List of mammals of Greece
This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Greece. There are eighty-seven mammal species in Greece, of which one is critically endangered, one is endangered, ten are vulnerable, and three are near threatened.
The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature:
|EX||Extinct||No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.|
|EW||Extinct in the wild||Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.|
|CR||Critically endangered||The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.|
|EN||Endangered||The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.|
|VU||Vulnerable||The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.|
|NT||Near threatened||The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.|
|LC||Least concern||There are no current identifiable risks to the species.|
|DD||Data deficient||There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.|
Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories:
|LR/cd||Lower risk/conservation dependent||Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.|
|LR/nt||Lower risk/near threatened||Species which are close to being classified as vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.|
|LR/lc||Lower risk/least concern||Species for which there are no identifiable risks.|
- 1 Subclass: Theria
- 1.1 Order: Rodentia (rodents)
- 1.2 Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)
- 1.3 Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)
- 1.4 Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)
- 1.5 Order: Chiroptera (bats)
- 1.6 Order: Cetacea (whales)
- 1.7 Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)
- 1.8 Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)
- 2 See also
- 3 Notes
- 4 References
Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).
- Suborder: Hystricognathi
- Suborder: Sciurognathi
- Family: Sciuridae (squirrels)
- Family: Gliridae (dormice)
- Family: Spalacidae
- Family: Cricetidae
- Subfamily: Cricetinae
- Subfamily: Arvicolinae
- Genus: Arvicola
- Water vole, Arvicola terrestris LR/lc
- Genus: Chionomys
- Snow vole, Chionomys nivalis LR/nt
- Genus: Clethrionomys
- Bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus LR/lc
- Genus: Microtus
- Genus: Arvicola
- Family: Muridae (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
- Family: Echimyidae (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)
The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.
- Family: Leporidae (rabbits, hares)
Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)
The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.
- Family: Erinaceidae (hedgehogs)
Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)
The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout-bodied burrowers.
- Family: Soricidae (shrews)
- Subfamily: Crocidurinae
- Genus: Crocidura
- Genus: Suncus
- Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus LC
- Subfamily: Soricinae
- Subfamily: Crocidurinae
- Family: Talpidae (moles)
Order: Chiroptera (bats)
The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.
- Family: Vespertilionidae
- Subfamily: Myotinae
- Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
- Genus: Eptesicus
- Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus LR/lc
- Genus: Hypsugo
- Savi's pipistrelle, Hypsugo savii LR/lc
- Genus: Nyctalus
- Genus: Pipistrellus
- Genus: Plecotus
- Grey long-eared bat, Plecotus austriacus LR/lc
- Genus: Vespertilio
- Parti-coloured bat, Vespertilio murinus LR/lc
- Genus: Eptesicus
- Subfamily: Miniopterinae
- Family: Molossidae
- Family: Rhinolophidae
The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater. Dolphins are national animal of Greece although cetacean biodiversity in the Mediterranean is not as diverse as in nations facing outer oceans, and the Aegean Sea Greece's coasts are one of the furthermost basin of the inland sea and even less species regularly inhabit comparing to western basin.
- Suborder: Mysticeti
- Suborder: Odontoceti
- Family: Physeteridae (sperm whales)
- Family: Ziphiidae (beaked whales)
- Superfamily: Platanistoidea
- Family: Phocoenidae (porpoises)
- Family: Delphinidae (marine dolphins)
- Genus: Tursiops
- Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus LR/lc
- Genus: Steno
- Rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis DD
- Genus: Stenella
- Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba LR/cd
- Genus: Delphinus
- Common dolphin, Delphinus delphis LR/lc
- Genus: Grampus
- Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus DD
- Genus: Pseudorca
- False killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens LR/lc
- Genus: Orcinus
- Genus: Tursiops
- Family: Monodontidae
There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.
- Suborder: Feliformia
- Suborder: Caniformia
- Family: Canidae (dogs, foxes)
- Family: Ursidae (bears)
- Family: Mustelidae (mustelids)
- Genus: Mustela
- Genus: Vormela
- Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna LR/lc
- Genus: Martes
- Genus: Meles
- Eurasian badger, Meles meles LR/lc
- Genus: Lutra
- European otter, Lutra lutra NT
- Family: Phocidae (earless seals)
Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)
The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.
- Family: Suidae (pigs)
- Family: Cervidae (deer)
- Family: Bovidae (cattle, antelope, sheep, goats)
- Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber EX (19th century Messolonghi, Peloponnese, Nicopolis)
- Lion, Panthera leo EX ( Macedonia 1st century AD, Thessaly possibly 4th century AD)
- Anatolian leopard, Panthera pardus tulliana EX (one animal crossed Mycale Strait to Samos in 1862)
- European bison, Bison bonasus EX (possibly 3rd century AD)
- Eurasian aurochs, Bos primigenius primigenius EX (possibly 1st century BC)
- List of chordate orders
- List of regional mammals lists
- List of prehistoric mammals
- Mammal classification
- New mammal species
- This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD). The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institution, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.
- Frantzis A., Alexiadou P., Paximadis G., Politi E., Gannier A., Corsini-Foka M. (2003). "Current knowledge of the cetacean fauna of the Greek Seas" (pdf). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. International Whaling Commission. 5 (3): 219–232. Retrieved 2016-04-16.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Frantzis A. (2009). "Cetaceans in Greece: Present status of knowledge - Technical Report" (pdf). Initiative for the Conservation of Cetaceans in Greece: 1–94. Retrieved 2016-04-16.
- Alden, M. (2005). "Lions in paradise: Lion similes in the Iliad and the Lion Cubs of IL. 18.318-22". The Classical Quarterly (55): 335–342.
- Bartosiewicz, L. (2008). "A Lion's Share of Attention: Archaeozoology and the historical record". Acta Archaeologica (2008): 759–773.
- Cohen, A. (2010). Art in the era of Alexander the Great: Paradigms of manhood and their cultural traditions, Cambridge University Press, pp. 68–69 ISBN 9780521769044.
- Douglas, N. 1927: Birds and Beasts of the Greek Anthology. Florence.
- Kitchell, K.F. 2013: Animals in the Ancient Word from A to Z.
- Poulter, A. 2007: Nicopolis ad Istrum: A late Roman and early Byzantine City the Finds and Biological Remains.
- Sidiropoulos, K., Polymeni, R.M. & A. Legakis 2016: The evolution of Greek fauna since classical times. The Historical Review/La Revue Historique, 13, 127-146.
- Uhm, D.P. van (2016). The Illegal Wildlife Trade: Inside the World of Poachers, Smugglers and Traders. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
- Κρητικίδης, Ε.Ι. 1869: Τοπογραφία Αρχαία και Σημερινή της Σάμου.
- "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Mammals of Greece". IUCN. 2001. Retrieved 22 May 2007.[dead link]
- "Mammal Species of the World". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2005. Archived from the original on April 27, 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
- "Animal Diversity Web". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 1995–2006. Retrieved 22 May 2007.