List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Cambridge

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Senate House, the University of Cambridge. As of October 2018, 117 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university.

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Cambridge comprehensively shows the alumni, faculty members as well as researchers of the University of Cambridge who were awarded the Nobel Prize or the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes, established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, are awarded to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine.[1] An associated prize, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics), was instituted by Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.[2]

As of October 2018, 117 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University of Cambridge, and 107 of them are officially listed as "Cambridge's Nobel Laureates" by the university for being "alumni; academics who carried out research at the University in postdoctoral or faculty positions; and official appointments (visiting fellowships, lectureships, etc.)".[3] Among the 117 laureates, 69 are Cambridge alumni (graduates and attendees), and 44 have been long-term academic members of the university faculty or Cambridge-affiliated research organisations. Subject-wise, 34 laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, more than any other subject. In particular, Frederick Sanger received two Nobel Prizes in Chemistry, in 1958 and in 1980; since this is a list of laureates, not prizes, he is counted only once.[4][5]

Inclusion criteria[edit]

General rules[edit]

The University of Cambridge

The university affiliations in this list are all official academic affiliations such as degree programs and official academic employment. Non-academic affiliations such as advisory committee and administrative staff are generally excluded. The official academic affiliations fall into three categories: 1) Alumni (graduates and attendees), 2) Long-term Academic Staff, and 3) Short-term Academic Staff. Graduates are defined as those who hold Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate, or equivalent degrees from the University of Cambridge, while attendees are those who formally enrolled in a degree program at Cambridge but did not complete the program; thus, honorary degrees, posthumous degrees, summer attendees, exchange students, and auditing students are excluded. The category of "Long-term Academic Staff" consists of tenure/tenure-track and equivalent academic positions, while that of "Short-term Academic Staff" consists of lecturers (without tenure), postdoctoral researchers (postdocs), visiting professors/scholars (visitors), and equivalent academic positions. At University of Cambridge, the specific academic title solely determines the type of affiliation, regardless of the actual time the position was held by a laureate.

Further explanations on "visitors" under "Short-term Academic Staff" are presented as follows. 1) All informal or personal visits are excluded from the list; 2) all employment-based visiting positions, which carry teaching/research duties, are included as affiliations in the list; 3) as for award/honor-based visiting positions, to minimise controversy this list takes a conservative view and includes the positions as affiliations only if the laureates were required to assume employment-level duty (teaching/research) or the laureates specifically classified the visiting positions as "affiliation" or similar in reliable sources such as their curriculum vita. In particular, attending meetings and giving public lectures, talks or non-curricular seminars at University of Cambridge is not a form of employment-level duty. Finally, summer visitors are generally excluded from the list unless summer work yielded significant end products such as research publications and components of Nobel-winning work, since summer terms are not part of formal academic years.

The official Fellows at various Colleges of Cambridge University are long-term academic staff with teaching/research duties.[6][7] They are thus included in this list. On the contrary, the "Overseas Fellowship" in Churchill College and other similar visiting/honorary fellowships at the Colleges are award/honor-based visiting positions without employment-level duty, which are generally excluded from the list.[8][9][10]

Affiliated organisations[edit]

The Cavendish Laboratory is a part of the University of Cambridge, and thus its affiliated Nobel laureates are included in the list.[11][12]

The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology (MRC LMB) traces its root to a research unit within the Cavendish Laboratory of University of Cambridge.[13] On 28 May 1962, however, the research unit officially moved out of the Cavendish lab to become a relatively independent department from the university.[13][14][15][16][17] Thus, affiliates of MRC LMB are generally not counted as affiliates of the university starting 28 May 1962.[18]

Some of the Nobel Laureates of MRC LMB (but not of the university)
Name Noble Prize Year Affiliation with MRC LMB
Arieh Warshel Chemistry 2013 EMBO Fellow (1974–1975)[18][19][20]
Roger Kornberg Chemistry 2006 Postdoctoral Researcher (1972–1975)[18]
Andrew Fire Physiology or Medicine 2006 Postdoctoral Researcher (1983–1986)[18]
Robert Horvitz Physiology or Medicine 2002 Postdoctoral Researcher (1974–1978)[21]
Michael Smith Chemistry 1993 Visiting Researcher (1975–1976)[18]
Sidney Altman Chemistry 1989 Visiting Researcher (1969–1971)[18]
Georges Köhler Physiology or Medicine 1984 EMBO Fellow (1974–1976)[22]

Nobel laureates by category[edit]

Nobel laureates in Physics[edit]

Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
Duncan Haldane 2016 B.A. in Natural Sciences (1973) and Ph.D. in Physics (1978)[23][24]
John M. Kosterlitz 2016 B.A. (1965), M.A. (1966)[25]
David Thouless 2016 B.A. (1955); Lecturer (1961–1965)[26][27]
Norman Ramsey 1989 B.A. (1937), M.A. (1941), D.Sc. (1953)[28]
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 1983 Ph.D. (1933); Fellow, Trinity College (1933–1937)[29]
William A. Fowler 1983 Guggenheim Fellow (1954–1955 and 1961–1962); Visitor (1964) [30]
Abdus Salam 1979 B.A. (1949), Ph.D. (1952); Fellow, St. John's College (1951–1956); Lecturer (1954–1956)[31]
Pyotr Kapitsa 1978 Ph.D. (1926); Assistant Director of Magnetic Research at Cavendish Laboratory (1924–1932)[32]
Philip W. Anderson 1977 Professor of Physics (1967–1975)[33]
Nevill Mott 1977 B.S. (1927), M.S. (1930); Professor of Physics[34][35]
Antony Hewish 1974 B.A., Ph.D. (1952); Professor of Radio Astronomy (1971–1989); University Lecturer (1961–1969)[36]
Martin Ryle 1974 Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[37]
Ivar Giaever 1973 Guggenheim Fellow (1969–1970)[38][39]
Brian Josephson 1973 B.A. (1960), M.A., Ph.D. (1964); Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[40]
Murray Gell-Mann 1969 Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (Spring 1966)[41]
Hans Bethe 1967 Rockefeller Fellow (1930–1931); Visiting Professor (1955–1956)[42]
Max Born 1954 Researcher, Cavendish Laboratory (1906–1907); Stokes Lecturer of Physics (1933–1936)[43]
John Cockcroft 1951 B.A. (1924), Ph.D. (1928); Fellow, St. John's College; Professor[44]
Ernest Walton 1951 Ph.D. (1931)[45]
Cecil Powell 1950 B.A. (1925), Ph.D. (1927)[46]
Patrick Blackett 1948 B.A. (1921); Research student (1921–1923); Fellow, King's College[47]
Edward V. Appleton 1947 B.A. (1913), M.A. (1914); Professor[48]
George P. Thomson 1937 B.A.; Professor; Fellow and Lecturer, Corpus Christi College[49]
James Chadwick 1935 Ph.D. (1921); Fellow (1921–1935) and Master (1948–1962), Gonville and Caius College[50]
Paul Dirac 1933 Ph.D. (1926); Fellow, St. John's College; Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (1932–1969)[51]
Owen Richardson 1928 B.A. (1900), M.A. (1904); Fellow, Trinity College[52][53]
Arthur Compton 1927 National Research Council (NRC) Fellow (1919–1920)[54]
Charles T. R. Wilson 1927 B.A. (1892); Professor[55]
Niels Bohr 1922 Postdoctoral Researcher (1911–1912)[56]
Charles Barkla 1917 Researcher in Cavendish Laboratory (1899–1900)[57]
Lawrence Bragg 1915 B.A. (1912), Ph.D.; Professor[58]
William H. Bragg 1915 B.A. (1885); Researcher[59]
J. J. Thomson 1906 B.A.; Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[60]
Lord Rayleigh 1904 B.A. (1865); Fellow, Trinity College; Professor[61]

Nobel laureates in Chemistry[edit]

Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
Greg Winter 2018 B.A (1973), PhD (1976); Fellow, Trinity College; Postdoctoral Researcher[62]
Joachim Frank 2017 Senior Research Assistant (1973–1975)[63]
Richard Henderson 2017 PhD (1969); Fellow, Darwin College[64]
Michael Levitt 2013 PhD (1971)[65]
Venki Ramakrishnan 2009 Fellow, Trinity College[66]
Thomas Steitz[Note 1] 2009 MRC LMB Postdoctoral Researcher (1967–1970)[Note 1][18][67][68]
Roger Tsien 2008 PhD (1977); Postdoctoral Researcher[69]
Richard Schrock 2005 Postdoctoral Researcher[70]
Alan MacDiarmid 2000 PhD (1955)[71]
John Pople 1998 B.A (1946), PhD (1951); Lecturer[72]
John E. Walker 1997 Director of the Medical Research Council (MRC) Mitochondria Biology Unit (MBU)[73]
Jean-Marie Lehn 1987 Alexander Todd Visiting Professor of Chemistry (1984)[74][75]
Aaron Klug 1982 PhD (1953); Professor[76]
Walter Gilbert 1980 PhD (1957)[77]
Frederick Sanger* 1980 B.A (1939), PhD; Professor[5] (*Another Nobel Chemistry Prize in 1958)
Peter D. Mitchell 1978 B.A, PhD (1951); Demonstrator (1950–1955)[78]
Stanford Moore 1972 Visitor (6 months)[79]
Luis Leloir 1970 Researcher (1936)[80][81]
Lars Onsager 1968 Fulbright Scholar (1951–1952)[82][83]
Ronald Norrish 1967 B.A, PhD; Professor[84]
George Porter 1967 PhD (1949); Fellow, Emmanuel College[85][86]
Dorothy Hodgkin 1964 PhD (1937)[87]
John Kendrew 1962 B.A (1939), PhD (1949)[88]
Max Perutz 1962 PhD; Founder of MRC LMB[89]
Frederick Sanger* 1958 B.A (1939), PhD; Professor[5] (*Another Nobel Chemistry Prize in 1980)
Alexander R. Todd 1957 Professor; Fellow, Christ’s College[90]
Archer Martin 1952 B.A (1932)[91]
Richard Synge 1952 B.A (1936), PhD (1941)[92]
Francis Aston 1922 Fellow, Trinity College[93]
Fritz Haber 1918 Visitor (2 months, 1933), hosted by Sir William Pope[94][95]
Ernest Rutherford 1908 B.A (1897); Cavendish Professor of Physics[96]

Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine[edit]

Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
William Cecil Campbell 2015 Visiting Researcher (in the laboratory of Lawson Soulsby)[97]
John Gurdon 2012 Professor[98]
Robert G. Edwards 2010 Professor; Ford Research Fellow (1963)[99]
Elizabeth Blackburn 2009 PhD (1975)[100]
Martin Evans 2007 B.A (1963); Fellow, St Edmund's College[101]
Sydney Brenner 2002 Senior Fellow, King's College[102][103]
John Sulston 2002 B.A (1963), PhD (1966)[104]
Tim Hunt 2001 B.A (1964), PhD (1968)[105]
Paul Greengard 2000 Postdoctoral Researcher (1954-1955)[106]
Edward B. Lewis 1995 Rockefeller Fellow (1947–1948)[107]
César Milstein 1984 PhD (1960); Fellow, Darwin College[108][109]
Allan Cormack 1979 Graduate attendee (1947–1950)[110]
Rodney Porter 1972 PhD (1948)[111]
Gobind Khorana 1968 Postdoctoral Researcher (1950–1952)[112]
George Wald 1967 Guggenheim Fellow (1963–1964)[113][114][115]
André Lwoff 1965 Rockefeller Fellow (1936)[116]
Alan Hodgkin 1963 B.S (1936); Professor[117]
Andrew Huxley 1963 B.A (1938), M.A (1945); Research Fellow, Trinity College[118][119]
Francis Crick 1962 PhD; Founder of MRC LMB[120]
James Watson 1962 Researcher in Cavendish Laboratory (1951–1953)[121]
Maurice Wilkins 1962 B.A (1938)[122]
Hans A. Krebs 1953 Rockefeller Fellow (1933); Demonstrator of Biochemistry (1934)[123]
Ernst Chain 1945 Researcher (1933–1935)[124]
Howard Florey 1945 PhD (1927); Lecturer in Special Pathology[125]
Albert Szent-Györgyi 1937 PhD (1927)[126][127]
Henry H. Dale 1936 B.S (1903), M.D (1909)[128]
Edgar Adrian 1932 B.A (1911); Professor[129]
Charles Sherrington 1932 B.A (1885), M.B (1885)[130]
Frederick Hopkins 1929 Professor; Fellow and Tutor, Emmanuel College[131]
Archibald Hill 1922 B.A (1907); Professor[132]

Nobel Peace Prize laureates[edit]

Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
Kim Dae-jung 2000 Visiting Fellow, Clare Hall (January to June, 1993)[133][134]
Philip Noel-Baker 1959 B.A (1912), M.A[135]
Austen Chamberlain 1925 B.A, M.A[136][137]

Nobel laureates in Literature[edit]

Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
Mario Vargas Llosa 2010 Simón Bolívar Professor (1977–1978)[138]
Octavio Paz 1990 Simón Bolívar Professor (1969–1970)[139]
Joseph Brodsky 1987 Visiting Fellow and Poet-in-Residence, Clare Hall (1977–1978)[140][141]
Patrick White 1973 B.A (1935)[142]
Bertrand Russell 1950 B.A (1893); Lecturer, Trinity College[143]

Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics[edit]

Name Year Affiliation with University of Cambridge
William Nordhaus 2018 Senior Visitor (1970–1971)[144]
Oliver S. Hart 2016 B.A (1969); Assistant Lecturer and then Lecturer (1975–1980)[145]
Angus Deaton 2015 B.A (1967), PhD (1974); Overseas Fellow, Churchill College[146]
Peter Diamond 2010 Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (1965–1966)[147]
Eric Maskin 2007 Research Fellow, Jesus College (1976–77); Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (1980–82); Visiting Overseas Fellow, St. John's College (1987–88)[148]
Joseph Stiglitz 2001 Graduate attendee; Tapp Research Fellow (1966–1970)[149]
Amartya Sen 1998 B.A (1955), PhD (1959); Professor[150]
James Mirrlees 1996 PhD (1963); Professor; Lecturer[151]
Robert Fogel 1993 Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions (1975)[152]
Douglass North 1993 Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions (1981–1982)[153]
Richard Stone 1984 B.A (1935), M.A; Professor[154]
James Meade 1977 Professor; Senior Research Fellow, Christ’s College[155]
Milton Friedman 1976 Fulbright Scholar (1953–1954)[156]
Kenneth Arrow 1972 Overseas Fellow, Churchill College (1963, 1970, 1973, 1986)[157][158]
John Hicks 1972 Lecturer; Fellow, Gonville and Caius College (1935–1938)[159]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Although Thomas Steitz is known to have been affiliated with MRC LMB and LMB's affiliates are generally not counted as affiliates of the University starting 28 May 1962, he is included in this list for now because both the Nobel Prize official website and the University of Cambridge official count suggest he had connections with the University. However, Thomas Steitz may be excluded from the list in the future once the connections are confirmed to be unofficial.

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