There are currently 315 American, Canadian, and Puerto Rican colleges and universities classified as Division II for NCAA competition. During the 2019–20 academic year, 4 schools are in the process of reclassifying to Division II. Forty-four of the 50 U.S. states, plus the District of Columbia, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Canadian province of British Columbia are represented. Arizona, Louisiana, Maine, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Wyoming do not currently have D-II institutions.
The reclassification process from one NCAA division to another requires four years, except for moves to Division II. Moves from Division III to Division II require three years, and moves from Division I to Division II require two years.
The NCAA does not conduct separate Division II championships in the following sports:
Men: Gymnastics, ice hockey, volleyball, water polo (note, however, that no Division II member currently sponsors men's gymnastics)
Women: Beach volleyball, bowling, gymnastics, ice hockey, water polo
Coeducational: Fencing, rifle, skiing
Some schools have opted to compete in a sport at a higher level and are allowed to do so by the NCAA under certain circumstances. First, when the NCAA placed severe restrictions on the fielding of Division I teams by Division II institutions in 2011, it grandfathered in all then-current D-I teams at D-II schools. Apart from this, Division II members are allowed to compete for Division I championships in sports in which a Division II national championship is not contested.
In some sports, the NCAA only sponsors championships open to all member schools regardless of division, with examples including beach volleyball, fencing, rifle, and water polo. In men's and women's ice hockey and men's volleyball, the NCAA holds Division III championships, but does not hold a separate D-II championship. The NCAA officially classifies all championship events that are open to schools from more than one division as "National Collegiate", except in men's ice hockey, in which the top-level championship is styled as a Division I championship. Division II members are allowed to compete for National Collegiate championships as well as the Division I men's ice hockey championship; in all such sports, they are allowed to operate under the same rules and scholarship restrictions that apply to full Division I members in that sport.
The Northeast-10 sponsors men's ice hockey for its members who choose to remain in D-II, including a postseason tournament. The conference formerly sponsored a women's ice hockey postseason tournament for those teams remaining in D-II but compete as independents during the regular season, but that tournament has since been superseded by the New England Women's Hockey Alliance (NEWHA), a scheduling agreement between all of the existing women's National Collegiate independents (including full D-I member Sacred Heart). The NEWHA began play in 2017, and organized as a full conference in 2018; it is seeking recognition from the NCAA as a conference for 2019–20 and beyond. Because the NE-10 is the sole Division II hockey league, its postseason champion cannot compete for the NCAA national hockey championship. The Post University men's team competes as D-II and has a scheduling alliance with the NE-10 schools, while its women's team is a member of the NEWHA.
Future conference affiliations indicated in this list will take effect on July 1 of the stated year. In the case of spring sports, the first year of competition will take place in the calendar year after the conference move becomes official.
The following is a list of Division II institutions currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports. Probation decisions are made by the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Committee on Infractions.