List of ancient Philippine consorts

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This is a list of the queen consorts of the major kingdoms and states that existed in present-day Philippines. Only the senior queens—i.e. those with the rank of Dayang and Lakambini ("Queen of the Palace")—are listed.

Rankings of consorts[edit]

Painting of a young woman of the Noble Maginoo caste adorned with gold ornaments.
A Tagalog couple belong to Maharlika caste.
A noble couple in Visayas.
The painting of a young mother and her child which belong in Maharlika caste and their abode which is the Torogan in the background.

Prior to the Archaic epoch (c. 900–1565), the consorts of the Filipino monarchs were organized in three general tiers: Dayang (ᜇᜌᜅ᜔), Lakambini (ᜎᜃᜋ᜔ᜊᜒᜈᜒ), and Binibini (ᜊᜒᜈᜒ ᜊᜒᜈᜒ), or even the word Hara (ᜑᜍ) is a Malayo-Sanskrit terms in which referred to a Queen in western sense, also meant the chief queen of the states and polities which is in the influence of India or Animist states (see also Indianized kingdoms).

The title Sultana or sultanah is an Islamic title and a feminine form of the word Sultan. This term has been legally used for some Muslim women monarchs and sultan's consorts. Nevertheless, westerners have used the title to refer to Muslim women monarchs specially in the southern part of the Philippines, which is in the Islamic influence (like Sulu and Maguindanao), sultan's women relatives who don't hold this title officially.

Rank Title in Baybayin / Arabic-Jawi Description
Hara (Tagalog: ᜑᜍ) Queen consort of a Raja
Dayang (Tagalog: ᜇᜌᜅ᜔) Court lady or a female Chief spouse of Datu[1]
Lakambini (Tagalog: ᜎᜃᜋ᜔ᜊᜒᜈᜒ) Queen of the Palace or Chief Consort of Lakan
Binibini (Tagalog: ᜊᜒᜈᜒ ᜊᜒᜈᜒ) A Princess also a Court lady[1]
Dayang-dayang (Tagalog: ᜇᜌᜅ᜔ ᜇᜌᜅ᜔ , Arabic: يغىل يغشىل‎) A Princess also a Court lady later become Queen consort of a Sultan or a Raja in Mindanao[1]
Sultana Arabic: سلطا‎ (sulṭānah) is an Islamic title and a feminine form of the word Sultan. This term has been legally used for some Muslim women monarchs and sultan's consorts. Nevertheless, westerners have used the title to refer to Muslim women monarchs and sultan's women relatives who don't hold this title officially.

List of consorts[edit]

Legendary consorts[edit]

  • Legendary consorts and their husbands are mentioned in the folktales and oral traditions.
  • Some of the Queen consorts are claimed to be mythical, but proven to be a historic figure according in the written documents like Queen Urduja for example, she is mentioned historically as the Queen of Caboloan in Chinese accounts, but also mentioned as the Queen of the legendary kingdom of Tawalisi, found in the travel account of Ibn Battuta.[1]
Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Mariang Makiling statue at the University of the Philippines in Los Baños.jpg Maria Makiling Dayang legendary legendary Captain Lara
Joselito
and Juan[2]
Maria Makiling is the guardian spirit of the mountain, responsible for protecting its bounty and thus, is also a benefactor for the townspeople who depend on the mountain's resources. In addition to being a guardian of the Mount Makiling, some legends also identify Laguna de Bay - and the fish caught from it - as part of her domain.[3][1]
Mt.Mayon tam3rd.jpg Magayon Princess legendary legendary a Tagalog Prince Pagtuga (eruption) (English: Lady Beautiful) is the heroine that appears in the legend of Mt. Mayon in Albay.[4]
a native Princess from Boxer Codex. Sasaban Princess or Lady c. 1300
(according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio)[1] Batangueño folk tradition (cited by Odal-Devora, 2000[1]), and oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[1])
Emperor Soledan in oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, a "lady of Namayan" who went to the Madjapahit court to marry Emperor Soledan, eventually giving birth to Balagtas, who then returned to Namayan/Pasig in 1300.[1](p51)
Urduja Hara c. 1350 1400 - a legendary warrior princess who is recognized as a heroine in Pangasinan. The name Urduja appears to be Sanskrit in origin, and a variation of the name "Udaya", meaning "arise" or "rising sun", or the name "Urja", meaning "breath". A historical reference to Urduja can be found in the travel account of Ibn Battuta (1304 – possibly 1368 or 1377 AD), a Muslim traveler from Morocco.

Historical consorts[edit]

Caboloan (Pangasinan Wangdom)[edit]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Urduja Hara c. 1350 1400 - The Queen regnant of Caboloan, but presumed to be legendary.[5]

Tondo Dynasty[edit]

Tondo have a personal union with Namayan through the traditional lineage of Kalangitan and Bagtas.[1]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Angkatan Dayang c. 900 ? Namwaran Known in LCI.[6][7]
Buka Dayang c. 900 ? Jayadewa Known in LCI. She was married to Senapati Jayadewa, as a bargain to clear the debt of 1 kati and 8 suwarnas of her parents Namwaran and Dayang Angkatan.[8][6][7]
Panginoan Dayang c. 1300[1] (Oral tradition) Gat Balagtas of Sapa and Taal, Batangas[1] In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, "Princess Panginoan of Pasig" who was married by Balagtas, the son of Emperor Soledan of Majapahit in 1300 AD in an effort consolidate rule of Namayan.[1](pp47,51)
Naturales 3.png Kalangitan Dayang[9] c. 1450 1515 Rajah Lontok The only Queen regnant in the history of Kingdom of Tondo.[9]
Long red right-pointing triangle.svg Malyag Dayang - Mother of Rajah Lontok of Namayan.
Long red right-pointing triangle.svg Lahat Dayang Gat Timog

Namayan[edit]

Namayan have a personal union with Tondo through the traditional lineage of Kalangitan and Bagtas. (Legendary antiquity)[1]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
a native Princess from Boxer Codex. Sasaban Princess or Lady prior to 1300
(according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio)[1]
? Emperor Soledan Batangueño folk tradition (cited by Odal-Devora, 2000),[1] and oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio.[1]
Panginoan Dayang c. 1300 according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[1] ? Gat Balagtas of Sapa In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, "Princess Panginoan of Pasig" who was married by Balagtas, the son of Emperor Soledan of Madjapahit in 1300 in an effort consolidate rule of Namayan.[1](pp47,51)

Maynila[edit]

According to Bruneian oral tradition,[10] a city with the Malay name of Selurong, which would later become the city of Maynila) was formed around the year 1500. According to some of these oral traditions, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the Kingdom of Tondo, and established Selurong.[11]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Unknown[12] Hara c.1400's or 1500 1521 Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, although with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review.[13] The veracity of "quasi-historical" (meaning not physically original) genealogical documents also remains subject to scholarly peer review.[12] She served as Paramount ruler of Manila after the death of her husband. Her period of reign covered the youth of Rajah Matanda,[2] including the time Ache spent as commander of the Bruneian navy.[14]
Old Flag of Brunei.svg Lela Mecana
also known as Chanai Lela[15]
Sultana 1485
(husband's reign)
1524
(husband's reign)
Bolkiah She is a princess of Sulu who is the spouse of Bolkiah who invaded and conquered Selurong in the 15th century,[16] her husband was also the Sultan of Bruneian Empire.[15]
Naturales 5.png Ismelia
or Ysmeria
Dayang
Sultana
1515
(husband's reign)
1558
(husband's reign)
Rajah Sulaiman I

Rajahnate of Cebu[edit]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Humamay
or Humamai
Hara Before 1521
(husband's reign)
?
(husband's reign)
Rajah Humabon Later changed its name to Juana after she converted to Roman Catholic.[17]

Kedatuan of Dapitan[edit]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Bugbung Humasanum Dayang (Princess) c. 12th century[18] unknown
(husband's reign)
Datu Sumanga Datu Sumanga raids China to win the hand of Dayang-dayang Bugbung Humasanum.[18]

Sultanate of Maguindanao[edit]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Flag of Maguindanao.svg Three (3) named consorts: Angintabo
Simbaan
Masawang
Dayang-dayang 1520
(husband's reign)
1543
(husband's reign)
Sharif Kabungsuwan a daughter of Macaapun Rajah,
A princess from Malabang
and Angintabo's niece.[19]
Unknown Princess Dayang-dayang ?
(husband's reign)
? Sharif Kabungsuwan a daughter of Macaapun Rajah.
Flag of Maguindanao.svg Daragat Dayang ? daughter of Sharif Kabungsuwan.[19]

Sultanate of Sulu[edit]

Image Consort Rank Became consort Ceased to be consort Spouse Notes
Paramisuli Dayang-dayang c. 17 November 1405 ? Sharif ul-Hāshim of Sulu [5]
Tuambaloka Dayang-dayang 1649 1650 Rajah Bongso A woman from Basilan who ascended to power and become the Queen consort of Jolo known for her bravery as she and her husband held of the invaders with 4,000 warriors.[5]
Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Piandao Kiram Hadji Dayang-dayang Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram [5]
Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Tarhata Kiram Hadji Dayang-dayang [5]
Emraida Kiram Hadji Dayang-dayang 1967 Miss World[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Odal-Devora, Grace (2000). Alejandro, Reynaldo Gamboa; Yuson, Alfred A. (eds.). The River Dwellers. Pasig : The River of Life. Unilever Philippines. pp. 43–66.
  2. ^ Lanuza, Michelle, The Legend of Maria Makiling, archived from the original on 2007-10-02, retrieved 2007-09-30
  3. ^ http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2003/6/20/21542/7380
  4. ^ https://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/yosemite/3712/tmagayon.html&date=2009-10-26+03:12:49
  5. ^ a b c d e f http://www.filipiknow.net/filipina-muslims-philippine-history/
  6. ^ a b (2010-05-07). "Laguna Copperplate Inscription". All Philippines. Retrieved on 2011-11-17.
  7. ^ a b Tiongson, Jaime F. (2010-08-08). "Laguna Copperplate Inscription: A New Interpretation Using Early Tagalog Dictionaries" Archived 2012-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. Bayang Pinagpala. Retrieved on 2011-11-18.
  8. ^ http://www.bagongkasaysayan.org/ebook/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/3.Ang-Tundo_Kimuell-Gabriel_Marked.pdf
  9. ^ a b "Timeline / Pre-Colonial". City of Pasig. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  10. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4.
  11. ^ del Mundo, Clodualdo (September 20, 1999). "Ako'y Si Ragam (I am Ragam)". Diwang Kayumanggi. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  12. ^ a b Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882). Historia general de las Islas Occidentales a la Asia adyacentes, llamadas Filipinas. Colección de Documentos inéditos para la historia de España, v.78–79. Madrid: Impr. de Miguel Ginesta.
  13. ^ Junker, Laura Lee (1998). "Integrating History and Archaeology in the Study of Contact Period Philippine Chiefdoms". International Journal of Historical Archaeology
  14. ^ de Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882). Historia general de las Islas Occidentales a la Asia adyacentes, llamadas Filipinas. Colección de Documentos inéditos para la historia de España, v.78–79. Madrid: Impr. de Miguel Ginesta.
  15. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-10-03. Retrieved 2015-10-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ http://www.manilatimes.net/the-filipina-as-ritualist-and-warrior/81079/
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2007-09-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ a b http://www.discoverbohol.com/Features/Dauis-History-Part-1.htm
  19. ^ a b Halili, M. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Book Store. p. 52. ISBN 9789712339349. Retrieved 2015-08-23.

External links[edit]