Fried rice

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Fried rice
Nasi goreng Solaria Kuta.JPG
Alternative names
TypeRice dish
CourseMain course
Place of originChina
Region or stateWorldwide
Main ingredientsCooked rice, cooking oil
VariationsBokkeum-bap
Chāhan
Chǎo fàn
Khao phat
Nasi goreng

Fried rice is a dish of cooked rice that has been stir-fried in a wok or a frying pan and is usually mixed with other ingredients such as eggs, vegetables, seafood, or meat. It is often eaten by itself or as an accompaniment to another dish. Fried rice is a popular component of East Asian, Southeast Asian and certain South Asian cuisines. As a homemade dish, fried rice is typically made with ingredients left over from other dishes, leading to countless variations. Being an economical hodgepodge, the same approach is often taken with fried noodles or pyttipanna[1] as well. Fried rice first developed during the Sui Dynasty in China and as such all fried rice dishes can trace their origins to Chinese fried rice.[2]

Many popular varieties of fried rice have their own specific list of ingredients. In Greater China, the most famous varieties include Yangzhou fried rice and Hokkien fried rice. Japanese chāhan is considered a Japanese Chinese dish, having derived from Chinese fried rice dishes. Korean bokkeum-bap in general is not, although there is a Korean Chinese variety of bokkeum-bap. In Southeast Asia, similarly constructed Indonesian, Malaysian, and Singaporean nasi goreng and Thai khao phat are popular dishes. In the West, most restaurants catering to vegetarians have invented their own varieties of fried rice, including egg fried rice. Fried rice is also seen on the menus of American restaurants offering cuisines with no native tradition of the dish. Additionally, the cuisine of some Latin American countries includes variations on fried rice, including Ecuadorian chaulafan, Peruvian arroz chaufa, Cuban arroz frito, and Puerto Rican arroz mamposteao.

Fried rice is a popular street food in Asia. In some Asian countries, small restaurants, street vendors and traveling hawkers specialize in serving fried rice. In Indonesian cities it is common to find fried rice street hawkers moving through the streets with their food cart and stationing it in busy streets or residential areas. Many Southeast Asian street food stands offer fried rice with a selection of optional garnishes and side dishes.

Preparation[edit]

Cooking Chinese fried rice video

Cooked rice is the primary ingredient, with myriad of additional ingredients (sometimes and/or preferably, overnight leftovers), such as vegetables, eggs, meat (chicken, beef, pork, mutton), preserved meat (bacon, ham, sausage), seafood (fish, shrimp, crab), mushrooms, among others. Aromatics such as onions, shallots, scallions, and garlic are often added for extra flavor. Various cooking oils, such as vegetable oil, sesame oil, or lard can be used to grease the wok or frying pan to prevent sticking, as well as for flavor. Fried rice dishes can be seasoned with salt, different types of soy sauce, oyster sauce and/or many other sauces and spices. Popular garnishes include chopped scallions, sliced chili, fried shallots, sprigs of parsley or coriander leaves, toasted sesame seeds, seaweed flakes (gim or nori), sliced cucumber, tomato, lime, or pickled vegetables.

History[edit]

The earliest record of fried rice is in the Sui dynasty (589–618 CE).[3] Fried rice is believed to have started as a way of reusing leftover rice.

Varieties[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Yángzhōu chǎofàn in Hong Kong, the most popular Chinese fried rice
    • Canton (or Wui Fan 燴飯) is a Cantonese style fried rice, typically served with a thick gravy poured on it.
    • Hokkien (or Fujian) fried rice, a variation of Chinese fried rice, is from the Fujian region of China; it has a thick sauce poured and mixed over it which can include mushrooms, meat, vegetables, etc.
    • Szechwan fried rice is a spicy stir-fried rice from Sichuan which uses doubanjiang chili sauce with garlic, green onions, and red onion.[4]
    • Yin Yang Fried Rice is topped with two different types of sauce, typically a savory white sauce on one-half and a red tomato-based sauce on the other half. Elaborate versions use the sauces to create a yin-yang symbol.
    • Yeung chow (or Yangzhou) fried rice consists of generous portions of shrimp and scrambled egg, along with barbecued pork. This is the most popular fried rice served in Chinese restaurants, commonly referred to simply as "special fried rice" or "house fried rice".

Japan[edit]

  • Chāhan (チャーハン) or Yakimeshi (焼飯) is a Chinese-derived fried rice suited to Japanese tastes by the addition of katsuobushi for flavor, prepared with myriad ingredients.
  • Omurice is fried rice wrapped inside an egg omelette. The fried rice is generally mixed with a variety of vegetables and meat. Often a variant called "Chicken Rice" (チキンライス) is used. Ketchup or some other Tomato sauce is added to make this.

Korea[edit]

  • Bokkeum-bap (볶음밥; lit. "fried rice") is made by stir-frying bap (cooked rice) with other ingredients in oil.[5] A wide range of fried rice dishes are common in Korean cuisine, often made with whichever ingredients are handy. In Korean restaurants, fried rice is a popular end-of-meal add-on.[6] After eating the main dishes cooked on a tabletop stove, cooked rice along with gimgaru (seaweed flakes) and sesame oil is often added directly into the remains of the main dishes, stir-fried, and browned.
    • Kimchi-bokkeum-bap (김치볶음밥; lit. "kimchi fried rice") is a popular variety of bokkeum-bap, prepared with kimchi and a variable list of other ingredients.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore[edit]

Indonesian nasi goreng with chicken, fried egg, prawn cracker and vegetables
  • Nasi goreng is an Indonesian and Malaysian version of fried rice, the main difference compared to fried rice is that it is cooked using sweet soy sauce (kecap manis). It is often accompanied by additional items such as a fried egg, fried chicken, satay, and condiments such as sambal, acar, and krupuk. It is served in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and most of the neighboring countries, and is popular in the Netherlands.
    • Nasi goreng pattaya is Malaysian fried rice wrapped inside an egg omelette. The fried rice is generally mixed with a variety of vegetables and meat. Tomato sauce is added. In Indonesia, the dish is called nasi goreng amplop.
    • Sambal fried rice found in Singapore is a variation of fried rice made with sambal, a condiment based on chilis and belachan, derived from Indonesian and Malay influences.

Myanmar[edit]

  • Burmese fried rice (ထမင်း‌ကြော်, htamin gyaw) normally uses Burmese fragrant short grain rice (rounder and shorter than other varieties). A popular plain version consists of rice, boiled peas, onions, garlic, and dark soy sauce. An accompanying condiment could be ngapi kyaw (fried fish paste with shredded flakes) and fresh cucumber strips mixed with chopped onions, green chili, and vinegar.

Philippines[edit]

Filipino sinangag, also commonly known as "garlic fried rice"
  • Bagoong rice is a type of Filipino fried rice using shrimp paste as its main flavor. Meat, scallions, as well as green mangoes are optionally additions. It is best when eaten together with Binagoongan dishes.
  • Sinangág, also called "garlic fried rice", is a Filipino fried rice cooked by stir-frying pre-cooked rice with garlic. The rice used is preferably stale, usually leftover cooked rice from the previous day, as it results in rice that is slightly fermented and firmer. It is garnished with toasted garlic, salt, and black pepper. The rice grains are ideally loose and not stick together.[7]
Sinangág is rarely eaten on its own, but is usually paired with a "dry" meat dish like tocino, longganisa, tapa, or spam. Unlike other types of fried rice, it doesn't normally use ingredients other than garlic, so it doesn't overwhelm the flavour of the main dish. When they do use other ingredients, the most common additions are scrambled eggs, chopped scallions, and cubed carrots. Cashews might also be added. Sinangág is a common part of a traditional Filipino breakfast, and it usually prepared with leftover rice from the dinner before. It is one of the components of the tapsilog breakfast and its derivatives.[7]

Thailand[edit]

Khao phat amerikan, American fried rice
  • Thai fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัด, RTGSKhao Phat) has a flavor radically different from that of common fried rice, mostly due to the use of jasmine rice, and it has various additions not found in Chinese versions. It is usually served with sliced cucumber and prik nam pla, a spicy sauce made of Thai chili, fish sauce, and chopped garlic. Thai fried rice is typical of central Thai cuisine. It normally contains meat (chicken, shrimp, and crab are all common), egg, onions, garlic, and sometimes tomatoes. This widespread dish has many regional variants. Examples are Coconut Fried Rice, Pineapple Fried Rice, and Basil Fried Rice.
    • American fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดอเมริกัน, RTGSKhao Phat Amerikan) is a Thai invention using hot dogs, fried chicken, and eggs as side dishes or mixed into fried rice with ketchup added. It was served to U.S. soldiers during the Vietnam war,[8] but now has become very popular and commonplace all throughout Thailand. The Malaysian counterpart, substituting pork with chicken, is called nasi goreng USA.
    • Green curry fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดแกงเขียวหวาน, RTGSKhao Phat Kaeng Khiao Wan) is a Thai dish made from green curry and fried rice by using green curry paste mixed with fried rice. Each province of Thailand may have different flavors and ingredients, but the taste is still of green curry. This dish can be purchased in general restaurants or street food in Thailand.
      Khao phat kaeng khiao wan,Green curry fried rice
    • Thai curry fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดผงกะหรี่, RTGSKhao Phat Phong Kari) is a fried rice with Thai curry powder, meat or seafood, or vegetables. This dish can be purchased in countryside restaurants or as street food in Thailand.[citation needed]

Vietnam[edit]

South Asia[edit]

India[edit]

  • Curry fried rice is a standard fried rice mixed with curry powder for a spicier flavor.
  • The Tava Pulav or Tawa Pulao is a fried rice dish from Mumbai.[9][10]

Egg fried rice is the variation of rice.[11] People may use Garam Masala and spice mixes as per their taste choices. Finely chop all the vegetables such as green beans, carrot, red cabbage, cabbage, iceberg lettuce and garlic. Pour a little soy sauce and red chilli sauce and mix.[12]

Nepal[edit]

  • Bhuteko bhat (भुटेको भात) is a Nepalese version of fried rice generally eaten with Achar; However, curry and dhal may also be served alongside it.[13]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sri Lankan nasi goreng served with a fried egg
  • Sri Lankan fried rice (Sinhala: ෆ්රයිඩ් රයිස්) is a Sri Lankan variation of the original Chinese version. However, basmati rice is used and Sri Lankan spices are also added to it.[14][15]
  • Nasi goreng (Sinhala: නාසි ගොරේන්) is a popular fried rice dish widely eaten throughout the country. It entered Sri Lankan cuisine through cultural influences from the Malay and Indonesian cuisines.[16]

Pacific[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

  • Hawaiian fried rice this common style of fried rice in Hawaii usually contains egg, green onions, peas, cubed carrots, and either Portuguese sausage or Spam, or both, and is sometimes available with kimchi added. It is normally cooked in sesame oil.

Americas[edit]

Arroz frito is a denomination used in the Spanish speaking world, meaning "fried rice", with adjectives describing the Chinese-inspired varieties, e.g. arroz chino, arroz cantonés, or local specialties arroz chaufa/chaulafán/chaufán/chofán, arroz frito tres delicias.

Ecuador[edit]

  • Chaulafan is the name for Chinese fried rice in Ecuador. In Ecuador and Peru, dark soy sauce is preferred in fried rice. Meats typically used are pork, beef, chicken or fish/seafood (e.g. shrimp).

Cuba[edit]

Arroz frito, Cuban-Chinese fried rice
  • Arroz frito (Cuban fried rice) is very similar to "special fried rice". It can be found alongside typical criollo dishes in many Cuban restaurants. This dish features ham, grilled pork, shrimp, chicken, and eggs, along with a variety of vegetables. Some restaurants add lechón (Cuban-style suckling pig), lobster tails, and/or crab. Chinese Cubans are responsible for the dish's introduction.

Peru[edit]

  • Arroz chaufa is a popular name for Chinese fried rice in Peru, belonging to the chifa kitchen. In Chile, it is called arroz chaufán. The most common varieties are made using the same ingredients used in China. Some exotic versions may use dried meat, beef tongue, alligator, or lizard in place of more traditional meats. In some regions, the rice is replaced with quinoa or pearled wheat, while in others the rice is mixed with noodles. Aeropuerto is a big Peruvian arroz chaufa dish containing fried noodles and many other additions.

Puerto Rico[edit]

  • Arroz mamposteao or arroz frito Yakimeshi is fried rice in Puerto Rico. It was brought to the island by Chinese and Japanese immigrants and is usually made with leftover rice and typically Asian ingredients such as soy sauce, combined with popular Puerto Rican ingredients such as beans.

Europe[edit]

  • Fried Rice with Oyster Sauce – is fried rice incorporating oyster sauce.

Portugal[edit]

  • Arroz chau-chau – is fried rice in Portuguese, and in Portugal it is often served as an accompaniment to other food.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Olver, Lynne (2006-08-06). "Food Timeline—history notes: Asian-American cuisine". Retrieved 2007-06-05. Fried rice and noodle dishes with vegetables are likewise ancient. They were typically composed of leftover ingredients and cooked in woks.
  2. ^ Bruce Kraig; Colleen Taylor Sen (2013). Street Food Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 183. ISBN 9781598849554.
  3. ^ "Chinese Fried Rice". iFood.tv.
  4. ^ "Szechuan Fried Rice". China Sichuan Food. 16 November 2014.
  5. ^ (in Korean) "볶음-밥". Standard Korean Language Dictionary. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  6. ^ Kim, Keith (2012-03-29). "10 of Seoul's Most Famous and Popular Galbi Restaurants". Seoulistic. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  7. ^ a b Vanjo Merano. "Sinangag Recipe". Panlasang Pinoy. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  8. ^ Daks, N.; Greeley, A. (2015). Nong's Thai Kitchen. Tuttle Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-4629-1525-5. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
  9. ^ Goyal Siraj, Ashima (2015-06-15). "Express Recipes: How to make Mumbai style Tawa Pulao". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
  10. ^ Gomes, Michael (2019-01-03). "How about some street food for brunch?". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
  11. ^ Brenda Van Niekerk. 50 Decadent Rice Recipes.
  12. ^ "Fried Rice". Livingfoodz.com.
  13. ^ "Bhuteko Bhat – We All Nepali". weallnepali.com. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  14. ^ "Fried rice". wordpress.com. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  15. ^ "Sri Lankan Food: 40 of the Island's Best Dishes". Migrationology.com/. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  16. ^ Cassim, Aysha Maryam (17 August 2016). "ශ්‍රී ලාංකික ආහාර සංස්කෘතිය වර්ණවත් කළ පෙර අපර දෙදිග රජබොජුන්". roar.media (in Sinhala). Roar. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  17. ^ "Schezwan fried rice recipe - How to make schezwan fried rice". 4 August 2015.