List of human spaceflights

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Apollo 7 heads into orbit with its crew of three, 1968

This is a list of all human spaceflights throughout history. Beginning in 1961 with the flight of Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, human spaceflight occurs when a human crew flies a spacecraft into outer space. Human spaceflight is distinguished from spaceflight generally, which entails both crewed and uncrewed spacecraft.

There are two definitions of spaceflight. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), an international record-keeping body, defines the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space at 100 kilometers above sea level. This boundary is known as the Kármán line. Additionally, the United States military awards astronaut wings to qualified personnel who pilot a spaceflight above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km). Thirteen flights of the North American X-15 met the latter criteria, while only two met the former. This article is primarily concerned with the former international convention, and also lists flights which only satisfied the latter convention. Unless otherwise specified, "spaceflight" and related terms only apply to flights which went beyond the Kármán line.

As of the launch of Soyuz MS-12 on 14 March 2019, there have been 325 human spaceflight launch attempts, including three failed attempts which did not cross the Kármán line. These were the fatal Challenger disaster, and two non-fatal aborted Soyuz missions, T-10a and MS-10. Another non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission, 18a, nevertheless crossed the Kármán line and therefore qualified as a sub-orbital spaceflight. Three missions successfully achieved human spaceflight, yet ended as fatal failures as their crews died during the return. These were Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, and the Columbia disaster. Uniquely, Soyuz 34 was launched uncrewed to the Salyut 6 space station, to provide a successful return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32. Including Soyuz 34 gives a total of 326 attempted human spaceflights. 14 flights reached an apogee beyond 50 miles, but failed to go beyond 100 kilometers.

Summary[edit]

Since 1961, three countries[a] and one private business have conducted human spaceflight using twelve different spacecraft series, or: "programs", "projects".


Entity  Soviet Union
 Russia
 United States  China Scaled Composites
(USA, private)
Subtotals
by decade
Agency Soviet space program
Roscosmos
NASA CNSA Tier One
Decades Program Dates[b] No.[c] Program[d] Dates No.[e] Program Dates No. Program Dates No.
1961–1970 Vostok 1961–1963 6 Mercury 1961–1963 6 41
Voskhod 1964–1965 2 X-15 1963 2
Soyuz 1967–present 141 Gemini 1965–1966 10
Apollo 1968–1972 11
1971–1980 39
Skylab 1973–1974 3
Apollo-
Soyuz
1975 1
1981–1990 Space
Shuttle
1981–2011 135 63
1991–2000 83
2001–2010 Shenzhou 2003–present 6 SpaceShipOne 2004 3 61
2011–2020 39
Subtotals
by entity
149 168 6 3 Total 326

Human spaceflights[edit]

The Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, ISS, and Tiangong series space stations, with which many of these flights docked in orbit, are not listed separately here. See the detailed lists (links below) for information.

Missions which were intended to reach space but which failed to do so are listed in italics, and fatal missions are marked with asterisks.

1961-1970[edit]

Vostok 1Mercury-Redstone 3Mercury-Redstone 4Vostok 2
Mercury-Atlas 6Mercury-Atlas 7Vostok 3Vostok 4Mercury-Atlas 8
Mercury-Atlas 9Vostok 5Vostok 6X-15 Flight 90X-15 Flight 91
Voskhod 1
Voskhod 2Gemini 3Gemini 4Gemini 5Gemini 7Gemini 6A
Gemini 8Gemini 9AGemini 10Gemini 11Gemini 12
Soyuz 1*
Apollo 7Soyuz 3Apollo 8
Soyuz 4Soyuz 5Apollo 9Apollo 10Apollo 11Soyuz 6Soyuz 7Soyuz 8Apollo 12
Apollo 13Soyuz 9

1971-1980[edit]

Apollo 14Soyuz 10Soyuz 11* — Apollo 15
Apollo 16Apollo 17
Skylab 2Skylab 3Soyuz 12Skylab 4Soyuz 13
Soyuz 14Soyuz 15Soyuz 16
Soyuz 17Soyuz 18aSoyuz 18Soyuz 19Apollo-Soyuz
Soyuz 21Soyuz 22Soyuz 23
Soyuz 24Soyuz 25Soyuz 26
Soyuz 27Soyuz 28Soyuz 29Soyuz 30Soyuz 31
Soyuz 32Soyuz 33Soyuz 34
Soyuz 35Soyuz 36Soyuz T-2Soyuz 37Soyuz 38Soyuz T-3

1981-1990[edit]

Soyuz T-4Soyuz 39STS-1Soyuz 40STS-2
STS-3Soyuz T-5Soyuz T-6STS-4Soyuz T-7STS-5
STS-6Soyuz T-8STS-7Soyuz T-9STS-8Soyuz T-10aSTS-9
STS-41-BSoyuz T-10Soyuz T-11STS-41-CSoyuz T-12STS-41-DSTS-41-GSTS-51-A
STS-51-CSTS-51-DSTS-51-BSoyuz T-13STS-51-GSTS-51-FSTS-51-ISoyuz T-14STS-51-JSTS-61-ASTS-61-B
STS-61-CSTS-51-L* — Soyuz T-15
Soyuz TM-2Soyuz TM-3Soyuz TM-4
Soyuz TM-5Soyuz TM-6STS-26Soyuz TM-7STS-27
STS-29STS-30STS-28Soyuz TM-8STS-34STS-33
STS-32Soyuz TM-9STS-36STS-31Soyuz TM-10STS-41STS-38STS-35Soyuz TM-11

1991-2000[edit]

STS-37STS-39Soyuz TM-12STS-40STS-43STS-48Soyuz TM-13STS-44
STS-42Soyuz TM-14STS-45STS-49STS-50Soyuz TM-15STS-46STS-47STS-52STS-53
STS-54Soyuz TM-16STS-56STS-55STS-57Soyuz TM-17STS-51STS-58STS-61
Soyuz TM-18STS-60STS-62STS-59Soyuz TM-19STS-65STS-64STS-68Soyuz TM-20STS-66
STS-63STS-67Soyuz TM-21STS-71STS-70Soyuz TM-22STS-69STS-73STS-74
STS-72Soyuz TM-23STS-75STS-76STS-77STS-78Soyuz TM-24STS-79STS-80
STS-81Soyuz TM-25STS-82STS-83STS-84STS-94Soyuz TM-26STS-85STS-86STS-87
STS-89Soyuz TM-27STS-90STS-91Soyuz TM-28STS-95STS-88
Soyuz TM-29STS-96STS-93STS-103
STS-99Soyuz TM-30STS-101STS-106STS-92Soyuz TM-31STS-97

2001-2010[edit]

STS-98STS-102STS-100Soyuz TM-32STS-104STS-105Soyuz TM-33STS-108
STS-109STS-110Soyuz TM-34STS-111STS-112Soyuz TMA-1STS-113
STS-107* — Soyuz TMA-2Shenzhou 5Soyuz TMA-3
Soyuz TMA-4SpaceShipOne Flight 15PSpaceShipOne Flight 16PSpaceShipOne Flight 17PSoyuz TMA-5
Soyuz TMA-6STS-114Soyuz TMA-7Shenzhou 6
Soyuz TMA-8STS-121STS-115Soyuz TMA-9STS-116
Soyuz TMA-10STS-117STS-118Soyuz TMA-11STS-120
STS-122STS-123Soyuz TMA-12STS-124Shenzhou 7Soyuz TMA-13STS-126
STS-119Soyuz TMA-14STS-125Soyuz TMA-15STS-127STS-128Soyuz TMA-16STS-129Soyuz TMA-17
STS-130Soyuz TMA-18STS-131STS-132Soyuz TMA-19Soyuz TMA-01MSoyuz TMA-20

2011-present[edit]

STS-133Soyuz TMA-21STS-134Soyuz TMA-02MSTS-135Soyuz TMA-22Soyuz TMA-03M
Soyuz TMA-04MShenzhou 9Soyuz TMA-05MSoyuz TMA-06MSoyuz TMA-07M
Soyuz TMA-08MSoyuz TMA-09MShenzhou 10Soyuz TMA-10MSoyuz TMA-11M
Soyuz TMA-12MSoyuz TMA-13MSoyuz TMA-14MSoyuz TMA-15M
Soyuz TMA-16MSoyuz TMA-17MSoyuz TMA-18MSoyuz TMA-19M
Soyuz TMA-20MSoyuz MS-01Shenzhou 11Soyuz MS-02Soyuz MS-03
Soyuz MS-04Soyuz MS-05Soyuz MS-06Soyuz MS-07
Soyuz MS-08Soyuz MS-09Soyuz MS-10Soyuz MS-11
Soyuz MS-12

Flights between 50 miles and 100 kilometers[edit]

In addition to the above, 14 flights reached an apogee between 50 mi and 100 km, thus qualifying as spaceflights according to the American convention, but failing the FAI criterion. Of these, eleven were X-15 flights during the 1960s. During 2018-2019, three additional flights reached an apogee between 50 mi and 100 km.

1962-1968[edit]

X-15 Flight 62
X-15 Flight 77X-15 Flight 87
X-15 Flight 138X-15 Flight 143X-15 Flight 150X-15 Flight 153
X-15 Flight 174
X-15 Flight 190X-15 Flight 191
X-15 Flight 197

2018[edit]

Soyuz MS-10VSS Unity VP-03

2019[edit]

VSS Unity VF-01

Timeline[edit]

Tiangong-2Tiangong-1ISSSkylabMirSalyut 7Salyut 6Salyut 5Salyut 4Salyut 3Salyut 1Shenzhou programShenzhou 11Shenzhou 10Shenzhou 9Shenzhou 7Shenzhou 6Shenzhou 5SpaceShipOneSpaceShipOne flight 17PSpaceShipOne flight 16PSpaceShipOne flight 15PSpace Shuttle AtlantisSTS-135STS-132STS-129STS-125STS-122STS-117STS-115STS-112STS-110STS-104STS-98STS-106STS-101STS-86STS-84STS-81STS-79STS-76STS-74STS-71STS-66STS-46STS-45STS-44STS-43STS-37STS-38STS-36STS-34STS-30STS-27STS-61-BSTS-51-JX-15X-15 Flight 91X-15 Flight 90Space Shuttle DiscoverySTS-133STS-131STS-128STS-119STS-124STS-120STS-116STS-121STS-114STS-105STS-102STS-92STS-103STS-96STS-95STS-91STS-85STS-82STS-70STS-63STS-64STS-60STS-51STS-56STS-53STS-42STS-48STS-39STS-41STS-31STS-33STS-29STS-26STS-51-ISTS-51-GSTS-51-DSTS-51-CSTS-51-ASTS-41-DApollo ProgramApollo-Soyuz Test ProjectApollo 17Apollo 16Apollo 15Apollo 14Apollo 13Apollo 12Apollo 11Apollo 10Apollo 9Apollo 8Apollo 7Space Shuttle EndeavourSTS-134STS-130STS-127STS-126STS-123STS-118STS-113STS-111STS-108STS-100STS-97STS-99STS-88STS-89STS-77STS-72STS-69STS-67STS-68STS-59STS-61STS-57STS-54STS-47STS-49Space Shuttle ChallengerSTS-51-LSTS-61-ASTS-51-FSTS-51-BSTS-41-GSTS-41-CSTS-41-BSTS-8STS-7STS-6Project GeminiGemini XIIGemini XIGemini XGemini IX-AGemini VIIIGemini VI-AGemini VIIGemini VGemini IVGemini IIIGemini 2Gemini 1Space Shuttle ColumbiaSTS-107STS-109STS-93STS-90STS-87STS-94STS-83STS-80STS-78STS-75STS-73STS-65STS-62STS-58STS-55STS-52STS-50STS-40STS-35STS-32STS-28STS-61-CSTS-9STS-5STS-4STS-3STS-2STS-1SkylabSkylab 4Skylab 3Skylab 2Project MercuryMercury-Atlas 9Mercury-Atlas 8Mercury-Atlas 7Mercury-Atlas 6Mercury-Redstone 4Mercury-Redstone 3Soyuz programmeSoyuz MS-11Soyuz MS-09Soyuz MS-08Soyuz MS-07Soyuz MS-06Soyuz MS-05Soyuz MS-04Soyuz MS-03Soyuz MS-02Soyuz MS-01Soyuz TMA-20MSoyuz TMA-19MSoyuz TMA-18MSoyuz TMA-17MSoyuz TMA-16MSoyuz TMA-15MSoyuz TMA-14MSoyuz TMA-13MSoyuz TMA-12MSoyuz TMA-11MSoyuz TMA-10MSoyuz TMA-09MSoyuz TMA-08MSoyuz TMA-07MSoyuz TMA-06MSoyuz TMA-05MSoyuz TMA-04MSoyuz TMA-03MSoyuz TMA-22Soyuz TMA-02MSoyuz TMA-21Soyuz TMA-20Soyuz TMA-01MSoyuz TMA-19Soyuz TMA-18Soyuz TMA-17Soyuz TMA-16Soyuz TMA-15Soyuz TMA-14Soyuz TMA-13Soyuz TMA-12Soyuz TMA-11Soyuz TMA-10Soyuz TMA-9Soyuz TMA-8Soyuz TMA-7Soyuz TMA-6Soyuz TMA-5Soyuz TMA-4Soyuz TMA-3Soyuz TMA-2Soyuz TMA-1Soyuz TM-34Soyuz TM-33Soyuz TM-32Soyuz TM-31Soyuz TM-30Soyuz TM-29Soyuz TM-28Soyuz TM-27Soyuz TM-26Soyuz TM-25Soyuz TM-24Soyuz TM-23Soyuz TM-22Soyuz TM-21Soyuz TM-20Soyuz TM-19Soyuz TM-18Soyuz TM-17Soyuz TM-16Soyuz TM-15Soyuz TM-14Soyuz TM-13Soyuz TM-12Soyuz TM-11Soyuz TM-10Soyuz TM-9Soyuz TM-8Soyuz TM-7Soyuz TM-6Soyuz TM-5Soyuz TM-4Soyuz TM-3Soyuz TM-2Soyuz T-15Soyuz T-14Soyuz T-13Soyuz T-12Soyuz T-11Soyuz T-10Soyuz T-10-1Soyuz T-9Soyuz T-8Soyuz T-7Soyuz T-6Soyuz T-5Soyuz 40Soyuz 39Soyuz T-4Soyuz T-3Soyuz 38Soyuz 37Soyuz T-2Soyuz 36Soyuz 35Soyuz 34Soyuz 33Soyuz 32Soyuz 31Soyuz 30Soyuz 29Soyuz 28Soyuz 27Soyuz 26Soyuz 25Soyuz 24Soyuz 23Soyuz 22Soyuz 21Soyuz 19Soyuz 18Soyuz 18aSoyuz 17Soyuz 16Soyuz 15Soyuz 14Soyuz 13Soyuz 12Soyuz 11Soyuz 10Soyuz 9Soyuz 8Soyuz 7Soyuz 6Soyuz 5Soyuz 4Soyuz 3Soyuz 1Voskhod programmeVostok programme
Space Population.png

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Treating the Soviet Union and Russia as one country. Russia inherited the Soviet Union's space program following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
  2. ^ Dates in this table refer only to actual flights, and not the broader duration of their associated programs. For example, while Project Gemini was begun in 1961 and concluded in 1966, its crewed spaceflights occurred only from 1965–1966.
  3. ^ Soyuz missions include the following: two fatal missions, Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11, both of which reached space; Soyuz 18a, a non-fatal aborted mission which reached space as a sub-orbital flight; Soyuz 19, the Soviet participant in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project; Soyuz 34, which was launched uncrewed to provide a return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32, who were aboard the Salyut 6 space station; Soyuz T-10a, a non-fatal accident in which the crewed launch was aborted due to a fire, failing to reach space; and Soyuz MS-10, a non-fatal aborted mission which failed to reach space.
  4. ^ Following the Apollo program, the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz flights also used Apollo hardware.
  5. ^ Includes two fatal missions, STS-51-L, and STS-107. The former did not reach space, while the latter did.

External links[edit]

  • Spacefacts Compare with the present article. The Spacefacts list includes most flights listed here, but omits twelve: The three failed launches of STS-51-L, Soyuz T-10a and Soyuz MS-10, none of which achieved human spaceflight, the uncrewed launch of Soyuz 34 (which nevertheless returned a crew to earth), and the eight sub-orbital human spaceflights: Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4, X-15 flights 90 and 91, SpaceShipOne flights 15P, 16P and 17P, and Soyuz 18a.
  • Astronautix Similarly, see the list for "Manned Spaceflight" given at Astronautix, which includes other related categories.

References[edit]