List of battles involving the Ottoman Empire

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Military of the
Ottoman Empire
Coat of Arms of the Ottoman Empire
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The main battles in the history of the Ottoman Empire are shown below. The life span of the empire was more than six centuries, and the maximum territorial extent, at the zenith of its power in the second half of the 16th century, stretched from central Europe to the Persian Gulf and from the Caspian Sea to North Africa. The number of battles the empire fought is quite high. But here only the more important battles are listed. Among these, the battles fought in the 20th century (Turco-Italian War, Balkan Wars, and World War I ) as well as the sieges (like the sieges of Constantinople, Cairo, Belgrade, Bagdad, etc.) which most lists include as battles are not shown except in cases where the siege is followed by a battle (i.e. Vienna, Khotyn, Plevna).[1][2]

List of battles[edit]

Europe Asia Africa Sea

(Color legend for the location of the battle)

Year Battle Opponent
1302 Bapheus Byzantine Empire
1303 Dimbos Byzantine Empire
1326 Bursa Byzantine Empire
1329 Pelekanon Byzantine Empire
1331 Nicaea Byzantine Empire
1337 Nicomedia Byzantine Empire
1337 Demotika Byzantine Empire, Serbian Empire
1354 Gallipoli Byzantine Empire
1355 Ihtiman Bulgarian Empire
1364 near Adrianople Serbian Empire
1369 Adrianople Byzantine Empire
1371 Maritsa Serbian Empire
1381 Dubrovnica Moravian Serbia
1385 Sofia Bulgarian Empire
1385 Savra Zeta under the Balšići
1386 Pločnik Moravian Serbia
1388 Bileca Kingdom of Bosnia
1389 Kosovo Moravian Serbia, District of Branković
Kingdom of Bosnia, Knights Hospitaller
1390 Philadelphia Byzantine Empire
1391 (or 1392) Kırkdilim Kadi Burhan al-Din
1393 Tarnovo Bulgarian Empire
1395 Rovine Wallachia (South Romania)
1396 Nicopolis Crusades[dn 1] (Hungary, France, Knights Hospitaller, Venice)
1402 Ankara Timurid Empire
1402 Tripolje Serbian Despotate
1403 Ulubad Civil war between Mehmed Çelebi and İsa Çelebi
1403 Kosmidion Civil war between Süleyman Çelebi and İsa Çelebi
1410 Kosmidion Byzantine Empire
1411 Constantinople Byzantine Empire
1411 (or 1412) İnceğiz Civil war between Mehmed Çelebi and Musa Çelebi
1413 Çamurlu Civil war between Mehmed Çelebi and Musa Çelebi
1416 Gallipoli Venice
1422 Constantinople Byzantine Empire
1428 Golubac Kingdom of Hungary, Wallachia Wallachia, Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1430 Thessalonica Byzantine Empire
1440 Belgrade Kingdom of Hungary, Serbian Despotate
1441 Novo Brdo Serbian Despotate, Republic of Ragusa
1442 Sântimbru and Sibiu Kingdom of Hungary
1443 Nish Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Poland, Serbian Despotate
1443 Zlatitsa Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Poland, Serbian Despotate
1444 Kunovica Crusades (Hungary, Serbia, Poland)
1444 Torvioll Albania
1444 Varna Crusades (Hungary, Poland and many others)
1445 Mokra Albania
1446 Otonetë Albania
1448 Svetigrad League of Lezhë
1448 Oranik League of Lezhë
1448 Second Kosovo Hungary, Wallacia
1450 Krujë League of Lezhë
1450 Polog Albania
1453 Constantinople Byzantine Empire
1454 Leskovac Serbian Despotate
1454 Kruševac Serbian Despotate, Kingdom of Hungary
1455 Berat Albania
1456 Oranik Albania
1456 Belgrade Kingdom of Hungary, Serbian Despotate
1457 Ujëbardha Albania
1462 Targoviste Wallachia
1461 Trebizond Byzantine Empire
1462 Mokra Albania
1463 Jajce Fortress) Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Republic of Venice
1464 Jajce Fortress) Kingdom of Hungary
1464 Ohrid Albania
1465 Vaikal Albania
1465 Meçad Albania
1467 Krujë Albania
1467 Krujë Albania
1473 Otlukbeli Akkoyunlu Turkmens
1474 Shkodra Republic of Venice, Principality of Zeta
1475 Crimea Principality of Theodoro, Republic of Genoa
1475 Vaslui Moldavia (North Romania)
1476 Valea Alba Moldavia
1478 Krujë Republic of Venice , Albania
1478 Shkodra Albania
1479 Câmpul Pâinii Hungary, Serbia
1474 Shkodra Republic of Venice, Lordship of Zeta
1480 Otranto Naples, Hungary, Aragon
1483 Novi Grad Kingdom of Croatia
1485 Adana Mamluk Sultanate
1485 Chilia Moldavia
1493 Lika Kingdom of Croatia
1493 Krbava Croatia, Hungary
1497 Chernivtsi Oblast Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
1499 Zonchio Venice
1500 Modon Venice
1500 Cephalonia Venice
1513 Dubica Croatia, Hungary
1514 Chaldiran Safavid Persia
1515 Turnadağ Beylik of Dulkadir
1516 Marj Dabiq Mamluk Egypt
1516 Yaunis Khan Mamluk Egypt
1517 Ridanieh Mamluk Egypt
1518 Jajce Kingdom of Croatia
1521 Belgrade Kingdom of Hungary
1522 Knin Croatia, Hungary
1522 Rhodes Knights Hospitallers
1526 Mohács Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, Papal States, Poland
1528 Hungary Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Bohemia,
Kingdom of Croatia, Ferdinand's Hungarian kingdom, Rascians
1528 Hungary Habsburg Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Bohemia,
Kingdom of Croatia, Ferdinand's Hungarian kingdom
1529 Formentera Spanish Empire
1529 Algiers Spanish Empire
1529 Siege of Vienna Holy Roman Empire
1529 Formentera Holy Roman Empire
1532 Kőszeg Kingdom of Croatia
1532 Leobersdorf Habsburg Monarchy, Kingdom of Hungary
1534 Baghdad Safavid Persia
1534 Tunis Hafsid dynasty
1535 Tunis Habsburg Monarchy, Hafsid dynasty, Republic of Genoa
Kingdom of Portugal, Papal States, Knights of Malta
1537 Fortress of Klis Kingdom of Croatia
1537 Corfu Republic of Venice
1537 Gorjani Holy Roman Empire
1539 Herceg Novi Spanish Empire
1540 Battle of Girolata Genoa, Spain
1541 Siege of Buda Holy Roman Empire
1541 Algiers Habsburg Monarchy, Order of Saint John, Republic of Genoa,
Papal States, Kingdom of Kuku
1542 Buda Holy Roman Empire
1543 Esztergom Holy Roman Empire
1543 Nice Holy Roman and Genoa
1545 Sokhoista Kingdom of Imereti, Kingdom of Kartli, Principality of Guria
1548 Van Safavid Persia
1551 Siege of Gozo Order of Saint John
1551 Siege of Tripoli Order of Saint John
1552 Ponza Genoa
1552 Temesvár Habsburg Monarchy
1552 Eger Hungary
1552 Muscat Portugal
1553 Corsica Republic of Genoa
1558 Mostaganem Spanish Empire
1560 Battle of Djerba Holy Roman Empire, Genoa, Papal states, Knights of Malta
1561 Brest Pokupski Kingdom of Croatia
1565 Great Siege of Malta Order of Saint John
1565 Bosanska Krupa Kingdom of Croatia
1565 Ivanić-Grad Kingdom of Croatia
1566 Szigetvár Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia
1570 Nicosia Republic of Venice
1570 Famagusta Republic of Venice
1571 Lepanto Holy League (Holy Roman Empire, Venice, Genoa, Papal states, Knights of Malta)
1574 Tunis Spanish Empire
1578 Gvozdansko Castle Kingdom of Croatia
1578 Ksar el Kebir Portugal
1578 Çıldır Safavid Persia
1578 Shamakhi Safavid Persia
1583 Torches[dn 2] Safavid Persia
1584 Slunj Kingdom of Croatia
1588 Wadi al-Laban Morocco
1592 Bihać Kingdom of Croatia
1592 Brest Pokupski Kingdom of Croatia
1593 Sisak Holy Roman Empire, Croatia
1595 Călugăreni Wallachia
1595 Giurgiu Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Holy Roman Empire
1596 Brest Pokupski Kingdom of Croatia
1596 Eger Habsburg Monarchy
1596 Keresztes Habsburg Monarchy
1599 Șelimbăr Wallachia
1601 Nagykanizsa Holy Roman and many more
1601 Guruslău Habsburg Monarchy
1603 Brașov Wallachia
1605 Sufiyan Safavid Persia
1609 Tashiskari Kingdom of Imereti
1620 Tutora Poland-Lithuania, Moldavia
1621 Khotyn (1621) Poland-Lithuania
1644 Novi Zrin Kingdom of Croatia
1649 Focchies Venice
1654 Perast Republic of Venice
1654 Dardanelles (1654) Venice
1655 Dardanelles (1655) Venice
1656 Dardanelles (1656) Venice
1657 Dardanelles (1657) Venice
1663 Köbölkút Holy Roman Empire
1663 Érsekújvár Holy Roman Empire
1663 Zrínyiújvár Holy Roman Empire
1663 Zrínyiújvár Holy Roman Empire
1664 Siege of Novi Zrin Holy Roman Empire
1664 Léva Holy Roman Empire
1664 Battle of Saint Gotthard Holy Roman Empire
1664 Candia Republic of Venice, Knights of Malta, France
1673 Khotyn (1673) Poland-Lithuania
1683 Siege of Vienna Holy Roman Empire, Poland-Lithuania
1683 Párkány Holy Roman Empire
1684 Vác Holy Roman Empire
1684 Buda Holy Roman Empire
1684 Lefkada Republic of Venice
1685 Érsekújvár Holy Roman Empire
1685 Eperjes Holy Roman Empire
1685 Kassa Holy Roman Empire
1686 Battle of Buda Holy League, Christian Coalition
1686 Pécs Holy Roman Empire
1687 Second Battle of Mohács Holy Roman Empire
1687 Crimea Tsardom of Russia
1687 Crimea Tsardom of Russia
1688 Chalkis Republic of Venice
1688 Belgrade Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria
1688 Batočina Holy Roman Empire
1689 Niš Holy Roman Empire
1690 Zernest Holy Roman Empire, Transylvania
1690 Mytilene Republic of Venice
1690 Belgrade Holy Roman Empire
1691 Slankamen Holy Roman Empire
1694 Ustechko Poland-Lithuania
1695 Oinousses Islands Venice
1695 Azov Tsardom of Russia
1695 Lugos Holy Roman Empire
1696 Azov Tsardom of Russia
1696 Andros Venice
1696 Cenei Holy Roman Empire
1697 Ulaş Holy Roman Empire
1697 Zenta Holy Roman Empire
1698 Podhajce Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1698 Samothrace Venice
1711 Pruth River Russian Empire
1716 Petrovaradin Holy Roman Empire
1717 Imbros Venice
1717 Matapan Venice, Portugal, Knights of Malta, Papal States
1733 Kirkuk Safavid Persia
1735 Yeghevard Safavid Persia
1737 Banja Luka Holy Roman Empire
1739 Grocka Holy Roman Empire
1739 Stavuchany Russian Empire
1745 Kars Afsharid Persia
1757 Khresili Kingdom of Imereti
1770 Aspindza Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
1770 Chesma Russian Empire
1770 Larga Russian Empire
1770 Kagul Russian Empire
1774 Kozluca Russian Empire
1774 Kerch Russian Empire
1775 Algiers Spanish Empire
1789 Sebeş Holy Roman Empire
1789 Fokşani Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire
1789 Rymnik Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire
1790 Kerch Russian Empire
1791 Kaliakra Russian Empire
1798 Pyramids France
1799 Acre France
1799 Abukir France
1805 Derne United States
1805 Ivankovac Serbian rebels
1806 Mišar Serbian rebels
1806 Deligrad Serbian rebels
1807 Arpachai Russian Empire
1807 Athos Russian Empire
1809 Čegar Serbian rebels
1810 Batin Russian Empire
1812 Al Safra Saudi Arab rebels
1813 Jeddah Saudi Arab rebels
1815 Ljubić Serbian rebels
1821 Alamana Greek rebels
1821 Dragashani Greek rebels
1822 Dervenakia Greek rebels
1822 Nauplia Greek rebels
1822 Chios Greek rebels
1825 Gerontas Greek rebels
1827 Kamatero Greek rebels
1827 Navarino Russian Empire, United Kingdom, France
1829 Kulevicha Russian Empire
1830 Algiers France
1831 Third Kosovo Bosnia (revolters)
1839 Konya Egypt (revolters)
1839 Nizib Egypt (revolters)
1840 Acre Egypt(revolters)
1853 Oltenitza Russian Empire
1853 Sinop Russian Empire
1854 Silistra Russian Empire
1854 Kurekdere Russian Empire
1855 Eupatoria Russian Empire
1877 Kızıl Tepe Russian Empire
1877 Plevna Russian Empire, Romania, Bulgaria (revolters)
1877 Shipka Russian Empire, Bulgaria (revolters)
1877 Taşkesen Russian Empire
1878 Plevna Russian Empire
1878 Mouzaki Greece
1880 Ulqin Albanian Irregulars
1881 Tunisia France
1897 Domokos Greece
1893 Al Wajbah Qatar (revolters)

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire participated in some of the battles listed above. For those battles see List of the Ottoman battles in which the sultan participated

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In most Ottoman European battles troops from many countries fought against Ottomans. Here, only the major opponents are listed.
  2. ^ The battle continued during the night, both sides using torches. Hence the name

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicolae Jorga: Geschiste des osmanischen , trans. by Nilüfer Epçeli, Yeditepe Yayınları, İstanbul, 2009, ISBN 975-6480-17-3[page needed]
  2. ^ Prof.Dr.Yaşar Yücel-Prof.Dr.Ali Sevim: Türkiye Tarihi II, III, IV, AKDTYK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1990,[page needed]