List of presidents of the Republic of China

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This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present). The official Chinese name of the President changes by time.

Year Chinese Mandarin
Pinyin
Taiwanese
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳ
1912–1928 大總統 Dàzǒngtǒng Tōa-chóng-thóng Thai-chúng-thúng
1928–1947 國民政府主席 Guómín Zhèngfǔ Zhǔxí Kok-bîn Chèng-hú Chú-se̍k Koet-mìn Chṳn-fú Chú-si̍t
1947–present 總統 Zǒngtǒng Chóng-thóng Chúng-thúng

The Republic of China before 1949 controlled mainland China as well as offshore islands. In the fall of 1949 the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and surrounding islands as a result of the takeover of Mainland China by the People's Republic of China. The seat of government was moved to Taipei which retained recognition by the United Nations (to 25 October 1971), the United States (to 1 January 1979) and other Western countries in the context of the Cold War. The Republic of China since 1949, now usually known as Taiwan, has only controlled Taiwan and nearby islands. Martial law was ended in Taiwan in the 1980s and direct elections were introduced in 1996.

Timeline[edit]

Tsai Ing-wenMa Ying-jeouChen Shui-bianLee Teng-huiChiang Ching-kuoYen Chia-kanYan XishanLi ZongrenLin SenChiang Kai-shekTan YankaiZhang ZuolinV.K. Wellington KooDu XiguiYan HuiqingHu WeideDuan QiruiHuang FuCao KunGao LingweiZhou ZiqiXu ShichangFeng GuozhangLi YuanhongYuan ShikaiSun Yat-sen

List[edit]

Provisional Government:   Tongmenghui   Beiyang clique, etc.
Beiyang Government:   Beiyang clique, etc.   Progressive Party/Research Clique   Communications Clique
Nationalist to Constitutional Government:   Kuomintang (KMT)   Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)

Presidents of the Provisional Government[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Assembly
(elected)
1 孫中山先生.jpg Sun Yat-sen
孫文
(1866–1925)
1 January 1912 10 March 1912 Tongmenghui Li Yuanhong
(Nonpartisan)
Provisional (1911)
2 Yuan Shikai in uniform.jpg Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
(1859–1916)
10 March 1912 10 October 1913 Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
(Nonpartisan)
Provisional (1912)

Presidents of the Beiyang Government[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Assembly
(elected)
1 Yuan shikai.jpg Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
(1859–1916)
10 October 1913 6 June 1916[note 1][note 2] Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong
(Progressive)
1st (1913)
2 Li Yuan-hung.jpg Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
(1864–1928)
7 June 1916 17 July 1917[note 3][note 4] Progressive Party Feng Guozhang
(Zhili clique)
Feng Guozhang1.jpg Feng Guozhang
馮國璋
(1859–1919)
(acting)[note 5]
17 July 1917 10 October 1918 Zhili clique Vacant
3 Xu Shichang.jpg Xu Shichang
徐世昌
(1855–1939)
10 October 1918 2 June 1922[note 4] Anhui clique Vacant 2nd (1918)
Zhou Zi qi.jpg Zhou Ziqi
周自齊
(1871–1923)
(acting)[note 6]
2 June 1922 11 June 1922 Communications Clique Vacant
(2) Li Yuan-hong chopped.png Li Yuanhong
黎元洪
(1864–1928)
11 June 1922 13 June 1923[note 4] Research Clique Vacant
高凌霨.jpg Gao Lingwei
高凌霨
(1868–1939)
(acting)[note 7]
14 June 1923 10 October 1923 Zhili clique Vacant
4 Cao Kun.jpg Cao Kun
曹錕
(1862–1938)
10 October 1923 2 November 1924[note 4] Zhili clique Vacant 1st (1923)
Huang Fu 03 (cropped).JPG Huang Fu
黃郛
(1883–1936)
(acting)[note 6]
2 November 1924 24 November 1924 Nonpartisan Vacant
5 DuanQirui.jpg Duan Qirui[note 8]
段祺瑞
(1865–1936)
24 November 1924 20 April 1926[note 4] Anhui clique Vacant
Vacant
Hu Weide.jpg Hu Weide[note 9]
胡惟德
(1863–1933)
(acting)[note 6]
20 April 1926 13 May 1926 Zhili clique Vacant
Yan Huiqing.jpg Yan Huiqing
(W.W. Yan)

顏惠慶
(1877–1950)
(acting)[note 7]
13 May 1926 22 June 1926 Nonpartisan Vacant
Du Xigui.jpg Du Xigui
杜錫珪
(1875–1933)
(acting)[note 6]
22 June 1926 1 October 1926 Zhili clique Vacant
Gu Weijun.JPG V. S. Wellington Koo
顧維鈞
(1888–1985)
(acting)[note 7]
1 October 1926 17 June 1927[note 10] Nonpartisan Vacant
6 Zhang Zuolin3.jpg Zhang Zuolin[note 11]
張作霖
(1875–1928)
18 June 1927 4 June 1928[note 12] Fengtian clique Vacant

Chairmen of the Nationalist Government[edit]

Portrait Name[note 13]
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Assembly
(elected)
1 Tan Yankai.jpg Tan Yankai
譚延闓
(1880–1930)
7 February 1928 10 October 1928 Kuomintang 2nd National Congress of Kuomintang
(4th plenum)
2 Chiang 1.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
(1887–1975)
10 October 1928 15 December 1931[note 10] Kuomintang 2nd National Congress of Kuomintang
(5th plenum)
Lin Sen.jpg Lin Sen
林森
(1868–1943)
15 December 1931[note 14] 1 August 1943[note 2] Kuomintang
3 4th National Congress of Kuomintang
(1st plenum)
Chiang Kai-shek enhanced.jpg Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
(1887–1975)
1 August 1943[note 15] 20 May 1948 Kuomintang
4 5th National Congress of Kuomintang
(11th plenum)

Presidents after the 1947 Constitution[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Term
(elected)
1 蔣中正總統玉照.png Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
(1887–1975)
20 May 1948 21 January 1949[note 16] Kuomintang Li Zongren
(Kuomintang)
1 (1948)
Li Zongren4.jpg Li Zongren
李宗仁
(1890–1969)
(acting)[note 5]
21 January 1949 1 March 1950 Kuomintang Vacant
(1) 蔣中正總統玉照.png Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
(1887–1975)
1 March 1950 5 April 1975[note 2] Kuomintang Li Zongren[note 17]
(Kuomintang)
Vacant
Chen Cheng[note 18]
(Kuomintang)
2 (1954)
3 (1960)
Vacant
Yen Chia-kan
(Kuomintang)
4 (1966)
5 (1972)
2 President Yen Chia-kan.png Yen Chia-kan
(C. K. Yen)
嚴家淦
(1905–1993)
6 April 1975 20 May 1978 Kuomintang Vacant
3 ChiangChingkuo photo.jpg Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
(1910–1988)
20 May 1978 13 January 1988[note 2] Kuomintang Hsieh Tung-min
(Kuomintang)
6 (1978)
Lee Teng-hui
(Kuomintang)
7 (1984)
4 Lee Teng-hui (Chopped Closer version).jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
(born 1923)
13 January 1988 20 May 1996 Kuomintang Vacant
Lee Yuan-tsu
(Kuomintang)
8 (1990)

Presidents after the introduction of direct election[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Vice President Term
(elected)
4 Lee Teng-hui (Chopped Closer version).jpg Lee Teng-hui
李登輝
(born 1923)
20 May 1996 20 May 2000 Kuomintang Lien Chan
(KMT)
9 (1996)
5 Presiden5a (cropped).jpg Chen Shui-bian
陳水扁
(born 1950)
20 May 2000 20 May 2008 Democratic Progressive Annette Lu
(DPP)
10 (2000)
11 (2004)
6 中華民國第12、13任總統馬英九先生官方肖像照.jpg Ma Ying-jeou
馬英九
(born 1950)
20 May 2008 20 May 2016 Kuomintang Vincent Siew
(KMT)
12 (2008)
Wu Den-yih
(KMT)
13 (2012)
7 蔡英文官方元首肖像照 (cropped).png Tsai Ing-wen
蔡英文
(born 1956)
20 May 2016 Incumbent Democratic Progressive Chen Chien-jen
(Independent)
14 (2016)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Restored the monarchy from 12 December 1915 to 22 March 1916.
  2. ^ a b c d Died in office.
  3. ^ Zhang Xun restored Qing Empire from 1 July to 12 July in 1917.
  4. ^ a b c d e Forced out of office.
  5. ^ a b As Vice President.
  6. ^ a b c d As Acting Premier.
  7. ^ a b c As Premier.
  8. ^ Provisional Chief Executive instead of President.
  9. ^ Acting Provisional Chief Executive instead of Acting President.
  10. ^ a b Resigned.
  11. ^ Zhang was the Generalissimo of the Beiyang Military Government instead of President.
  12. ^ Assassinated.
  13. ^ The Chairman of the Nationalist Government (國民政府) was the head of state in this period (political tutelage; 訓政時期). There was no office of Vice Chairman.
  14. ^ Assumed office as acting chairman from 15 December 1931 to 1 January 1932.
  15. ^ Assumed office as acting chairman from 1 June to 1o October 1943.
  16. ^ Declared incapacity.
  17. ^ Vice-President from 1948 to 1954; impeached and recalled in 1954.
  18. ^ Died on 5 March 1965.

External links[edit]