List of endangered languages in Europe

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An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. A language may be endangered in one area but show signs of revitalisation in another, as with the Irish language.

Levels of Language Endangerment[edit]

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization defines five levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1]

  • Vulnerable - "most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home)"
  • Definitely endangered - "children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home"
  • Severely endangered - "language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves"
  • Critically endangered - "the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently"
  • Extinct - "there are no speakers left; included in the Atlas if presumably extinct since the 1950s"

The list below includes the findings from the third edition of Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2010; formerly the Red Book of Endangered Languages), as well as the online edition of that publication, both published by UNESCO.[2]

List of languages[edit]

Language Status Notes ISO 639-3
Albania
Aromanian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo rup
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkey lad
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Torlakian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia bos, hrv, srp
Armenia
Pontic Greek Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine pnt
Suret Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey aii, cld
Austria
Alemannic Vulnerable[3] Also spoken in: France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Bavarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland bar
Burgenland Croatian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Slovakia bos, hrv, srp
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Czech Republic, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Azerbaijan
Budukh Severely endangered[1]   bdk
Juhuri Definitely endangered[1] Caucasus. Also spoken in: Russia jdt
Khinalug Severely endangered[1]   kjj
Kryz Severely endangered[1]   kry
Lezgian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia lez
Rutul Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia rut
Talysh Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Iran tly
Tat Severely endangered[1]   ttt
Tsakhur Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia tkr
Udi Severely endangered[1] (Azerbaijan)   udi
Belarus
Belarusian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine bel
Polesian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Poland, Ukraine  
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Belgium
Champenois Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France fra
Limburgian-Ripuarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Netherlands ksh, lim
Lorrain Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France fra
Moselle Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France, Germany, Luxembourg ltz
Picard Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France pcd
Walloon Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Luxembourg wln
West Flemish Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France, Netherlands vls, zea
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkey lad
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Bulgaria
Aromanian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia rup
Crimean Tatar Severely endangered[1] (Dobruja). Also spoken in: Romania, Russia, Ukraine crh, jct
Deli Orman Gagauz Critically endangered[1] (Deli Orman)   bgx, gag
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkey lad
Maritime Gagauz Severely endangered[1] (Maritime). Also spoken in: Romania bgx, gag
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Torlakian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia bos, hrv, srp
Croatia
Arbanasi Severely endangered[1]    
Istriot Severely endangered[1]   ist
Istro-Romanian Severely endangered[1]   ruo
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkey lad
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Venetian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Italy, Slovenia vec
Vojvodina Rusyn Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Serbia  
Cyprus
Cypriot Arabic Severely endangered[1]   acy
Czech Republic
Bavarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland bar
East Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany vmf
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Denmark
Faroese Vulnerable[1]   fao
Low Saxon Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Scanian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Sweden swe
South Jutish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany jut
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Estonia
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Võro-Seto Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia est
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Finland
Inari Saami Severely endangered[1]   smn
Karelian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia krl
North Saami Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway, Russia, Sweden sme
Olonetsian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia olo
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Skolt Saami Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway, Russia sms
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
France
Alemannic Vulnerable[3] Also spoken in: Austria, Germany,Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Alpine Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy oci
Auvergnat Severely endangered[1]   oci
Basque Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Spain eus
Breton Severely endangered[1]   bre
Burgundian Severely endangered[1]   fra
Champenois Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium fra
Corsican Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy cos
Franc-Comtois Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Switzerland fra
Franco-Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy, Switzerland frp
Gallo Severely endangered[1]   fra
Gascon Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Spain oci
Languedocian Severely endangered[1]   oci
Ligurian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy, Monaco lij
Limousin Severely endangered[1]   oci
Lorrain Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium fra
Moselle Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg ltz
Norman Severely endangered[1]   nrn
Picard Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium pcd
Poitevin-Saintongeais Severely endangered[1]   fra
Provençal Severely endangered[1]   oci
Rhenish Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany pfl
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Walloon Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Luxembourg wln
West Flemish Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Netherlands vls, zea
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Georgia
Abkhaz Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia, Turkey abk
Bats Severely endangered[1]   bbl
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia bhn
Homshetsma Severely endangered[1] (Caucasus). Also spoken in: Russia hye
Laz Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Turkey lzz
Mingrelian Definitely endangered[1]   xmf
Ossete Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia oss
Pontic Greek Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine pnt
Svan Definitely endangered[1]   sva
Udi Severely endangered[1] (Georgia) .   udi
Urum Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia, Ukraine uum
Germany
Alemannic Vulnerable[3] Also spoken in: Austria, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Bavarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland bar
East Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Czech Republic vmf
Limburgish–Ripuarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Netherlands lim
Low Saxon Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Moselle Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France, Luxembourg ltz
North Frisian Severely endangered[1]   frr
Rhenish Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France pfl
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Saterlandic Severely endangered[1]   stq
Sorbian Definitely endangered[1]   dsb, hsb
South Jutish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Denmark jut
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Greece
Aromanian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia rup
Arvanitika Severely endangered[1]   aat
Cappadocian Greek Critically endangered[1]   cpg
Corfiot Italkian Critically endangered[1]    
Gagauz (South Balkans) Severely endangered[1] (South Balkans) . Also spoken in: Macedonia, Turkey bgx, gag
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia, Turkey lad
Megleno-Romanian Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Macedonia ruq
Pontic Greek Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine pnt
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Tsakonian Critically endangered[1]   tsd
Hungary
Bavarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Switzerland bar
Burgenland Croatian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Slovakia bos, hrv, srp
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine rue
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Ireland
Irish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: United Kingdom gle
Italy
Alemannic Vulnerable[3] Also spoken in: Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Algherese (Catalan) Definitely endangered[1]   cat
Alpine Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France oci
Arbëresh Definitely endangered[1]   aae
Bavarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland bar
Cimbrian Definitely endangered[1]   cim
Corsican Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France cos
Emilian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: San Marino egl
Faetar Definitely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Francoprovençal frp
Franco-Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Switzerland frp
Friulan Definitely endangered[1]   fur
Gallo-Italic of Sicily Definitely endangered[1]   lmo
Gallurese Definitely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Corsican, yet listed as being part of Sardinian by UNESCO sdn
Gardiol Severely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Alpine Provençal  
Griko Severely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Greek spoken in Calabria and Salento ell
Ladin Definitely endangered[1]   lld
Ligurian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Monaco lij
Lombard Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Switzerland lmo
Mòcheno Definitely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Bavarian mhn
Molise Croatian Severely endangered[1]   svm
Piedmontese Definitely endangered[1]   pms
Resian Definitely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Slovene slv
Romagnol Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: San Marino rgn
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Sardinian Definitely endangered[1]   src, sro
Sassarese Definitely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Corsican, yet listed as being part of Sardinian by UNESCO sdc
Sicilian Vulnerable[1]   scn
South Italian Vulnerable[1]   nap
Swabian German Severely endangered[1]   swg
Swiss German Severely endangered[1]   gsw
Töitschu Severely endangered[1] An outlying dialect of Alemannic gsw, swg, wae
Venetian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Croatia, Slovenia vec
Walser Severely endangered[1]   wae
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Kazakhstan
Dungan Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Kyrgyzstan dng
Latvia


Belarusian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine bel
Latgalian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia lav
Livonian Critically endangered[1]   liv
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Liechtenstein
Alemannic Vulnerable[3] Also spoken in: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Lithuania
Belarusian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Ukraine bel
Karaim Severely endangered[1] (Lithuania).   kdr
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Luxembourg
Moselle Franconian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France, Germany ltz
Walloon Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France wln
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Moldova
Gagauz (Bessarabia) Critically endangered[1] Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Ukraine bgx, gag
Monaco
Ligurian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Italy lij
Montenegro
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Netherlands
Limburgish Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Germany lim
Low Saxon Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
West Flemish Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France vls, zea
West Frisian Vulnerable[1]   fry
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
North Macedonia
Aromanian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia rup
Megleno-Romanian Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Greece ruq
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Norway
Lule Saami Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Sweden smj
North Saami Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Finland, Russia, Sweden sme
Pite Saami Critically endangered[1] Also spoken in: Sweden sje
Skolt Saami Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Finland, Russia sms
South Saami Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Sweden sma
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Poland
Belarusian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine bel
Kashubian Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Canada csb
Low Saxon Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Polesian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Ukraine  
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine rue
Vilamovian Severely endangered[1]   wym
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Portugal
Asturian-Leonese Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Spain ast, ext, mwl
Romania
Banat Bulgarian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Serbia bul
Crimean Tatar Severely endangered[1] (Dobruja) . Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine crh, jct
Csángó Severely endangered.[1]   hun
Gagauz (Bessarabia) Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine bgx, gag
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Turkey, Serbia lad
Nogay Severely endangered[1] (Dobruja) .   nog
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine rue
Torlakian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia bos, hrv, srp
Transylvanian Saxon Severely endangered[1]    
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Russia
San Marino


Emilian-Romagnol Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy eml
Serbia
Aromanian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia rup
Banat Bulgarian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Romania bul
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey lad
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Torlakian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania bos, hrv, srp
Vojvodina Rusyn Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Croatia  
Slovakia
Burgenland Croatian Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Hungary bos, hrv, srp
Eastern Slovak Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Ukraine slk
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Ukraine rue
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Slovenia
Gottscheerish Critically endangered[1]    
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Venetian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Croatia, Italy vec
Spain
Aragonese Definitely endangered[1]   arg
Asturian-Leonese Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Portugal ast, ext, mwl
Basque Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France eus
Gascon Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France oci
Sweden
Dalecarlian Definitely endangered[1]   swe
Modern Gutnish Definitely endangered[1]   swe
Lule Saami Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway smj
North Saami Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Finland, Norway, Russia sme
Pite Saami Critically endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway sje
Scanian Vulnerable[1] swe
South Saami Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway sma
Ume Saami Critically endangered[1]   sju
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Switzerland
Alemannic Vulnerable[3] Also spoken in: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein gsw, swg, wae
Bavarian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy bar
Franc-Comtois Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France fra
Franco-Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Italy frp
Lombard Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy lmo
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Romansh Definitely endangered[1]   roh
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom ydd
Turkey
Abaza Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia abq
Abkhaz Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Georgia, Russia abk
Adyge Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Russia, Syria ady
Gagauz (South Balkans) Severely endangered[1] (South Balkans) Also spoken in: Greece, Macedonia bgx
Homshetsma Definitely endangered[1]   hye
Judezmo Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia lad
Kabard-Cherkes Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia kbd
Laz Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Georgia lzz
Pontic Greek Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Ukraine pnt
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Suret Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria aii, cld
Western Armenian Definitely endangered[1]   hye
Zazaki Vulnerable[1]   zza
Ukraine
Belarusian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia bel
Crimean Tatar Severely endangered[1] (Crimea). Also spoken in Bulgaria, Romania, Russia crh, jct
Crimean Turkish Severely endangered[1]    
Eastern Slovak Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Slovakia slk
Gagauz Definitely endangered[1] (Bessarabia). Also spoken in: Moldova bgx, gag
Karaim Critically endangered[1] (Western Ukraine)   kdr
Mariupolitan Greek Severely endangered[1]   ell
Nogay Severely endangered[1] (Crimea)   nog
Plautdietsch Definitely endangered[1]   pdt
Polesian Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Poland  
Pontic Greek Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey pnt
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia rue
Urum Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Georgia, Russia uum
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom ydd
United Kingdom and Crown dependencies
Cornish Critically endangered[1]   cor
Guernsey French Severely endangered[1]  (Guernsey) fra
Irish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Ireland gle
Jersey French Severely endangered[1]  (Jersey) fra
Manx Critically endangered[1]  (Isle of Man) glv
Romani Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Scots Vulnerable[1]   sco
Scottish Gaelic Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Canada gla
Welsh Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Patagonia cym
Yiddish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine ydd

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Memory of Peoples (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  2. ^ For the online atlas version see here
  3. ^ a b c d e f "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger - Interactive Map." (Alemannic was added to the list as "Vulnerable" in July, 2017)