List of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives elections

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In the United States Congress, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives elections are held when the House of Representatives first convenes after a general election for its two-year term, or when a Speaker of the House dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. The speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House, and is simultaneously the body's presiding officer, the de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head.[1]

There have been 126 elections for speaker since the office was created in 1789.[2] Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for speaker from among its senior leaders prior to the vote. Prior to 1839, the House elected its speaker by paper ballot, but since, on all but three occasions, has done so by roll call vote.[1] A majority of votes cast (as opposed to a majority of the full membership of the House) is necessary to elect a speaker. By House precedents, votes of present are not to be included in the official vote total, only votes cast for a person by name are; even so, they have been counted on several occasions.[3]

If no candidate receives a majority vote, then the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. In the longest speaker election in House history, 133 ballots (cast over a two month period) were needed before representatives chose Nathaniel Banks as their presiding officer for the 34th Congress (1855–1857). Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789, and not since 1923.[2]

Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but generally do. Additionally, as the U.S. Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone who is not a member of the House at the time, and non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years. Nevertheless, every person elected speaker has been a member.[4]

Altogether, 54 people have served as speaker over the past 230 years; 32 of them served multiple terms (seven of those served nonconsecutive terms). Sam Rayburn holds the record for electoral victories, with 10. He led the House from September 1940 to January 1947, January 1949 to January 1953, and January 1955 to November 1961. The youngest person elected as speaker was Robert M. T. Hunter in December 1839, at age 30; the oldest person elected for the first time was Henry T. Rainey in March 1933, at age 72.[5] In most recent election for speaker, held January 3, 2019, the first day of the 116th Congress, members elected Nancy Pelosi to the office. She had previously led the House from January 2007 to January 2011, and is the first woman to serve as speaker.[6]

Multi-ballot elections[edit]

December 1793[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 2, 1793, at the start of the 3rd Congress, following the 1792 / 93 elections in which anti-administration candidates won a majority of the seats. Former speaker Frederick Muhlenberg received a majority of the votes cast in the 3rd ballot and was elected speaker.[a] This was the first speaker of the House election to be contested primarily on a partisan basis.[8]

1793 election for speaker[9]
December 2, 1793 – 1st Ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Theodore Sedgwick (PMassachusetts) 24 36.36%
Frederick Muhlenberg (APennsylvania) 21 31.82%
Abraham Baldwin (AGeorgia) 14 21.22%
Others 7 10.60%
Total votes: 66
Votes necessary: 34
December 2, 1793 – 3rd Ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Frederick Muhlenberg (APennsylvania) 37 [b]
Theodore Sedgwick (PMassachusetts) 27
Others (?)
Total votes: 64+
Votes necessary: ~34

December 1799[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 2, 1799, at the start of the 6th Congress, following the 1798 / 99 elections in which Federalists won a majority of the seats. Theodore Sedgwick received a majority of the votes cast in the 2nd ballot and was elected speaker.

1799 election for speaker[10]
December 2, 1799 – 1st Ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Theodore Sedgwick (FMassachusetts) 42 49.41%
Nathaniel Macon (DRNorth Carolina) 27 31.76%
George Dent (FMaryland) 13 15.30%
Others 3 3.53%
Total votes: 85
Votes necessary: 43
December 2, 1799 – 2nd ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Theodore Sedgwick (FMassachusetts) 44 51.16%
Nathaniel Macon (DRNorth Carolina) 38 46.51%
George Dent (FMaryland) 3 1.75%
John Rutledge Jr. (FSouth Carolina) 1 0.58%
Total votes: 86
Votes necessary: 44

December 1805[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 2, 1805, at the start of the 9th Congress, following the 1804 / 05 elections in which the Democratic-Republicans won a majority of the seats. Nathaniel Macon received a majority of the votes cast in the 3rd ballot and was re-elected speaker.[c] A number of Democratic-Republicans did not support Macon's bid for a third term as he had broken ranks with President Jefferson and aligned himself with the splinter Quids faction.[12]

1805 election for speaker[9]
December 2, 1805 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Nathaniel Macon (DRNorth Carolina) 51 48.58%
Joseph Varnum (DRMassachusetts) 26 24.76%
John C. Smith (FConnecticut) 16 15.24%
John Dawson (DRVirginia) 10 9.52%
Andrew Gregg (DRPennsylvania) 2 1.90%
Total votes: 105
Votes necessary: 053
December 2, 1805 – 3rd ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Nathaniel Macon (DRNorth Carolina) 58 54.71%
Joseph Varnum (DRMassachusetts) 23 21.70%
John C. Smith (FConnecticut) 18 16.98%
John Dawson (DRVirginia) 3 2.83%
Andrew Gregg (DRPennsylvania) 2 1.89%
Others 2 1.89%
Total votes: 106
Votes necessary: 054

May 1809[edit]

An election for speaker took place May 22, 1809, at the start of the 11th Congress, following the 1808 / 09 elections in which the Democratic-Republicans won a majority of the seats. On the first ballot, Joseph Varnum received 60 of the 118 votes cast for individuals. In addition to these, two ballots were returned blank. The question arose over whether or not the blank ballots counted. If they were, then the total number of votes cast would be 120, making the threshold for election 61. If they were not, then the threshold would be 60 (of 118), thus making Varnum the winner. After a brief debate a motion to proceed with a second ballot was approved. Varnum received a majority of the votes cast in the 2nd ballot and was re-elected speaker.[13]

1809 election for speaker[14]
May 22, 1809 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Joseph Varnum (DRMassachusetts) 60 50.00%
Nathaniel Macon (DRNorth Carolina) 36 30.00%
Timothy Pitkin (FConnecticut) 20 16.67%
Roger Nelson (DRMaryland) 1 0.83%
Charles Goldsborough (FMaryland) 1 0.83%
Blank 2 1.67%
Total votes: 120
Votes necessary: 061
May 22, 1809 – 2nd ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Joseph Varnum (DRMassachusetts) 65 54.62%
Nathaniel Macon (DRNorth Carolina) 45 37.82%
Timothy Pitkin (FConnecticut) 6 5.04%
Benjamin Howard (DRKentucky) 1 0.84%
Roger Nelson (DRMaryland) 1 0.84%
Charles Goldsborough (FMaryland) 1 0.84%
Total votes: 119
Votes necessary: 060

November 1820[edit]

In October 1820, late in the 16th Congress, Henry Clay resigned as speaker so he could return to his private law practice; he kept his House seat however, until his term ended the following March (he had not run for re-election in 1820).[15] Consequently, an intra-term election for a new speaker was held on November 13–15, 1820. Coming as it did less than a year after the fractious Missouri statehood debate and the Compromise of 1850, the choice of Clay's succession became mired in the continuing debate between Northerners and Southerners over the expansion of slavery into territories and new states. Finally, on the 22nd ballot, John W. Taylor received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.[16]

1820 election for speaker (special)[17]
November 13, 1820 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
John W. Taylor (DRNew York) 40 30.30%
William Lowndes (DRSouth Carolina) 34 25.75%
Samuel Smith (DRMaryland) 27 20.45%
John Sergeant (FPennsylvania) 18 13.65%
Hugh Nelson (DRVirginia) 10 7.58%
Others 3 2.27%
Total votes: 132
Votes necessary: 067
November 15, 1820 – 22nd ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
John W. Taylor (DRNew York) 76 51.35%
William Lowndes (DRSouth Carolina) 44 29.73%
Samuel Smith (DRMaryland) 27 18.25%
Other 1 0.67%
Total votes: 148
Votes necessary: 075

December 1821[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 3–4, 1821, at the start of the 17th Congress, following the 1820 / 21 elections in which the Democratic-Republicans won a majority of the seats. Philip Barbour received a majority of the votes cast in the 12th ballot and was elected speaker, unseating John W. Taylor. Barbour's upset victory was due in part to Southern hostility toward Taylor because of his opposition to the spread of slavery.[16]

1821 election for speaker[18]
December 3, 1821 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
John W. Taylor (DRNew York) 60 37.26%
Caesar A. Rodney (DRDelaware) 45 27.95%
Louis McLane (FDelaware) 29 18.01%
Samuel Smith (DRMaryland) 20 12.42%
Hugh Nelson (DRVirginia) 5 3.11%
Others 2 1.24%
Total votes: 161
Votes necessary: 081
December 4, 1821 – 12th ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Philip P. Barbour (DRVirginia) 88 51.16%
John W. Taylor (DRNew York) 67 38.95%
Henry Baldwin (DRPennsylvania) 6 3.49%
Samuel Smith (DRMaryland) 4 2.33%
Caesar A. Rodney (DRDelaware) 3 1.74%
Others 4 2.33%
Total votes: 172
Votes necessary: 087

December 1825[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 5, 1825, at the start of the 19th Congress, following the 1824 / 25 elections and the 1825 presidential contingent election. In the aftermath of these elections, the Democratic-Republican Party rapidly splintered between those who supported the new president, John Quincy Adams, and those who supported Andrew Jackson. Representatives who supported Adams held a slim majority in the House. Former speaker John W. Taylor received a majority of the votes cast in the 2nd ballot and was elected speaker.[13]

1825 election for speaker[19]
December 5, 1828 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
John W. Taylor (ANew York) 89 45.88%
John W. Campbell (AOhio) 41 21.13%
Louis McLane (JDelaware) 36 18.55%
Andrew Stevenson (JVirginia) 17 8.76%
Lewis Condict (ANew Jersey) 6 3.10%
Others 5 2.58%
Total votes: 194
Votes necessary: 098
December 5, 1825 – 2nd ballot
John W. Taylor (ANew York) 99 51.30%
Louis McLane (JDelaware) 44 22.80%
John W. Campbell (AOhio) 42 21.76%
Andrew Stevenson (JVirginia) 5 2.59%
Others 3 1.55%
Total votes: 193
Votes necessary: 097

June 1834[edit]

In June 1834, Andrew Stevenson resigned as speaker of the House and from Congress to accept President Andrew Jackson's nomination as the U.S. minister to the United Kingdom.[20] Consequently, an intra-term election for a new speaker was held on June 2, 1834, during the 23rd Congress. The president favored James K. Polk for the post, but when members of his "Kitchen Cabinet" went to Capitol Hill and lobbied on Polk's behalf, they were rebuffed. Perceived as an encroachment upon a constitutional prerogative of the House, the effort to influence the vote splintered Jacksonian party unity and energized the opposition. As a result, John Bell was able to garner a majority of the votes cast on the 10th ballot and win the speakership.[21]

1834 election for speaker (special)[22]
June 2, 1834 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Richard H. Wilde (JGeorgia) 64 29.09%
James K. Polk (JTennessee) 42 19.09%
Joel B. Sutherland (JPennsylvania) 34 15.45%
John Bell (JTennessee) 30 13.64%
Jesse Speight (JNorth Carolina) 18 8.18%
James M. Wayne (JGeorgia) 15 6.82 %
Lewis Williams (AJNorth Carolina) 4 1.82%
Edward Everett (AJMassachusetts) 3 1.36%
Others 6 2.73%
Blank 4 1.82%
Total votes: 220
Votes necessary: 111
June 2, 1834 – 10th ballot
John Bell (JTennessee) 114 52.29%
James K. Polk (JTennessee) 78 35.78%
Richard H. Wilde (JGeorgia) 11 5.05%
James M. Wayne (JGeorgia) 6 2.75%
Joel B. Sutherland (JPennsylvania) 2 0.92%
Jesse Speight (JNorth Carolina) 1 0.46%
Blank 6 2.75%
Total votes: 218
Votes necessary: 110

December 1839[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 14–16, 1839, at the start of the 26th Congress, following the 1838 elections in which the Democrats won a slim majority of the seats. Balloting was delayed for two weeks as Democrats and Whigs contested the seating of five representatives-elect from New Jersey,[23] commencing only after the House resolved not to seat either delegation immediately. Once underway, the narrowly divided House was unable to make a quick choice. Finally, on the 11th ballot, Robert M. T. Hunter received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.[13]

1839 election for speaker
December 14, 1839 – 1st ballot[24]
Candidate Votes Percent
John W. Jones (DVirginia) 113 48.09%
John Bell (WTennessee) 102 43.41%
William Dawson (WGeorgia) 11 4.68%
Francis W. Pickens (DSouth Carolina) 5 2.13%
Dixon H. Lewis (DAlabama) 3 1.27%
George W. Hopkins (CVirginia) 1 0.42%
Total votes: 235
Votes necessary: 118
December 16, 1839 – 11th ballot[25]
Candidate Votes Percent
Robert M. T. Hunter (WVirginia) 119 51.30%
John W. Jones (DVirginia) 55 23.71%
George M. Keim (DPennsylvania) 24 10.35%
Zadok Casey (DIllinois) 10 4.31%
Francis W. Pickens (DSouth Carolina) 9 3.87%
Francis Thomas (DMaryland) 3 1.29%
Dixon H. Lewis (DAlabama) 1 0.43%
Others 11 4.74%
Total votes: 232
Votes necessary: 117

December 1847[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 6, 1847, at the start of the 30th Congress, following the 1846 elections in which the Whigs won a slim majority of the seats. Robert C. Winthrop received a majority of the votes cast in the 3rd ballot and was elected speaker. The election became a multi-ballot affair when a few "Conscience Whigs" initially refused to support Wihthrop because he rejected their demand for a pledge to constitute key House committees so as to favor the reporting of antislavery legislation.[26]

1847 election for speaker[27]
December 6, 1847 – 1st ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Robert C. Winthrop (WMassachusetts) 108 49.09%
Linn Boyd (D-Kentucky) 61 27.73%
Robert McClelland (DMichigan) 23 10.45%
John A. McClernard (DIllinois) 11 5.00%
James McKay (DNorth Carolina) 5 2.27%
Howell Cobb (DGeorgia) 3 1.37%
James Wilson (WNew Hampshire) 2 0.91%
Others 7 3.18%
Total votes: 220
Votes necessary: 111
December 6, 1847 – 3rd ballot
Candidate Votes Percent
Robert C. Winthrop (WMassachusetts) 110 50.46%
Linn Boyd (DKentucky) 64 29.36%
Robert McClelland (DMichigan) 14 6.42%
John A. McClernard (DIllinois) 8 3.67%
Robert Rhett (DSouth Carolina) 7 3.21%
Armistead Burt (DSouth Carolina) 4 1.83%
Howell Cobb (DGeorgia) 4 1.83%
James Wilson (WNew Hampshire) 2 0.92%
Others 5 2.30%
Total votes: 218
Votes necessary: 110

December 1849[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 3–22, 1849, at the start of the 31st Congress, following the 1848 elections in which the Democrats won a slim majority of the seats. Divisions within the Whig and Democratic parties and the Single-issue focus of the Free Soil party led to pandemonium and left the House deadlocked for three weeks. As it would be for much of the next decade, the issue of slavery was at the heart of this impass. After 59 ballots without a majority choice, the House adopted a plurality rule stating that, if after three more ballots no one garnered a majority of the votes, the person receiving the highest number of votes on the next ensuing ballot would be declared to have been chosen speaker.[13] On the decisive 63rd ballot, Howell Cobb received the most votes, 102 votes out of 221, or nine less than a majority, and was elected speaker,[28] unseating Robert C. Winthrop.

1849 election for speaker
December 3, 1849 – 1st ballot[29]
Candidate Votes Percent
Howell Cobb (DGeorgia) 103 46.61%
Robert C. Winthrop (WMassachusetts) 96 43.44%
David Wilmot (FSPennsylvania) 8 3.62%
Meredith P. Gentry (WTennessee) 6 2.71%
Horace Mann (WMassachusetts) 2 0.91%
Others 6 2.71%
Total votes: 221
Votes necessary: 111
December 22, 1849 – 63rd ballot[30]
Candidate Votes Percent
Howell Cobb (DGeorgia) 102 46.16%
Robert C. Winthrop (WMassachusetts) 99 44.80%
David Wilmot (FSPennsylvania) 8 3.62%
Charles S. Morehead (WKentucky) 4 1.81%
William Strong (DPennsylvania) 3 1.34%
Others 5 2.27%
Total votes: 221
Votes necessary: PV[d]

December 1855 – February 1856[edit]

An election for speaker took place over the course of two months, December 3, 1855 through February 2, 1856, at the start of the 34th Congress, following the 1854 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. This protracted struggle to elect a speaker, the longest-ever, stemmed from sectional discord over slavery which had been exacerbated as a consequence of the Kansas–Nebraska Act approved by Congress the year before. After 129 ballots without a majority choice, the House once again adopted a plurality rule to break the deadlock. On the decisive 133rd ballot, Nathaniel P. Banks received the most votes, 103 votes out of 214, or five less than a majority, and was elected speaker.[28][31]

1855–56 election for speaker
December 3, 1855 – 1st ballot[31][32]
Candidate Votes Percent
William A. Richardson (DIllinois) 74 32.89%
Lewis D. Campbell (OOhio) 53 23.55%
Humphrey Marshall (AKentucky) 30 13.33%
Nathaniel P. Banks (AMassachusetts) 21 9.34%
Henry M. Fuller (OPennsylvania) 17 7.55%
Alexander Pennington (ONew Jersey) 7 3.11%
Others 23 10.23%
Total votes: 225
Votes necessary: 113
February 2, 1856 – 133rd ballot[31][33]
Candidate Votes Percent
Nathaniel P. Banks (AMassachusetts) 103 48.14%
William Aiken Jr. (DSouth Carolina) 100 46.73%
Henry M. Fuller (OPennsylvania) 6 2.81%
Others 5 2.32%
Total votes: 214
Votes necessary: PV[e]

December 1859 – February 1860[edit]

An election for speaker took place over the course of eight weeks, December 5, 1859 through February 1, 1860, at the start of the 36th Congress, following the 1858 / 59 elections in which the Republicans won a plurality of the seats. William Pennington, a freshmen congressmen, received a majority of the votes cast in the 44th ballot and was elected speaker.[35] The bitter election dispute deepened the rift between slave states and free states and helped push Southern political leaders further toward secession.[36]

1859–60 election for speaker
December 5, 1859 – 1st ballot[37]
Candidate Votes Percent
Thomas S. Bocock (DVirginia) 86 37.40%
John Sherman (ROhio) 66 28.70%
Galusha A. Grow (RPennsylvania) 43 18.70%
Alexander Boteler (OVirginia) 14 6.08%
Thomas A. R. Nelson (OTennessee) 5 2.17%
John A. Gilmer (ONorth Carolina) 3 1.30%
Garnett Adrain (ALDNew Jersey) 2 0.87%
John G. Davis (ALDIndiana) 2 0.87%
John B. Haskin (ALDNew York) 2 0.87%
Others 7 3.04%
Total votes: 230
Votes necessary: 116
February 1, 1860 – 44th ballot[38]
Candidate Votes Percent
William Pennington (RNew Jersey) 117 50.22%
John A. McClernand (DIllinois) 85 36.48%
John A. Gilmer (ONorth Carolina) 16 6.86%
Martin J. Crawford (DGeorgia) 4 1.72%
William N. H. Smith (ONorth Carolina) 4 1.72%
John McQueen (DSouth Carolina) 2 0.86%
Others 5 2.14%
Total votes: 233
Votes necessary: 117

December 1923[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 3–5, 1923, at the start of the 68th Congress, following the 1922 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Frederick H. Gillett received a majority of the votes cast in the 9th ballot and was re-elected speaker. Progressive Republicans had refused to support Gillett for the first eight ballots. Only after winning concessions from Republican conference leaders (a seat on the House Rules Committee and a pledge that requested House rules changes would be considered) did they agree to support him.[39]

1923 election for speaker
December 3, 1923 – 1st ballot[40]
Candidate Votes Percent
Frederick H. Gillett (RMassachusetts) 197 47.58%
Finis J. Garrett (DTennessee) 195 47.10%
Henry A. Cooper (RWisconsin) 17 4.11%
Martin B. Madden (RIllinois) 5 1.21%
Total votes: 414
Votes necessary: 208
December 5, 1923 – 9th ballot[41]
Candidate Votes Percent
Frederick H. Gillett (RMassachusetts) 215 51.94%
Finis J. Garrett (DTennessee) 197 47.58%
Martin B. Madden (RIllinois) 2 0.48%
Total votes: 414
Votes necessary: 208

Unanimous consent elections[edit]

March 1869[edit]

On March 3, 1869, the final full day of the 40th Congress, Schuyler Colfax, who was to be sworn into office as the nation's 17th vice president the next day, resigned as speaker. Immediately afterward, the House passed a motion declaring Theodore Pomeroy duely elected speaker in place of Colfax. In office for one day, his is the shortest tenure of any speaker of the U.S. House.[42]

1869 election for speaker (special)[43]
Candidate Votes
Theodore M. Pomeroy (RNew York) Voice
Total votes: Unanimous consent

June 1936[edit]

Speaker Joseph W. Byrns died suddenly in the early hours of June 4, 1936, during the 74th Congress. Consequently, when the House convened that day, a resolution declaring William B. Bankhead duely elected speaker was adopted by voice vote.[44]

1936 election for speaker (special)[45]
Candidate Votes
William B. Bankhead (DAlabama) Voice
Total votes: Unanimous consent

September 1940[edit]

Speaker William B. Bankhead died on September 15, 1940 during the 76th Congress. Accordingly, when the House convened the next day, a resolution declaring Sam Rayburn duely elected speaker was adopted by voice vote.[46]

1940 election for speaker (special)[47]
Candidate Votes
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) Voice
Total votes: Unanimous consent

Single ballot elections[edit]

April 1789[edit]

The first-ever election for Speaker of the House took place on April 1, 1789, at the start of the 1st Congress, following the 1788 / 89 elections in which candidates who supported the new Frame of Government won a majority of the seats. Frederick A. Muhlenberg, who had promoted the ratification of the Constitution, received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.[48] Though political parties did not yet exist, political factions, from which they evolved, formed almost immediately after Congress began its work. Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "Pro-Administration", while those in opposition were known as "Anti-Administration".

1789 election for speaker[9]
Candidate Votes Percent
Frederick Muhlenberg (PPennsylvania) 23 76.67%
Others 7 23.33%
Total votes: 30
Votes necessary: 16

October 1791[edit]

An election for speaker took place October 24, 1791, at the start of the 2nd Congress, following the 1790 / 91 elections in which Pro-Administration candidates won a majority of the seats. Very little is known about the election other than it resulted in Jonathan Trumbull Jr. being elected speaker.[f]

1791 election for speaker[9]
Candidate Votes Percent
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. (PConnecticut) Majority
Total votes: (?)
Votes necessary:

December 1795[edit]

An election for speaker took place December 7, 1795, at the start of the 4th Congress, following the 1794 / 95 elections. During the preceding Congress, the Pro-Administration faction coalesced into the Federalist Party, and the Anti-Administration faction into the Democratic-Republican Party. Though Democratic-Republicans won a majority of the seats in these elections, several joined with the Federalists to elect Jonathan Dayton speaker on the first ballot.[8]

1795 election for speaker[9]
Candidate Votes Percent
Jonathan Dayton (FNew Jersey) 46 58.23%
Frederick Muhlenberg (DRPennsylvania) 31 39.24%
Others 2 2.53%
Total votes: 79
Votes necessary: 40

May 1797[edit]

An election for speaker took place May 15, 1797,[g] at the start of the 5th Congress, following the 1796 / 97 elections in which the Federalists won a majority of the seats. Jonathan Dayton received a near-unanimous vote and was re-elected speaker.

1797 election for speaker[9]
Candidate Votes Percent
Jonathan Dayton (FNew Jersey) 78 97.50%
George Dent (FMaryland) 1 1.25%
Abraham Baldwin (DRGeorgia) 1 1.25%
Total votes: 80
Votes necessary: 41

July 1861[edit]

An election for speaker took place July 4, 1861,[g] at the start of the 37th Congress, following the 1860 / 61 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats, and the subsequent secession of several states from the Union at the outset of the Civil War. Galusha A. Grow received a majority of the votes cast on the first ballot and was elected speaker, but only after his chief opponent, Francis Preston Blair Jr., withdrew following the roll call vote, at which time 28 votes shifted to Grow.[51] The decrease in the total number of votes cast in this speaker election and in the number necessary for a majority was due to the secession of states from the Union. As representatives resigned from Congress to join the Confederacy, or were expelled for supporting the rebellion, their seats were declared vacant. No representatives were seated for the 37th Congress from: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina or South Carolina. Some representatives were seated from Louisiana (2 of 4), Tennessee (3 of 10) and Virginia (4 of 13).[52]

1861 election for speaker[53]
Candidate Votes Percent
Galusha A. Grow (RPennsylvania) 99 62.27%
Francis P. Blair Jr. (RMissouri) 12 7.55%
John J. Crittenden (UKentucky) 12 7.55%
John S. Phelps (DMissouri) 7 4.40%
Clement Vallandingham (DOhio) 7 4.40%
Erastus Corning (DNew York) 7 4.40%
Samuel S. Cox (DOhio) 6 3.77%
Others 9 5.66%
Total votes: 159
Votes necessary: 080

December 1863[edit]

An election for speaker took place on December 7, 1863, at the start of the 38th Congress, following the 1862 / 63 elections in which the Republicans won only a plurality of the seats, but retained control of the House with the assistance of Unionist Party representatives. Schuyler Colfax received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker. The decrease in the total number of votes cast in this speaker election and in the number necessary for a majority was due to the secession of states from the Union; their seats were declared vacant. No representatives were seated for the 38th Congress from: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee or Virginia.[52]

1863 election for speaker[54]
Candidate Votes Percent
Schuyler Colfax (RIndiana) 101 55.50%
Samuel S. Cox (DOhio) 42 23.08%
John L. Dawson (DPennsylvania) 12 6.59%
Robert Mallory (UKentucky) 10 5.49%
Others 17 9.34%
Total votes: 182
Votes necessary: 092

January 1945[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1945, on the opening day of the 79th Congress, two months after the 1944 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1945 election for speaker:[55]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 224 56.85%
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 168 42.64%
"present" 2 0.51%
Total votes: 394
Votes necessary: 198

January 1947[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1947, on the opening day of the 80th Congress, two months after the 1946 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Joseph William Martin, Jr. received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker. This was the first time in 16 years, since 1931, that Republicans controlled the House.

1947 election for speaker:[56]
Candidate Votes Percent
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 244 57.28%
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 182 42.72%
Total votes: 426
Votes necessary: 214

January 1949[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1949, on the opening day of the 81st Congress, two months after the 1948 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Former speaker Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1949 election for speaker:[57]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 255 61.30%
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 160 38.46%
"present" 1 0.24%
Total votes: 416
Votes necessary: 209

January 1951[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1951, on the opening day of the 82nd Congress, two months after the 1950 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1951 election for speaker[58]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 231 54.23%
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 192 45.07%
"present" 3 0.70%
Total votes: 426
Votes necessary: 214

January 1953[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1953, on the opening day of the 83rd Congress, two months after the 1952 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Former speaker Joseph W. Martin Jr. received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.[59]

1953 election for speaker[60]
Candidate Votes Percent
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 220 51.89%
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 201 47.41%
"present" 3 0.70%
Total votes: 424
Votes necessary: 213

January 1955[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 5, 1955, on the opening day of the 84th Congress, two months after the 1954 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Former speaker Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker, becoming the first representative since Henry Clay in the 1820s to have a third stint as speaker.

1955 election for speaker[61]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 228 53.52%
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 198 46.48%
Total votes: 426
Votes necessary: 214

January 1957[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1957, on the opening day of the 85th Congress, two months after the 1956 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1957 election for speaker[62]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 227 53.04%
Joseph W. Martin Jr. (RMassachusetts) 199 46.49%
"present" 2 0.47%
Total votes: 428
Votes necessary: 215

January 1959[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 7, 1959, on the opening day of the 86th Congress, two months after the 1958 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1959 election for speaker[63]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 281 65.19%
Charles Halleck (RIndiana) 148 34.35%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 431
Votes necessary: 216

January 1961[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1961, on the opening day of the 87th Congress, two months after the 1960 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Sam Rayburn received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1961 election for speaker[64]
Candidate Votes Percent
Sam Rayburn (DTexas) 258 60.00%
Charles Halleck (RIndiana) 170 39.54%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 430
Votes necessary: 216

January 1962[edit]

Sam Rayburn died on November 16, 1961, between the first and second sessions of 87th Congress. Elected 10 times, he is the longest tenured speaker of the U.S. House in American history, having served three stints (1940–1947; 1949–1953; 1955–1961) totaling 17 years.[46] Consequently, an intra-term election for a new speaker was held on January 10, 1962, when Congress reconvened. John McCormack received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1962 election for speaker (special)[65]
Candidate Votes Percent
John McCormack (DMassachusetts) 248 59.90%
Charles Halleck (RIndiana) 166 40.10%
Total votes: 414
Votes necessary: 208

January 1963[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 9, 1963, on the opening day of the 88th Congress, two months after the 1962 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. John W. McCormack received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1963 election for speaker[66]
Candidate Votes Percent
John McCormack (DMassachusetts) 256 59.12%
Charles Halleck (RIndiana) 175 40.42%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 433
Votes necessary: 217

January 1965[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 4, 1965, on the opening day of the 89th Congress, two months after the 1964 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. John W. McCormack received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1965 election for speaker[67]
Candidate Votes Percent
John McCormack (DMassachusetts) 289 67.52%
Gerald Ford (RMichigan) 139 32.48%
Total votes: 428
Votes necessary: 215

January 1967[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 10, 1967, on the opening day of the 90th Congress, two months after the 1966 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. John W. McCormack received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1967 election for speaker[68]
Candidate Votes Percent
John McCormack (DMassachusetts) 246 56.94%
Gerald Ford (RMichigan) 186 43.06%
Total votes: 432
Votes necessary: 217

January 1969[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1969, on the opening day of the 91st Congress, two months after the 1968 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. John W. McCormack received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1969 election for speaker[69]
Candidate Votes Percent
John McCormack (DMassachusetts) 241 56.31%
Gerald Ford (RMichigan) 187 43.69%
Total votes: 428
Votes necessary: 215

January 1971[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 21, 1971, on the opening day of the 92nd Congress, two months after the 1970 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Carl Albert received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1971 election for speaker[70]
Candidate Votes Percent
Carl Albert (DOklahoma) 250 58.68%
Gerald Ford (RMichigan) 176 41.32%
Total votes: 426
Votes necessary: 214

January 1973[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1973, on the opening day of the 93rd Congress, two months after the 1972 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Carl Albert received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1973 election for speaker[71]
Candidate Votes Percent
Carl Albert (DOklahoma) 236 55.66%
Gerald Ford (RMichigan) 188 44.34%
Total votes: 424
Votes necessary: 213

January 1975[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 14, 1975, on the opening day of the 94th Congress, two months after the 1974 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Carl Albert received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1975 election for speaker[72]
Candidate Votes Percent
Carl Albert (DOklahoma) 287 66.43%
John J. Rhodes (RArizona) 143 33.11%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 432
Votes necessary: 217

January 1977[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 4, 1977, on the opening day of the 95th Congress, two months after the 1976 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tip O'Neill received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1977 election for speaker[73]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tip O'Neill (DMassachusetts) 290 66.82%
John J. Rhodes (RArizona) 142 32.72%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 434
Votes necessary: 218

January 1979[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 15, 1979, on the opening day of the 96th Congress, two months after the 1978 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tip O'Neill received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1979 election for speaker[74]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tip O'Neill (DMassachusetts) 268 63.51%
John J. Rhodes (RArizona) 152 36.02%
"present" 2 0.47%
Total votes: 422
Votes necessary: 212

January 1981[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 5, 1981, on the opening day of the 97th Congress, two months after the 1980 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tip O'Neill received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1981 election for speaker[75]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tip O'Neill (DMassachusetts) 234 55.98%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 182 43.54%
"present" 2 0.48%
Total votes: 419
Votes necessary: 210

January 1983[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1983, on the opening day of the 98th Congress, two months after the 1982 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tip O'Neill received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1983 election for speaker[76]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tip O'Neill (DMassachusetts) 260 62.35%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 155 37.17%
"present" 2 0.48%
Total votes: 417
Votes necessary: 209

January 1985[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1985, on the opening day of the 99th Congress, two months after the 1984 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tip O'Neill received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1985 election for speaker[77]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tip O'Neill (DMassachusetts) 247 58.11%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 175 41.18%
"present" 3 0.71%
Total votes: 425
Votes necessary: 213

January 1987[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 6, 1987, on the opening day of the 100th Congress, two months after the 1986 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Jim Wright received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1987 election for speaker[78]
Candidate Votes Percent
Jim Wright (DTexas) 254 59.21%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 173 40.33%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 429
Votes necessary: 215

January 1989[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1989, on the opening day of the 101st Congress, two months after the 1988 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Jim Wright received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1989 election for speaker (regular)[79]
Candidate Votes Percent
Jim Wright (DTexas) 253 59.53%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 170 40.00%
"present" 2 0.47%
Total votes: 425
Votes necessary: 213

June 1989[edit]

In June 1989, Jim Wright resigned as speaker of the House and from Congress amid a House Ethics Committee investigation into his financial dealings.[80] Consequently, an intra-term election for a new speaker was held on June 6, 1989, during the 101st Congress. Tom Foley received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1989 election for speaker (special)[81]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tom Foley (DWashington) 251 60.19%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 164 39.33%
"present" 2 0.48%
Total votes: 417
Votes necessary: 209

January 1991[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 1991, on the opening day of the 102nd Congress, two months after the 1990 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tom Foley received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1991 election for speaker[82]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tom Foley (DWashington) 262 61.07%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 165 38.47%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 429
Votes necessary: 215

January 1993[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 5, 1993, on the opening day of the 103rd Congress, two months after the 1992 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Tom Foley received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

1993 election for speaker[83]
Candidate Votes Percent
Tom Foley (DWashington) 255 59.16%
Robert H. Michel (RIllinois) 174 40.38%
"present" 2 0.46%
Total votes: 431
Votes necessary: 216

January 1995[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 4, 1995, on the opening day of the 104th Congress, two months after the 1994 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Newt Gingrich received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker. This was the first time in 40 years, since 1955, that Republicans controlled the House.[84]

1995 election for speaker[85]
Candidate Votes Percent
Newt Gingrich (RGeorgia) 228 52.54%
Dick Gephardt (DMissouri) 202 46.54%
"present" 4 0.92%
Total votes: 434
Votes necessary: 218

January 1997[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 7, 1997, on the opening day of the 105th Congress, two months after the 1996 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Newt Gingrich received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker. A number of Republicans did not support Gingrich's bid for a second term, and a few of them voted for other people. It was the first time in half a century in which votes were cast for someone besides the Democratic or Republican nominee.[86]

1997 election for speaker[87]
Candidate Votes Percent
Newt Gingrich (RGeorgia) 216 50.83%
Dick Gephardt (DMissouri) 205 48.24%
Jim Leach (R–Iowa) 2 0.47%
Robert H. Michel (R)[h] 1 0.23%
Robert Walker (R)[h] 1 0.23%
Total votes: 425
Votes necessary: 213

January 1999[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 6, 1999, on the opening day of the 106th Congress, two months after the 1998 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Dennis Hastert received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

1999 election for speaker[88]
Candidate Votes Percent
Dennis Hastert (RIllinois) 222 52.00%
Dick Gephardt (DMissouri) 205 48.00%
Total votes: 427
Votes necessary: 214

January 2001[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 2001, on the opening day of the 107th Congress, two months after the 2000 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Dennis Hastert received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

2001 election for speaker[89]
Candidate Votes Percent
Dennis Hastert (RIllinois) 222 51.50%
Dick Gephardt (DMissouri) 206 47.80%
John Murtha (D–Pennsylvania) 1 0.23%
"present" 2 0.47%
Total votes: 431
Votes necessary: 216

January 2003[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 2003, on the opening day of the 108th Congress, two months after the 2002 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Dennis Hastert received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

2003 election for speaker[90]
Candidate Votes Percent
Dennis Hastert (RIllinois) 228 52.53%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 201 46.31%
John Murtha (D–Pennsylvania) 1 0.23%
"present" 4 0.93%
Total votes: 434
Votes necessary: 218

January 2005[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 4, 2005, on the opening day of the 109th Congress, two months after the 2004 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Dennis Hastert received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

2005 election for speaker[91]
Candidate Votes Percent
Dennis Hastert (RIllinois) 226 52.92%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 199 46.60%
John Murtha (D–Pennsylvania) 1 0.24%
"present" 1 0.24%
Total votes: 427
Votes necessary: 214

January 2007[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 4, 2007, on the opening day of the 110th Congress, two months after the 2006 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Nancy Pelosi received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker, becoming the first woman speaker of the House in U.S. history.[92]

2007 election for speaker[93]
Candidate Votes Percent
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 233 53.56%
John Boehner (ROhio) 202 46.44%
Total votes: 435
Votes necessary: 218

January 2009[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 6, 2009, on the opening day of the 111th Congress, two months after the 2008 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Nancy Pelosi received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

2009 election for speaker[94]
Candidate Votes Percent
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 255 59.44%
John Boehner (ROhio) 174 40.56%
Total votes: 429
Votes necessary: 215

January 2011[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 5, 2011, at the start of the 112th Congress, two months after the 2010 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. John Boehner received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker of the House. Frustrated by widespread election losses, several "Blue Dog Democrats" refused to vote for outgoing speaker Nancy Pelosi.[86]

2011 election for speaker[95]
Candidate Votes Percent
John Boehner (ROhio) 241 55.80%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 173 40.03%
Heath Shuler (D–North Carolina) 11 2.55%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 2 0.47%
Dennis Cardoza (D–California) 1 0.23%
Jim Costa (D–California) 1 0.23%
Jim Cooper (D–Tennessee) 1 0.23%
Steny Hoyer (D–Maryland) 1 0.23%
Marcy Kaptur (D–Ohio) 1 0.23%
Total votes: 432
Votes necessary: 217

January 2013[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 2013, at the start of the 113th Congress, two months after the 2012 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. John Boehner received a majority of the votes cast, despite the defections of several members from his own party, and was re-elected speaker.[96]

2013 election for speaker[97]
Candidate Votes Percent
John Boehner (ROhio) 220 51.64%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 192 45.04%
Eric Cantor (R–Virginia) 3 0.70%
Jim Cooper (D–Tennessee) 2 0.47%
Allen West (R)[i] 2 0.47%
Justin Amash (R–Michigan) 1 0.24%
John Dingell (D–Michigan) 1 0.24%
Jim Jordan (R–Ohio) 1 0.24%
Raúl Labrador (R–Idaho) 1 0.24%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 1 0.24%
Colin Powell (R)[i] 1 0.24%
David Walker (R)[i] 1 0.24%
Total votes: 426
Votes necessary: 214

January 2015[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 6, 2015, at the start of the 114th Congress, two months after the 2014 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. John Boehner received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker, even though Freedom Caucus Republicans chose not to vote for him.[98]

2015 election for speaker (regular)[99]
Candidate Votes Percent
John Boehner (ROhio) 216 52.95%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 164 40.20%
Dan Webster (R–Florida) 12 2.95%
Louie Gohmert (R–Texas) 3 0.74%
Ted Yoho (R–Florida) 2 0.50%
Jim Jordan (R–Ohio) 2 0.50%
Jim Cooper (D–Tennessee) 1 0.24%
Peter DeFazio (D–Oregon) 1 0.24%
Jeff Duncan (R–South Carolina) 1 0.24%
Trey Gowdy (R–South Carolina) 1 0.24%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 1 0.24%
Kevin McCarthy (R–California) 1 0.24%
Rand Paul (R)[j] 1 0.24%
Jeff Sessions (R)[j] 1 0.24%
Colin Powell (R)[j] 1 0.24%
Total votes: 408
Votes necessary: 205

October 2015[edit]

On September 25, 2015, John Boehner formally announced his intention to resign from the speakership and the House.[100] Consequently, an intra-term election for a new speaker was held on October 29, 2015, during the 114th Congress. Paul Ryan received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker.

2015 election for speaker (special)[101]
Candidate Votes Percent
Paul Ryan (RWisconsin) 236 54.63%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 184 42.60%
Dan Webster (R–Florida) 9 2.08%
Jim Cooper (D–Tennessee) 1 0.23%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 1 0.23%
Colin Powell (R)[k] 1 0.23%
Total votes: 432
Votes necessary: 217

January 2017[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 2017, on the opening day of the 115th Congress, two months after the 2016 elections in which the Republicans won a majority of the seats. Paul Ryan received a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

2017 election for speaker[102]
Candidate Votes Percent
Paul Ryan (RWisconsin) 239 55.19%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 189 43.65%
Tim Ryan (D–Ohio) 2 0.47%
Jim Cooper (D–Tennessee) 1 0.23%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 1 0.23%
Dan Webster (R–Florida) 1 0.23%
Total votes: 433
Votes necessary: 217

January 2019[edit]

An election for speaker took place on January 3, 2019, on the opening day of the 116th Congress, two months after the 2018 elections in which the Democrats won a majority of the seats. Former speaker Nancy Pelosi received a majority of the votes cast and was elected speaker, even though several Democrats chose not to vote for her.[103] She is the first representative since Sam Rayburn in the 1950s to have a second stint as speaker.[104]

2019 election for speaker[105]
Candidate Votes Percent
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 220 51.17%
Kevin McCarthy (R–California) 192 44.66%
Jim Jordan (R–Ohio) 5 1.16%
Cheri Bustos (D–Illinois) 4 0.93%
Tammy Duckworth (D)[l] 2 0.47%
Stacey Abrams (D)[l] 1 0.23%
Joe Biden (D)[l] 1 0.23%
Marcia Fudge (D–Ohio) 1 0.23%
Joe Kennedy III (D–Massachusetts) 1 0.23%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 1 0.23%
Thomas Massie (R–Kentucky) 1 0.23%
Stephanie Murphy (D–Florida) 1 0.23%
Total votes: 430
Votes necessary: 216

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The record of the 1793 speaker election in the Annals of Congress simply states, "the House proceeded to vote for a speaker, when it appeared that Frederick A. Muhlenberg, one of the members from Pennsylvania, was elected;" no vote tally is given.[7]
  2. ^ As the specific number of third ballot scattering votes for others in the 1793 speaker election is not known, candidate vote percentages are indeterminable.
  3. ^ The record of the 1805 speaker election in the Annals of Congress simply states, "the House proceeded, by ballot, to the choice of a speaker; and, upon examining the ballots, a majority of the votes of the whole House, was found in favor of Nathaniel Macon, one of the members for the State of North Carolina;" no vote tally is given.[11]
  4. ^ Because the 1849 election of Howell Cobb as speaker came as a result of an unconventional rules change, the House adopted a resolution declaring that Cobb had been duely chosen speaker by House members.[30]
  5. ^ Because the 1856 election of Nathaniel Banks as speaker came as a result of an unconventional rules change, the House adopted a resolution declaring that Banks had been duely chosen speaker in accordance with the revised plurality rule by House members.[34]
  6. ^ The record of the 1791 speaker election in the Annals of Congress simply states, "the House proceded to ballot for a speaker, when it appeared that Johathan Trumball, from Connecticut, was elected."[49]
  7. ^ a b This was the start date of a special session of Congress, convened by presidential proclamation in accordance with Article II, Section 3, Clause 3 of the Constitution.[50]
  8. ^ a b Robert Michel and Robert Walker each received one vote in the 1997 speaker election, even though neither was a member of the House at the time.[3]
  9. ^ a b c Colin Powell, David M. Walker, and Allen West each received votes in the 2013 speaker election, even though none of them was a member of the House at the time.[3]
  10. ^ a b c Rand Paul, Jeff Sessions, and Colin Powell each received one vote in the January 2015 speaker election, even though none of them was a member of the House at the time.[3]
  11. ^ Colin Powell received one vote in the October 2015 speaker election, even though he was not a member of the House at the time.[3]
  12. ^ a b c Stacy Abrams, Joe Biden, and Tammy Duckworth each received votes in the 2019 speaker election, even though none of them was a member of the House at the time.[3]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Forte, David F. "Essays on Article I: Speaker of the House". Heritage Guide to The Constitution. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Speaker Elections Decided by Multiple Ballots". history.house.gov. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f CRS RL30857
  4. ^ Grier, Peter (September 25, 2015). "John Boehner exit: Anyone can run for House speaker, even you". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  5. ^ Osborne, J. H. (November 12, 2018). "Civics 101: How is the U.S. House speaker selected?". Kingsport Times-News. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  6. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (January 2, 2019). "Nancy Pelosi, Icon of Female Power, Will Reclaim Role as Speaker and Seal a Place in History". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  7. ^ LOC, 4 Annals of Cong. 133 (1793)
  8. ^ a b Follett, Mary Parker (1909) [First edition, 1896]. The speaker of the House of Representatives. New York, New York: Longmans, Greene, and Company. p. 65–66. Retrieved March 8, 2019 – via Internet Archive, digitized in 2007.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Jenkins, Jeffery A.; Stewart, Charles (2012). Fighting for the Speakership: The House and the Rise of Party Government. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 332. ISBN 9781400845460. Retrieved March 14, 2019 – via Project MUSE database.
  10. ^ LOC, 10 Annals of Cong. 186 (1799)
  11. ^ LOC, Cong. 254 (1805)
  12. ^ Starnes, Richard D. (2006). "Quids". NCpedia. Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d Follett, Mary Parker (1909) [First edition, 1896]. The speaker of the House of Representatives. New York, New York: Longmans, Greene, and Company. pp. 50–55. Retrieved March 8, 2019 – via Internet Archive, digitized in 2007.
  14. ^ LOC, 20 Annals of Cong. 54–56 (1809)
  15. ^ "Henry Clay's On-Again, Off-Again Relationship with the House". Whereas: Stories from the People's House. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. January 23, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  16. ^ a b Gooley, Lawrence P. (January 23, 2019). "John W. Taylor: New York's (Almost Only) Speaker of the House". Adirondack Almanack. Saranac Lake, New York: Adirondack Explorer. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  17. ^ LOC, 37 Annals of Cong. 435–438 (1820)
  18. ^ LOC, 38 Annals of Cong. 514–517 (1821).
  19. ^ LOC, 19 Cong. Deb. 795 (1825)
  20. ^ Bomboy, Scott (September 30, 2015). "Why Boehner's resignation is truly historic for House speakers". Constitution Daily. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  21. ^ Parks, Joseph (1950). John Bell of Tennessee. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press. p. 71.
  22. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 23rd Cong., 1st Sess. 421 (1834)
  23. ^ Johnston, Alexander (1899). Lalor, John J. (ed.). "Broad Seal War". Cyclopædia of political science, political economy, and of the political history of the United States. New York, New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co. p. 309. Retrieved March 1, 2019 – via Hathi Trust Digital Library.
  24. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 26th Cong., 1st Sess. 52 (1839)
  25. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 26th Cong., 1st Sess. 56 (1839)
  26. ^ Brooks, Corey M. (2016). Liberty Power: Antislavery Third Parties and the Transformation of American Politics. University of Chicago Press. pp. 125–127. ISBN 978-0-226-30728-2.
  27. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 30th Cong., 1st Sess. 2 (1847)
  28. ^ a b "The Election of Speaker". The New York Times. January 10, 1860. Retrieved March 3, 2019 – via The Times's print archive.
  29. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 31st Cong., 1st Sess. 2 (1849)
  30. ^ a b LOC, Cong. Globe, 31st Cong., 1st Sess. 66 (1849)
  31. ^ a b c Jenkins, Jeffery A.; Nokken, Timothy P. (February 2000). "The Institutional Origins of ther Republican Party: Spatial Voting and the House Speakership Election of 1855–56" (PDF). Legislative Studies Quarterly. 25 (1): 114, 128–130. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  32. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 34th Cong., 1st Sess. 3 (1855)
  33. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 34th Cong., 1st Sess. 337 (1856)
  34. ^ LOC, Cong. Globe, 34th Cong., 1st Sess. 341 (1856)
  35. ^ Freehling, William W. (2007). The Road To Disunion: Volume 2: Secessionists Triumphant, 1854–1861. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-19-505815-4. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
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Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U.S. federal government.