List of asanas

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Padmāsana, lotus pose, used for meditation. Gilt bronze statue of Bodhisattva Manjusri and Prajnaparamita, Nepal, c. 1575

An asana is a posture, whether for traditional hatha yoga or for modern yoga;[1] the term is derived from the Sanskrit word for 'seat'. While many of the oldest mentioned asanas are indeed seated postures for meditation, asanas may be standing, seated, arm-balances, twists, inversions, forward bends, backbends, or reclining in prone or supine positions. The asanas have been given a variety of English names by competing schools of yoga.[2]

The traditional number of asanas is the symbolic 84, but different texts identify different selections, sometimes listing their names without describing them.[3][a] Some names have been given to different asanas over the centuries, and some asanas have been known by a variety of names, making tracing and the assignment of dates difficult.[5] For example, the name Muktasana is now given to a variant of Siddhasana with one foot on top of the other, but has also been used for Siddhasana and other cross-legged meditation poses.[6] As another example, the headstand is now known by the 20th century name Shirshasana, but an older name for the pose is Kapalasana.[3][7] Sometimes, the names have the same meaning, as with Bidalasana and Marjariasana, both meaning Cat Pose.[8][9]

Affixes[edit]

Variations on the basic asanas are indicated by Sanskrit affixes including the following:

English Sanskrit Meaning Example
Adho अधो downward Adho Mukha Shvanasana (downward dog)
Ardha अर्ध half Ardha Padmasana (half lotus)
Baddha बद्ध bound Baddha Konasana (bound angle)
Dvi द्वि two Dvi Pada Kaundinyasana (two-legged Kaundinya)
Eka एक one Eka Pada Shirshasana (one-legged headstand)
Parivritta परिवृत्त revolved Parivritta Trikonasana (reverse triangle)
Prasarita प्रसारित spread out Prasarita Padottanasana (wide stance forward bend)
Salamba षलम्ब supported Salamba Shirshasana (supported headstand)
Supta सुप्त supine, reclining Supta Virasana (reclining hero)
Upavishta उपविष्ठ seated Upavishta Konasana (wide-angle seated forward bend)
Urdhva ऊर्ध्व upwards Urdhva Dhanurasana (upwards bow)
Utthita उत्थित extended Utthita Parsvakonasana (extended side angle)
Viparita विपरीत inverted Viparita Dandasana (inverted staff)

Asanas[edit]

A single asana is listed for each pose, whether or not there are variations. Thus for Sirsasana (Yoga headstand), only one pose is illustrated, although the pose can be varied by moving the legs apart sideways or front-and-back, by lowering one leg to the floor, by folding the legs into lotus posture, by turning the hips to one side, by placing the hands differently on the ground, and so on. Iyengar's 1966 Light on Yoga lists 15 variations on the basic headstand, including for instance the combined variation Parivrttaikapada Sirsasana in which not only are the hips revolved but the legs are apart front-and-back.[10] Since then, variations of many other poses have been created.[11] Yin Yoga names are for the equivalent Yin variants; these are usually somewhat different from the conventional (Yang) poses.

Indian texts are "notoriously difficult to date".[12] The table shows the approximate date and abbreviated title of the earliest document or authority to describe that asana (not only naming it), as follows:

Asana Sanskrit English Type Effect on spine Suitable for
meditation
Described[c] Yin Yoga variant[13][d] Image
Adho Mukha Shvanasana[14] अधोमुखश्वानासन Downward-Facing Dog Standing Forward bend 20th C. TK[15]
18th C. HAP (in dynamic pose "Gajāsana")[16]
Ado-muka-shvanasana.jpg
Adho Mukha Vrikshasana[17] अधोमुखवृक्षासन Downward-Facing Tree,
Yoga Handstand
Balancing 18th C. HAP[18]
Rocket-yoga-13 handstand (cropped).jpg
Akarna Dhanurasana[19] आकर्णधनुरासन Shooting bow,
Archer,
Bow and arrow
Sitting 19th C. ST[20] (as Dhanurāsana)
Akarna Dhanurasana.jpg
Anantasana[21] अनन्तासन Ananta's pose,
Vishnu's Couch pose
Reclining 20th C. LoY[22]
Anantasana wfs.jpg
Anjaneyasana[23] अञ्जनेयासन Crescent Moon[24] Standing Backbend 20th C.[25] Dragon
Variation with arms down
Ardha Chandrasana[26] अर्धचन्द्रासन Half moon Standing 20th C. LoY[27]
Ardha-Chandrasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Ashtanga Namaskara[28] अष्टाङ्ग नमस्कार Eight-Limbed Salutation
Caterpillar
Reclining 20th C. TK[28]
Ashtanga Namaskara (cropped).JPG
Astavakrasana[29] अष्टावक्रासन Aṣṭāvakra's pose,
Eight-angled
Balancing 20th C. LoY[30]
Astavakrasana.jpg
Baddha Konasana[31]
Bhadrasana[32]
बद्धकोणासन Bound angle,
Cobbler's pose
Sitting Meditation[32] 15th C. HYP[32]
17th C. GhS[32]
Butterfly
Baddha konasana.jpg
Bakasana[33]
Kakasana[34]
बकासन,
ककासन
Crane (arms straight)
Crow (arms bent)
Balancing 17th C. HR[35]
Bakasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Balasana[36] बालासन Child Sitting 20th C. TK[37]
19th C. ST Ananda Balasana (as Kandukasana)[38]
Child's
Balasana.JPG
Bhairavasana
Ankushasana[39]
भैरवासन
अण्कुशासन
Formidable Reclining 19th C. ST[39]
Ankusasana from Sritattvanidhi (cropped).jpg
Bharadvajasana[40] भरद्वाजासन Bharadvaja's twist Sitting Twist 20th C. LoY[41] Seated Twist
Bharadvajasana1 (cropped).JPG
Bhekasana[42] भेकासन Frog Reclining Backbend 20th C. LoY[43]
Bhekasana1.JPG
Bhujangasana[44] भुजङ्गासन Cobra Reclining Backbend 17th C. GhS 2.42[45][46] Seal, Sphinx
Bhujangasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Bhujapidasana[47] भुजपीडासन Arm-pressing posture Balancing 20th C. LoY[48] Snail
Bhujapidasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Bidalasana[8]
Marjariasana[9]
बिडालासन
मार्जरीआसन
Cat Kneeling Backbend 20th C. T.K.V. Desikachar, Satyananda Saraswati[9]
Caturanga Dandasana[49] चतुरङ्गदण्डासन Four-Limbed Staff
Low Plank
Reclining 20th C. TK[50]
Chaturanga-Dandasana low Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Dandasana[51] दण्डासन Staff Sitting 08th C. PSV[52]
Dandasana yoga posture.jpg
Dhanurasana[53] धनुरासन Bow Reclining Backbend 15th C. HYP 1.27
Dhanurasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Durvasasana[54] दुर्वासासन Durvasa's Pose Standing, Balancing 19th C. ST (as 'Trivikramasana')[55]
Durvasasana from Sritattvanidhi.jpg
Garbha Pindasana[56] गर्भासन Embryo in Womb Sitting 17th C. BaH[57]
Garbhasana.jpg
Garudasana[58] गरुडासन Eagle Standing, Balancing 19th C. ST[59][e]
Garudasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Gomukhasana[60] गोमुखासन Cow-faced Sitting Meditation[61] 04th C. DU[62]
10th C. V[63]
15th C. HYP 1.20
Shoelace
Gomukhasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Gorakshasana गोरक्षासन Cowherd
Gorakhnath's pose
Sitting Meditation 14th C. ShS 3.108-112
15th C. HYP 1.28-29
17th C. GhS 2.24-25
Jogapradipika 22 Bhadragorakhasana (cropped).jpg
Halasana[64] हलासन Plough Inversion Forward bend 19th C. ST[65] (as Lāṇgalāsana, plough)
20th C. TB[66]
Halasana.jpg
Hanumanasana[67] हनुमनासन Hanuman's Pose Sitting 20th C. TK[68]
Hanumanasana - Hanuman's Posture - in Diagonal View.jpg
Janusirsasana[69] जानुशीर्षासन Head-to-Knee Sitting Forward Bend 20th C. TK[70][71]
Janusirsasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Jathara Parivartanasana[72] ञटर परिवर्तनासन​ Belly twist Reclining Twist 20th C. LoY[72]
Kapotasana[73] कपोतासन Pigeon Kneeling Backbend 20th C. LoY[74]
Kapotasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Karnapidasana[75] कर्णपीडासन Ear-pressing Inversion Forward bend 20th C. TB[76] (as variant of Halasana); LoY[77]
Karnapidasana.jpg
Kaundinyasana[78] कौण्डिन्यसन Kaundinya's pose Balancing 20th C. LoY[79]
Mr-yoga-two-legged-koundinya.jpg
Kraunchasana[80] क्रौञ्चासन Heron Sitting 17th C. HR[35]
Kukkutasana[56] कुक्कुटासन Cockerel Balancing 07th C. AS[57]
13th C. VS[81]
15th C. HYP 1.23
17th C. GhS 2.31[59]
Yoga shaktipat kukkutasana by alexey baykov.jpg
Kurmasana[82][83] कूर्मासन Tortoise Sitting Forward bend 07th C. AS[57]
Kūrmāsana - Tortoise Pose with Hands Facing Back.jpg
Lolasana[84] लोलासन Pendant Balancing 20th C.[f][g]
Mr-yoga-pendant pose.jpg
Makarasana[87] मकरासन Crocodile Reclining 17th C. GhS 2.40[h]
Makarasana Asana (Crocodile Posture).jpg
Malasana[89] मालासन Garland Squatting Forward bend 20th C. LoY[89]
Mālāsana heel grab side.jpg
Mandukasana मन्दुकासन Frog Sitting 17th C. GhS[90]
Marichyasana[91] मरीच्यासना Marichi's Pose Sitting Twist 20th C. TK[92]
Matsyasana[93] मत्स्यासन Fish Reclining Backbend 17th C. GhS 2.21 Fish
Matsyasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Matsyendrasana[94] मत्स्येन्द्रासन Lord of the Fishes
Matsyendra's pose
Sitting Twist 15th C. HYP 1.28-29
17th C. GhS
Ardha-Matsyendrasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Mayurasana[17] मयूरासन Peacock Balancing 10th C. V[63]
15th C. HYP 1.33
Peacock pose.jpg
Muktasana[6] मुक्तासन Liberated Sitting Meditation 10th C. V[63][i]
Samanasana.jpg
Natarajasana[95] नटराजासन Lord of the Dance
Dancer
Nataraja's Pose
Standing Backbend 20th C. TK[96]
Natarajasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Navasana
Paripurna Navasana[97]
Naukasana[39]
नावासन,
परिपूर्णनावासन
नौकासन
Boat,
Full Boat
Sitting Forward bend 19th C. ST[39]
Paripurna-Navasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Padmasana[98] पद्मासन Lotus Sitting Meditation[99] 04th C. DU[100]
08th C. PSV[52]
Lotus pose.JPG
Parighasana[101] परिघासन Gate Standing 20th C. TK[50]
Parshvakonasana[102] पार्श्वकोणासन Side angle Standing 20th C. TK[50][70]
Utthita-Parshvakonasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Parshvottanasana[103] पार्श्वोत्तनासन Intense side stretch Standing 20th C. TK[50][70]
Parshvottanasana.jpg
Pashasana[104] पाशासन Noose Squatting Twist 19th C. ST[46]
Pasasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Paschimottanasana[105] पश्चिमोत्तानासन Seated Forward Bend Sitting Forward Bend 15th C. HYP 1:28[20]
17th C. GhS 2:26[20]
Full Forward Bend, Caterpillar
Paschimotanasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Pincha Mayurasana[106] पिञ्चमयूरासन Feathered Peacock Balancing 20th C. LoY[107]
Ardha vrishkasana.jpg
Prasarita Padottanasana[108] प्रसारित पादोत्तानासन Wide Stance Forward Bend Standing Forward bend 20th C. TK[50][70]
Practice (1) (16383984312).jpg
Rajakapotasana[109] राजकपोतासन King Pigeon Sitting Backbend 20th C. LoY[110] Swan, Sleeping Swan
Yoga shaktipat rajakapotasana by alexey baykov.jpg
Shalabhasana[111] शलभासन Locust Reclining Backbend 20th C. TB[112]
Salabhasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Sarvangasana[113] सालम्बसर्वाङ्गासन Shoulder Stand Inversion 20th C. (this name); 19th C. as Viparita Karani in JP; 15th C. HYP
Sarvangasana.jpg
Samakonasana[114] समकोणासन Side splits Sitting 20th C. TK[70]
Samakonasana (Side Split) Szpagat poprzeczny.jpg
Shavasana[115] शवासन Corpse Reclining 15th C. HYP 1.32[116] Corpse
Shavasana.jpg
Setu Bandha Sarvangasana[117] सेतुबन्धसर्वाङ्गासन Shoulder supported bridge Inversion Backbend 19th C. ST, called Kāmapīṭhāsana[118]
Kamapithasana (Setubandhasana) from Sritattvanidhi.jpg
Siddhasana (men),
Siddha Yoni Asana (women)[119]
सिद्धासन Accomplished,
The Adept's Pose
Sitting Meditation[119] 10th C. GS 1.10-12
Sidhasana.JPG
Simhasana[120] सिंहासन Lion Sitting Meditation[120] 04th C. DU[100]
10th C. V[63]
Simhasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Shirshasana[121]
Kapalasana[122]
शीर्षासन Headstand,
Yoga Headstand
Inversion 11th C. HY[123](called Duryodhanāsana or Kapālīkarana)
14th C. ShS 4.45-47 (as Viparita Karani)[124]
15th C. HYP 3.78-81 (ditto)[124]
17th C. GhS 3.33-35 (ditto)[124]
18th C. JP (as Kapala āsana)
Shirshasana.jpg
Sukhasana[125] सुखासन Easy Sitting Meditation[126] 04th C. DU[127] Easy
Sukkasana.jpg
Supta Padangusthasana[128] सुप्त पादाङ्गुष्ठासन Big toe supine Reclining 20th C. TK[50][70]
Ardha maerudhandaasana.jpg
Supta Virasana[129] सुप्त वीरासन Reclined hero Reclining 20th C. TK[130] Saddle
Supta-Virasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Surya Namaskar[131][132] सुर्य नमस्कार Salute to the Sun
Sun Salutation
Standing Forward bend,
backbend sequence
20th C. Rajah of Aundh,[133] then TK[15]
1Pranamasana.JPG
Svastikasana[134] स्वस्तिकसन Auspicious
Lucky mark
Sitting Meditation[134] 08th C. PSV[52] Square
Jogapradipika 1 Svastikasana (detail).jpg
Tadasana[135] ताडासन Mountain Standing 20th C. TK[50]
Tadasana - Yoga Art and Science.jpg
Tittibhasana[136] टिट्टिभासन Firefly Balancing 19th C. ST[46] (as Mālāsana)
Mr-yoga-firefly-pose-1.jpg
Trikonasana,
Utthita Trikonasana[137]
त्रिकोणासन,
उत्थित त्रिकोणासन
Triangle Standing 20th C. TK[138]
Trikonasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Trivikramasana[139] त्रिविक्रमासन Trivikrama's pose
Standing splits
Supta Trivikramasana (reclining variant)
Standing, Balancing 13th - 18th C. in Bharatnatyam dance statues of Eastern Gopuram, Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram[140]
Trivikramasana temple statue.JPG
Tulasana[141] तुलासन Balance / Scales Balancing 20th C. LoY[142]
Mr-yoga-scales-pose.jpg
Upavishta Konasana[143] उपविष्टकोणासन Open Angle Sitting 20th C. TK[70] Dragonfly
Mr-yoga-seated-angle-pose.jpg
Urdhva Dhanurasana[144]
Chakrasana
ऊर्ध्वधनुरासन, चक्रासन Upwards-facing bow,
Wheel
Inversion Backbend 19th C. ST[145] (as Paryaṇkāsana)
Chakrasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Urdhva Mukha Shvanasana[146] ऊर्ध्वमुखश्वानासन Upward-Facing Dog Reclining Backbend 20th C. TK[50]
Upward-facing dog pose.jpg
Ushtrasana[147] उष्ट्रासन Camel Kneeling Backbend 20th C. LoY[148]
Ustrasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Utkatasana[149] उत्कटासन Awkward or Powerful Standing 15th C. HYP (squatting)[150]
17th C. GhS[45]

20th C. TK[151] (chair-like)
Utkatasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Uttanasana[152] उत्तानासन Standing Forward Bend Standing Forward bend 20th C. TB (as Padahastasana)[153]; TK[50][70]
Uttanasana.jpg
Utthita Hastapadangusthasana[154] उत्थित हस्तपादाङ्गुष्ठासन Standing Big Toe Hold
(I: leg to the side;
II: leg to the front[154])
Standing 20th C. TK[50][70]
Utthita-Hasta-Padangusthasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Utthita Parsvakonasana[155] उत्थितपार्श्वकोणासन Extended Side Angle Standing 20th C. TK[50][70]
Utthita-Parshvakonasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Vajrasana[156] वज्रासन Thunderbolt Kneeling Meditation[157] 17th C. GhS[45] (may mean Virasana[116])
Vajrasana.jpg
Vasishtasana[158] वसिष्ठासन Vasishta's pose,
Side plank
Balancing 20th C. TK[159]
Yoga PLank.jpg
Viparita Dandasana[160] विपरीत दण्डासन Inverted Staff Inversion Backbend 20th C. TK?, LoY[160]
Dwi Pada Viparita Dandasana.jpg


Viparita Karani[161]
Uttanapadasana (variant)
विपरीतकरणि Inverted practice
Legs up the wall
Inversion 14th C. ShS 4.45-47[124]
15th C. HYP 3.78-81[124]
17th C. GhS 3.33-35[124] and other texts[138][j]
Legs-Up-the-Wall
Viparita-Karani Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Viparita Virabhadrasana[162] विपरीतवीरभद्रासन Reversed Warrior[k] Standing 21st C. PL[162]
Reverse warrior pose.jpg
Virabhadrasana I[163] वीरभद्रासन Warrior I Standing 20th C. TK[164][165]
Virabhadrasana I - Warrior Pose I.jpg
Virabhadrasana II[166] वीरभद्रासन II Warrior II Standing 20th C. TK[164][165]
Warrior II.jpg
Virabhadrasana III[167] वीरभद्रासन III Warrior III Standing 20th C. TK[164][165]
Tuladandasana.jpg
Virasana,[168]
Dhyana Virasana[169]
वीरासन,
ध्यान वीरासन
Hero,
Hero's Meditation
Kneeling Meditation[169][170] 04th C. DU[100]
08th C. PSV[52] (these may refer to a different meditation pose)
Virasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Vrikshasana[171] वृक्षासन Tree Standing, Balancing 17th C. GhS[45]
Vriksasana Yoga-Asana Nina-Mel.jpg
Vrischikasana[172] वृश्चिकासन Scorpion Inversion Backbend 20th C. LoY[173] (13th - 18th C. in Bharatnatyam dance statues of Eastern Gopuram, Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram but not yoga[140])
Variant with one leg bent
Yoganidrasana[174]
Pasini Mudra
योगनिद्रासन Yogic sleep
Noose Mudra
Reclining Forward bend 17th C. HR 3.70
17th C. GhS 3.84 as a Mudra
18th C. painting, Mysore[175]
Mr-yoga-yogic-sleep-pose.jpg

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 84's symbolism may derive from its astrological and numerological properties: it is the product of 7, the number of planets in astrology, and 12, the number of signs of the zodiac, while in numerology, 7 is the sum of 3 and 4, and 12 is the product, i.e. 84 is (3+4)×(3×4).[4]
  2. ^ PL, Post-Light on Yoga poses, are marked as '21st C.' to sort late 20th as well as 21st century asanas after TK and LoY.
  3. ^ Sjoman notes that the names of asanas have been used "promiscuous[ly]", making their history difficult to trace: the presence of matching names is not proof of continuity, since the same name may mean a different pose, and a pose may have been known by other names at different times.[5] The dates here are therefore based on documents which provide actual descriptions of the asanas.
  4. ^ The Yin Yoga variants are similar but not identical to their 'Yang' equivalents.[13]
  5. ^ GhS uses the name Garuḍāsana for a different pose.
  6. ^ Not yet yoga in 1896 as Jhūla pose in Vyayama Dipika gymnastics book[85]
  7. ^ LoY has the legs as in Gomukhasana, not in Padmasana.[86]
  8. ^ LoY quotes and interprets GhS 2.40 as meaning a variant of Salabhasana, the legs stretched out and raised, the arms as GhS states on the head, also raised;[88] Saraswati has the head supported with elbows on the ground;[87]a a widespread modern form has feet and head on the ground.
  9. ^ Several sitting meditation poses have been called Muktasana.
  10. ^ Viparita Karani is an inverted practice rather than an asana; the ShS, HYP and GhS descriptions suggest the actual posture used was a headstand.
  11. ^ This is a well-documented example of a post-Light on Yoga (1966) pose, created as a variation of the 20th century Warrior poses. Hundreds of less common variations of other poses have been created in the same time frame.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singleton 2010, pp. 4–5.
  2. ^ Murugan 2012.
  3. ^ a b Bühnemann, Gudrun (2007). Eighty-Four Asanas in Yoga: A Survey of Traditions (PDF). New Delhi: D. K. Printworld. pp. 47, 151. ISBN 978-8124604175.
  4. ^ Rosen, Richard (2017). Yoga FAQ: Almost Everything You Need to Know about Yoga-from Asanas to Yamas. Shambhala. pp. 171-. ISBN 978-0-8348-4057-7.
  5. ^ a b Sjoman 1999, p. 59.
  6. ^ a b "Muktasana". Yogapedia. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  7. ^ Sjoman 1999, p. 57.
  8. ^ a b Lidell 1983, p. 166.
  9. ^ a b c "Cat Pose — Marjariasana". Akasha Yoga. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  10. ^ Iyengar 1979, pp. 179-205.
  11. ^ McCrary, Meagan (15 July 2015). "#YJ40: 10 Poses Younger Than Yoga Journal". Yoga Journal. Once you learn how the fundamental poses work anatomically then it's very natural to start to play with breaking them apart and putting them back together differently ... You won’t find this playful variation of Warrior II Pose in Light on Yoga.
  12. ^ Mallinson & Singleton 2017, p. xxxix.
  13. ^ a b Powers 2008, p. 195.
  14. ^ Mehta 1990, p. 147.
  15. ^ a b Singleton 2010, pp. 205-206.
  16. ^ Mallinson & Singleton 2017, p. 125.
  17. ^ a b Lidell 1983, p. 142.
  18. ^ Mallinson & Singleton 2017, p. 124.
  19. ^ Saraswati 1996, p. 137.
  20. ^ a b c Sjoman 1999, p. 84.
  21. ^ Mehta 1990, p. 87.
  22. ^ Iyengar 1979, pp. 246-247.
  23. ^ Steiner, Ronald (June 2015). "Anjaneyāsana - Learning devotion from Hanuman". Yoga Aktuell (in German) (92 June/July 2015). Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  24. ^ Lidell 1983, pp. 132–133.
  25. ^ Lidell 1983, pp. 132-133.
  26. ^ Mehta 1990, p. 30.
  27. ^ Iyengar 1979, pp. 74-76.
  28. ^ a b Singleton 2010, pp. 205–206.
  29. ^ Mehta 1990, p. 128.
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