List of birds of Ireland

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Atlantic puffins nest in colonies around the coast.

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ireland. The avifauna of Ireland included a total of 478 species as of late 2015 according to the Irish Rare Birds Committee (IRBC).[1] An additional 21 species have been added and three replaced from Bird Checklists of the World.[2]

Of these 499 species, 285 are rare or accidental and three have been introduced by humans. One has apparently been extirpated, one is extinct, and one is probably extinct. The list also includes four entries of birds that have been accepted without being identified to species. The list does not include species placed in "Category D" by the IBRC. These are species where there is doubt as to whether they have occurred in a wild state (Category D1), they have arrived by human assistance such as on board a ship (D2), they have only been recorded dead on the tideline (D3), or they are feral species whose populations may not be self-sustaining (D4).

Ireland has a relatively low diversity of breeding birds due to its isolation. Several species such as the tawny owl, Eurasian nuthatch and willow tit which breed in Great Britain have not been recorded. However, there are large colonies of seabirds including important populations of European storm-petrels, northern gannets, and roseate terns. Other notable breeding birds include corn crakes and red-billed choughs. There are no endemic species but there are endemic subspecies of white-throated dipper, coal tit, and Eurasian jay.

Large numbers of wildfowl and waders winter in Ireland, attracted by its mild climate. About half the world population of the Greenland race of greater white-fronted geese spend the winter there. During autumn, many migrating seabirds can be seen off the coasts including several species of skuas, shearwaters, and petrels. Ireland's westerly position means that North American birds are regularly recorded in autumn.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition.[3]

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence; the tags are from Bird Checklists of the World.[2]

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ireland
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ireland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions


Ducks, geese, and waterfowl[edit]

Mute swans on Lough Leane.
Barnacle goose, a winter visitor from Greenland.
Mallard, a very common resident.
Eiders, common on northern coasts.

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.

Common name Binomial Status
Snow goose Anser caerulescens (A)
Graylag goose Anser anser
Greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons
Lesser white-fronted goose Anser erythropus (A)
Taiga bean-goose Anser fabalis (A)
Tundra bean-goose Anser serrirostris (A)
Pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus
Brant Branta bernicla
Barnacle goose Branta leucopsis
Cackling goose Branta hutchinsii (A)
Canada goose Branta canadensis (A)
Red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis (A)
Mute swan Cygnus olor
Tundra swan Cygnus columbianus
Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus
Ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (A)
Common shelduck Tadorna tadorna
Mandarin duck Aix galericulata (I)
Baikal teal Sibirionetta formosa (A)
Garganey Spatula querquedula
Blue-winged teal Spatula discors (A)
Northern shoveler Spatula clypeata
Gadwall Mareca strepera
Eurasian wigeon Mareca penelope
American wigeon Mareca americana (A)
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
American black duck Anas rubripes (A)
Northern pintail Anas acuta
Green-winged teal Anas crecca
Red-crested pochard Netta rufina (A)
Redhead Aythya americana (A)
Common pochard Aythya ferina
Ring-necked duck Aythya collaris (A)
Ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca (A)
Tufted duck Aythya fuligula
Greater scaup Aythya marila
Lesser scaup Aythya affinis (A)
King eider Somateria spectabilis (A)
Common eider Somateria mollissima
Harlequin duck[2] Histrionicus histrionicus (A)
Surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata (A)
Velvet scoter Melanitta fusca
White-winged scoter Melanitta deglandi
Common scoter Melanitta nigra
Black scoter Melanitta americana (A)
Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola (A)
Common goldeneye Bucephala clangula
Barrow's goldeneye Bucephala islandica (A)
Smew Mergellus albellus
Hooded merganser Lophodytes cucullatus (A)
Common merganser Mergus merganser
Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator
Ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis (I)

Pheasants, grouse, and allies[edit]

The gray partridge has seriously declined and is now very rare.

Order: Galliformes   Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls, and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.

Common name Binomial Status
Common quail Coturnix coturnix
Ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus (I)
Gray partridge Perdix perdix
Western capercaillie Tetrao urogallus (Extirpated; not seen since before 1950)
Willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus


Great crested grebes breed on inland lakes.

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.

Common name Binomial Status
Little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
Pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps (A)
Horned grebe Podiceps auritus
Red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena
Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus
Eared grebe Podiceps nigricollis (A)

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Eurasian collared-dove, first recorded in 1959 and now common.
Rock pigeon, usually lives on cliffs near the Atlantic Ocean.

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Common name Binomial Status
Rock pigeon Columba livia
Stock dove Columba oenas
Common wood-pigeon Columba palumbus
European turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur
Eurasian collared-dove Streptopelia decaocto
Mourning dove Zenaida macroura (A)


Order: Pterocliformes   Family: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon-like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes.

Common name Binomial Status
Pallas's sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus (A)


Order: Otidiformes   Family: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays.

Common name Binomial Status
Great bustard Otis tarda (A)
Little bustard Tetrax tetrax (A)


Common cuckoo, a declining summer visitor.

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails, and strong legs. The Old World cuckoos are brood parasites.

Common name Binomial Status
Great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius (A)
Yellow-billed cuckoo Coccyzus americanus (A)
Black-billed cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A)
Common cuckoo Cuculus canorus


Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.

Common name Binomial Status
Common nighthawk Chordeiles minor (A)
Eurasian nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus


Common swift, a summer visitor.

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.

Common name Binomial Status
Chimney swift Chaetura pelagica (A)
White-throated needletail Hirundapus caudacutus (A)
Alpine swift Tachymarptis melba (A)
Common swift Apus apus
Pallid swift Apus pallidus (A)
Little swift Apus affinis (A)

Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Corn crake, now a rare summer visitor but formerly very common.

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.

Common name Binomial Status
Water rail Rallus aquaticus
Corn crake Crex crex
Sora Porzana carolina (A)
Spotted crake Porzana porzana (A)
Eurasian moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Eurasian coot Fulica atra
American coot Fulica americana (A)
Purple gallinule Porphyrio martinicus (A)
Little crake Zapornia parva (A)
Baillon's crake Zapornia pusilla (A)


Order: Gruiformes   Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged, and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".

Common name Binomial Status
Sandhill crane Antiogne canadensis (A)
Common crane Grus grus (A)


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of waders found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian thick-knee Burhinus oedicnemus (A)

Stilts and avocets[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus
Pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta (A)


Eurasian oystercatcher, common around the coast.

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Northern lapwing, common in winter but less so in summer.
Black-bellied plovers breed in Arctic regions.
Common ringed plover, winters in coastal areas south to Africa.

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-bellied plover Pluvialis squatarola
European golden-plover Pluvialis apricaria
American golden-plover Pluvialis dominica (A)
Pacific golden-plover Pluvialis fulva (A)
Northern lapwing Vanellus vanellus
Sociable lapwing Vanellus gregarius (A)
Lesser sand-plover Charadrius mongolus (A)
Greater sand-plover[2] Charadrius leschenaultii (A)
Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus (A)
Common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula
Semipalmated plover Charadrius semipalmatus (A)
Little ringed plover Charadrius dubius (A)
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus (A)
Eurasian dotterel Charadrius morinellus (A)

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Eurasian curlew, widespread breeder with larger numbers in winter.
Ruddy turnstone, common on rocky coasts.
Pectoral sandpiper, a frequent vagrant from North America.
Red-necked phalarope, a former breeding species.

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

Common name Binomial Status
Upland sandpiper Bartramia longicauda (A)
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Eskimo curlew Numenius borealis (A) (probably extinct)
Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata
Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica
Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa
Hudsonian godwit Limosa haemastica (A)
Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres
Great knot Calidris tenuirostris (A)
Red knot Calidris canutus
Ruff Calidris pugnax
Broad-billed sandpiper Calidris falcinellus (A)
Sharp-tailed sandpiper Calidris acuminata (A)
Stilt sandpiper Calidris himantopus (A)
Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
Temminck's stint Calidris temminckii (A)
Long-toed stint Calidris subminuta (A)
Red-necked stint Calidris ruficollis (A)
Sanderling Calidris alba
Dunlin Calidris alpina
Purple sandpiper Calidris maritima
Baird's sandpiper Calidris bairdii (A)
Little stint Calidris minuta
Least sandpiper Calidris minutilla (A)
White-rumped sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis (A)
Buff-breasted sandpiper Calidris subruficollis (A)
Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos
Semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla (A)
Western sandpiper Calidris mauri (A)
Short-billed dowitcher Limnodromus griseus (A)
Long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus (A)
Jack snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola
Great snipe Gallinago media (A)
Common snipe Gallinago gallinago
Wilson's snipe Gallinago delicata (A)
Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus (A)
Wilson's phalarope Phalaropus tricolor (A)
Red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus (A, formerly bred)
Red phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius
Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
Spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia (A)
Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus
Solitary sandpiper Tringa solitaria (A)
Spotted redshank Tringa erythropus
Greater yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca (A)
Common greenshank Tringa nebularia
Lesser yellowlegs Tringa flavipes (A)
Marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis (A)
Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola
Common redshank Tringa totanus

Pratincoles and coursers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings, and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings, and long, pointed bills which curve downwards.

Common name Binomial Status
Cream-colored courser Cursorius cursor (A)
Collared pratincole Glareola pratincola (A)
Black-winged pratincole Glareola nordmanni (A)

Skuas and jaegers[edit]

Great skua, a passage migrant around the coast.

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.

Common name Binomial Status
Great skua Stercorarius skua
South polar skua[2] Stercorarius skua (A)
Pomarine jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus
Parasitic jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus
Long-tailed jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus (A)

Auks, murres, and puffins[edit]

Black guillemot, found along rocky coasts and around harbours and piers.

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture, and some of their habits. However, they are not related to the penguins and differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest.

Common name Binomial Status
Dovekie Alle alle (A)
Common murre Uria aalge
Thick-billed murre Uria lomvia (A)
Razorbill Alca torda
Great auk Pinguinus impennis (Extinct)
Black guillemot Cepphus grylle
Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Herring gull, very common resident.
Roseate tern, a scarce summer visitor.

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls, terns, and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
Ivory gull Pagophila eburnea (A)
Sabine's gull Xema sabini
Bonaparte's gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia (A)
Black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Little gull Hydrocoloeus minutus
Ross's gull Rhodostethia rosea (A)
Laughing gull Leucophaeus atricilla (A)
Franklin's gull Leucophaeus pipixcan (A)
Mediterranean gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
Mew gull Larus canus
Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis
Herring gull Larus argentatus
Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (A)
Caspian gull Larus cachinnans (A)
Iceland gull Larus glaucoides
Lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus
Slaty-backed gull Larus schistisagus (A)
Glaucous-winged gull[2] Larus glaucescens (A)
Glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus
Great black-backed gull Larus marinus
Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus (A)
Little tern Sternula albifrons
Gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia (A)
Black tern Chlidonias niger
White-winged tern Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
Whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus (A)
Roseate tern Sterna dougallii
Common tern Sterna hirundo
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea
Forster's tern Sterna forsteri (A)
Royal tern Thalasseus maximus (A)
Sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
Elegant tern Thalasseus elegans (A)
Lesser crested tern Thalasseus bengalensis (A)
Black skimmer[2] Rynchops niger (A)


Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.

Common name Binomial Status
White-tailed tropicbird[2] Phaethon lepturus (A)
Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus (A)


Common loon, a winter visitor to coastal waters.

Order: Gaviiformes   Family: Gaviidae

Loons, also known as divers, are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resemble in shape when swimming, but to which they are completely unrelated.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-throated loon Gavia stellata
Arctic loon Gavia arctica (A)
Pacific loon Gavia pacifica (A)
Common loon Gavia immer
Yellow-billed loon Gavia adamsii (A)


Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophris (A)

Southern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Until 2018, this family's species were included with the other storm-petrels in family Hydrobatidae.

Common name Binomial Status
Wilson's storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus (A)

Northern storm-petrels[edit]

European storm-petrel; Ireland has the world's largest breeding population.

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Though the members of this family are similar in many respects to the southern storm-petrels, including their general appearance and habits, there are enough genetic differences to warrant their placement in a separate family.

Common name Binomial Status
European storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus
Leach's storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa
Swinhoe's storm-petrel Oceanodroma monorhis (A)
Band-rumped storm-petrel[2] Oceanodroma castro (A)

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Northern fulmars first bred in 1911 but are now widespread.

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.

Common name Binomial Status
Northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis
Zino's petrel[2] Pterodroma madeira (A)
Fea's petrel[2] Pterodroma feae (A)
Soft-plumaged petrel[2] Pterodroma mollis (A)
Bermuda petrel Pterodroma cahow (A)
Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii (A)
Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis
Great shearwater Ardenna gravis
Sooty shearwater Ardenna griseus
Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus
Yelkouan shearwater[2] Puffinus yelkouan (A)
Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
Barolo shearwater Puffinus baroli (A)
Tropical shearwater[2] Puffinus bailloni (A)


Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.

Common name Binomial Status
Black stork Ciconia nigra (A)
White stork Ciconia ciconia (A)


Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white, or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.

Common name Binomial Status
Frigatebird species Fregata sp. (A)

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

Common name Binomial Status
Brown booby[2] Sula leucogaster (A)
Northern gannet Morus bassanus

Cormorants and shags[edit]

European shags, common around the coast.

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.

Common name Binomial Status
Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis
Double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus (A)

Bitterns, herons, and egrets[edit]

Little egret, first bred in 1997 and is increasingly common.
Cattle egret, a rare vagrant.

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter-necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills.

Common name Binomial Status
American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
Great bittern Botaurus stellaris (A)
Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus (A)
Gray heron Ardea cinerea
Purple heron Ardea purpurea
Great egret Ardea alba
Little egret Egretta garzetta
Little blue heron Egretta caerulea (A)
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis (A)
Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides (A)
Green heron Butorides virescens (A)
Black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax (A)

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Eurasian spoonbill, a rare visitor.

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.

Common name Binomial Status
Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus (A)
Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia (A)


Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Common name Binomial Status
Osprey Pandion haliaetus

Hawks, kites, and eagles[edit]

Hen harrier, a rare breeding bird.
Common buzzard, increasing and spreading.

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

Common name Binomial Status
European honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus (A)
Eurasian griffon Gyps fulvus (A)
Greater spotted eagle Clanga clanga (A)
Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos (A, being reintroduced)
Eurasian marsh-harrier Circus aeruginosus
Hen harrier Circus cyaneus
Northern harrier Circus hudsonius (A)
Pallid harrier Circus macrourus (A)
Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus (A)
Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis (A)
Red kite Milvus milvus
Black kite Milvus migrans
Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus (A)
White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla (A, being reintroduced)
Rough-legged hawk Buteo lagopus (A)
Common buzzard Buteo buteo


Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn-owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

Common name Binomial Status
Barn owl Tyto alba

Typical owls[edit]

Long-eared owl, a difficult-to-see resident.

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian scops-owl Otus scops (A)
Snowy owl Bubo scandiacus (A)
Little owl Athene noctua (A)
Long-eared owl Asio otus
Short-eared owl Asio flammeus


Order: Bucerotiformes   Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white, and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops


Common kingfisher, seen beside rivers and lakes.

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.

Common name Binomial Status
Common kingfisher Alcedo atthis
Belted kingfisher Ceryle alcyon (A)


Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a family of near passerine birds found mostly in Africa, but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia, and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies, and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar.

Common name Binomial Status
European bee-eater Merops apiaster (A)


Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not.

Common name Binomial Status
European roller Coracias garrulus (A)

Woodpeckers and allies[edit]

Great spotted woodpecker, an occasional visitor which may have bred recently.

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian wryneck Jynx torquilla (A)
Yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius (A)
Great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major (A)
Eurasian green woodpecker Picus viridis


Eurasian kestrel, a common resident.

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.

Common name Binomial Status
Lesser kestrel Falco naumanni (A)
Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus (A)
Merlin Falco columbarius
Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo (A)
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus (A)
Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.

Common name Binomial Status
Eastern kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus (A)


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble New World warblers apart from their heavier bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Philadelphia vireo Vireo philadelphicus (A)
Red-eyed vireo Vireo olivaceus (A)

Old World orioles[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oriolidae

The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian golden oriole Oriolus oriolus (A)


Red-backed shrike, a rare passage migrant.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A shrike's beak is hooked, like that of a typical bird of prey.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-backed shrike Lanius collurio
Red-tailed shrike[2] Lanius phoenicuroides (A)
Isabelline shrike Lanius isabellinus (A)
Brown shrike Lanius cristatus (A)
Great gray shrike Lanius excubitor (A)
Lesser gray shrike Lanius minor (A)
Woodchat shrike Lanius senator (A)

Crows, jays, ravens, and magpies[edit]

Hooded crow, a common resident in many habitats.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jackdaws, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius
Eurasian magpie Pica pica
Red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Eurasian jackdaw Corvus monedula
Rook Corvus frugilegus
Carrion crow Corvus corone
Common raven Corvus corax
Hooded crow Corvus cornix


Coal tit, common in woods and gardens.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

Common name Binomial Status
Coal tit Periparus ater
Marsh tit Poecile palustris (A)
Eurasian blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus
Great tit Parus major


Eurasian skylark, a common resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

Common name Binomial Status
Horned lark Eremophila alpestris
Greater short-toed lark Calandrella brachydactyla (A)
Wood lark Lullula arborea (A)
Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis

Bearded reedling[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Panuridae

This species, the only one in its family, is found in reed beds throughout temperate Europe and Asia.

Common name Binomial Status
Bearded reedling Panurus biarmicus (A)

Cisticolas and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub.

Common name Binomial Status
Zitting cisticola Cisticola juncidis (A)

Reed warblers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Acrocephalidae

The members of this family are usually rather large for "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but it also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Common name Binomial Status
Booted warbler Iduna caligata (A)
Sykes's warbler Iduna rama (A)
Eastern olivaceous warbler Iduna pallida (A)
Melodious warbler Hippolais polyglotta (A)
Icterine warbler Hippolais icterina (A)
Aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola (A)
Sedge warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
Paddyfield warbler Acrocephalus agricola (A)
Blyth's reed warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum (A)
Marsh warbler Acrocephalus palustris (A)
Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus
Great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus (A)

Grassbirds and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Locustellidae

Locustellidae are a family of small insectivorous songbirds found mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. They are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed, and tend to be drab brownish or buffy all over.

Common name Binomial Status
Pallas's grasshopper-warbler Locustella certhiola (A)
Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides (A)
Common grasshopper-warbler Locustella naevia

Swallows and martins[edit]

Barn swallow, a very common summer visitor.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

Common name Binomial Status
Bank swallow Riparia riparia
Barn swallow Hirundo rustica
Red-rumped swallow Cecropis daurica (A)
Cliff swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
Common house-martin Delichon urbicum

Leaf warblers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Phylloscopidae

Leaf warblers are a family of small insectivorous birds found mostly in Eurasia and ranging into Wallacea and Africa. The species are of various sizes, often green-plumaged above and yellow below, or more subdued with greyish-green to greyish-brown colors.

Common name Binomial Status
Wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix
Western Bonelli's warbler Phylloscopus bonelli (A)
Eastern Bonelli's warbler[2] Phylloscopus orientalis (A)
Pallas's leaf warbler Phylloscopus proregulus (A)
Yellow-browed warbler Phylloscopus inornatus
Hume's warbler Phylloscopus humei (A)
Radde's warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi (A)
Dusky warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus (A)
Willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
Common chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
Iberian chiffchaff Phylloscopus ibericus (A)
Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides (A)
Arctic warbler Phylloscopus borealis (A)

Bush warblers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Scotocercidae

The members of this family are found throughout Africa, Asia, and Polynesia. This species is the only one found regularly in Europe.

Common name Binomial Status
Cetti's warbler Cettia cetti (A)

Long-tailed tits[edit]

Long-tailed tit, a common resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Aegithalidae

Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects.

Common name Binomial Status
Long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus

Sylviid warblers[edit]

Eurasian blackcap, most places in Ireland have residents.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as another common name (Old World warblers) implies, in Europe, Asia, and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
Garden warbler Sylvia borin
Barred warbler Sylvia nisoria (A)
Lesser whitethroat Sylvia curruca
Subalpine warbler Sylvia cantillans (A)
Sardinian warbler Sylvia melanocephala (A)
Greater whitethroat Sylvia communis
Dartford warbler Sylvia undata (A)


Goldcrest, Ireland's smallest bird.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Regulidae

The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds which were sometimes included in the Old World warblers, family Sylviidae.

Common name Binomial Status
Ruby-crowned kinglet Regulus calendula (A)
Goldcrest Regulus regulus
Common firecrest Regulus ignicapillus


Eurasian treecreeper, an inconspicuous resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian treecreeper Certhia familiaris


Eurasian wren, "hunting the wren" is an old tradition in Ireland.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.

Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian wren Troglodytes troglodytes


White-throated dipper, found along fast-flowing streams and rivers.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements.

Common name Binomial Status
White-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus


European starling, a common breeding bird with more arriving in winter.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.

Common name Binomial Status
European starling Sturnus vulgaris
Rosy starling Pastor roseus (A)

Mockingbirds and thrashers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull-greys and browns.

Common name Binomial Status
Gray catbird Dumetella carolinensis (A)

Thrushes and allies[edit]

Ring ouzel, a rare summer visitor to high mountains.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Siberian thrush Geokichla sibirica (A)
White's thrush Zoothera dauma (A)
Veery[2] Catharus fuscescens (A)
Gray-cheeked thrush Catharus minimus (A)
Swainson's thrush Catharus ustulatus (A)
Hermit thrush Catharus guttatus (A)
Mistle thrush Turdus viscivorus
Song thrush Turdus philomelos
Redwing Turdus iliacus
Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula
American robin Turdus migratorius (A)
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
Ring ouzel Turdus torquatus
Black-throated thrush[2] Turdus atrogularis (A)
Dusky thrush[2] Turdus eunomus (A)
Naumann's thrush[2] Turdus naumanni (A)

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Spotted flycatcher, one of the last summer visitors to arrive.
European robin, a common and familiar resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large family of mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.

Common name Binomial Status
Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata
Rufous-tailed scrub-robin Cercotrichas galactotes (A)
European robin Erithacus rubecula
Thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia (A)
Common nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos (A)
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica (A)
Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus (A)
Taiga flycatcher[2] Ficedula albicilla (A)
Red-breasted flycatcher Ficedula parva (A)
European pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
Collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (A)
Common redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
Black redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
Rufous-tailed rock-thrush Monticola saxatilis (A)
Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
European stonechat Saxicola rubicola
Siberian stonechat Saxicola maurus (A)
Northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
Isabelline wheatear Oenanthe isabellina (A)
Desert wheatear Oenanthe deserti (A)
Pied wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka (A)
Black-eared wheatear Oenanthe hispanica (A)
Black wheatear[2] Oenanthe leucura (A)


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.

Common name Binomial Status
Bohemian waxwing Bombycilla garrulus
Cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum (A)


Dunnock, a very common resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Prunellidae

The accentors are the only bird family which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to Old World sparrows.

Common name Binomial Status
Siberian accentor[2] Prunella montanella (A)
Dunnock Prunella modularis

Old World sparrows[edit]

House sparrow, common around human habitation.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.

Common name Binomial Status
House sparrow Passer domesticus
Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

White wagtail, a common and widespread resident.
Gray wagtail is slightly larger than white wagtail.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.

Common name Binomial Status
Gray wagtail Motacilla cinerea
Western yellow wagtail Motacilla flava
Eastern yellow wagtail[2] Motacilla tschutschensis (A)
Citrine wagtail Motacilla citreola (A)
White wagtail Motacilla alba
Richard's pipit Anthus richardi (A)
Tawny pipit Anthus campestris (A)
Meadow pipit Anthus pratensis
Tree pipit Anthus trivialis
Olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni (A)
Pechora pipit Anthus gustavi (A)
Red-throated pipit Anthus cervinus (A)
Water pipit Anthus spinoletta (A)
Rock pipit Anthus petrosus
American pipit Anthus rubescens (A)


Common chaffinch, a very common resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.

Common name Binomial Status
Common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes (A)
Common rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus (A)
Eurasian bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula
European greenfinch Chloris chloris
Twite Linaria flavirostris
Eurasian linnet Linaria cannabina
Common redpoll Acanthis flammea
Lesser redpoll[2] Acanthis cabaret
Hoary redpoll Acanthis hornemanni (A)
Parrot crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus (A)
Red crossbill Loxia curvirostra
White-winged crossbill Loxia leucoptera (A)
European goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
European serin Serinus serinus (A)
Eurasian siskin Spinus spinus

Longspurs and snow buntings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Calcariidae

The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that had been traditionally grouped with the New World sparrows, but differ in a number of respects and are usually found in open grassy areas.

Common name Binomial Status
Lapland longspur Calcarius lapponicus
Snow bunting Plectrophenax nivalis

Old World buntings[edit]

Yellowhammer, a declining resident.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Emberizidae

Emberizidae is a family of passerine birds containing a single genus. Until 2017, the New World sparrows (Passerellidae) were also considered part of this family.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-headed bunting Emberiza melanocephala (A)
Corn bunting Emberiza calandra (A, formerly bred)
Cirl bunting Emberiza cirlus (A)
Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella
Pine bunting Emberiza leucocephalos (A)
Ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana (A)
Reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus
Yellow-breasted bunting Emberiza aureola (A)
Little bunting Emberiza pusilla (A)
Rustic bunting Emberiza rustica (A)

New world sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passerellidae

Until 2017, these species were considered part of the family Emberizidae. Most of the species are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many of these have distinctive head patterns.

Common name Binomial Status
Fox sparrow Passerella iliaca (A)
Dark-eyed junco Junco hyemalis (A)
White-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys (A)
White-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis (A)

Troupials and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange, or red.

Common name Binomial Status
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus (A)
Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula (A)

New World warblers[edit]

Blue-winged warbler, one on Cape Clear Island in 2000 was the first European record of this North American bird.

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Parulidae

The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.

Common name Binomial Status
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla (A)
Northern waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis (A)
Blue-winged warbler Vermivora cyanoptera (A)
Black-and-white warbler Mniotilta varia (A)
Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas (A)
American redstart Setophaga ruticilla (A)
Northern parula Setophaga americana (A)
Yellow warbler Setophaga petechia (A)
Blackpoll warbler Setophaga striata (A)
Yellow-rumped warbler Setophaga coronata (A)
Canada warbler Cardellina canadensis (A)
Wilson's warbler Cardellina pusilla (A)

Cardinals and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.

Common name Binomial Status
Scarlet tanager Piranga olivacea (A)
Rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
Indigo bunting Passerina cyanea (A)


  1. ^ "The Irish list as on 31st December 2015" (PDF). Irish Rare Birds Committee. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Lepage, Denis (23 June 2019). "Checklist of birds of Ireland". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  3. ^ Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2019. The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Downloaded from Retrieved 15 August 2019
  • Dempsey, Eric & Michael O'Clery (1995) Pocket Guide to the Common Birds of Ireland, Gill & Macmillan Ltd, Dublin.
  • Dempsey, Eric & Michael O'Clery (2007) Finding Birds in Ireland: the complete guide, Gill & Macmillan Ltd, Dublin.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]