Colombia - Boyaca - Topaga.svg
Gámeza Boyacá Muisca Muisca mummy
Petrographs
[2][3][4]
[5][14]
Colombia - Boyaca - Gameza.svg
Belén Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Belen.svg
Iza Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Iza.svg
Mongua Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Mongua.svg
Motavita Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Motavita.svg
Ramiriquí Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Ramiriqui.svg
Saboyá Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Saboya.svg
Tibaná Boyacá Muisca Petrographs [2][3][4][5]
Colombia - Boyaca - Tibana.svg
Sutamarchán Boyacá Muisca Muisca ceramics production [19]
Colombia - Boyaca - Sutamarchan.svg
Tinjacá Boyacá Muisca Muisca ceramics production [19]
Colombia - Boyaca - Tinjaca.svg
Sun Temple
Templo del sol.jpg
Sogamoso Boyacá Muisca September 1537 Most important Muisca temple [23]
Colombia - Boyaca - Sogamoso.svg
Cojines del Zaque
Cojines del Zaque. Vista actual (2015).JPG
Tunja Boyacá Muisca Early colonial Religious place [24]
Colombia - Boyaca - Tunja.svg
Hunzahúa Well Tunja Boyacá Muisca Early colonial Mythological place [25]
Colombia - Boyaca - Tunja.svg
Goranchacha Temple Tunja Boyacá Muisca Early colonial Temple of Goranchacha [26]
Colombia - Boyaca - Tunja.svg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Caracterización de los sitios arqueológicos Sabana de Bogotá - ICANH
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Muñoz Castiblanco, 2006, p.10
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Martínez & Botiva, 2004a
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai López Estupiñán, 2011
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Martínez & Botiva, 2004b, p.15
  6. ^ Aceituno & Rojas, 2012, p.128
  7. ^ N.N., s.a.
  8. ^ Groot de Mahecha, 1992, p.7
  9. ^ Muñoz Castiblanco, 2013
  10. ^ Groot de Mahecha, 2008
  11. ^ Correal Urrego, 1990
  12. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Colombia Prehispánica - V. La Altiplanicie Cundiboyacense
  13. ^ Martínez et al., 2010
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Valverde, 2007, p.280
  15. ^ Silva Celis, 1981, p.12
  16. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Official website Pasca
  17. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Official website Buenavista
  18. ^ Martínez & Martínez, 2012
  19. ^ a b c Ocampo López, 2007
  20. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Objeciones del páramo más lindo del mundo - Universidad Sergio Arboleda
  21. ^ Groot de Mahecha, 1992, p.5
  22. ^ Izquierdo Peña, 2009, p.87
  23. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Temple of the Sun - Sogamoso - Pueblos Originarios
  24. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Archaeology of the Cojines del Zaque Archived 2016-06-02 at the Wayback Machine - Banco de la República
  25. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Hunzahúa Well - Pueblos Originarios
  26. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Goranchacha - Pueblos Originarios

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]