List of political parties in Taiwan
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of China
Parties with national or local representation
- National representation includes the President, the Vice President, and the 113 national legislator seats in the Legislative Yuan.
- Local representation includes the 22 mayors/magistrates executive positions and 912 local legislator (councils) seats of the 6 special municipalities, 3 cities and 13 counties.
|Democratic Progressive Party
民主進步黨 Mínzhǔ Jìnbù Dǎng
Bîn-chú Chìn-pō͘ Tóng
|6||238||Cho Jung-tai||Center to center-left||Liberalism, Taiwanese nationalism. Leader of the Pan-Green Coalition in Taiwan, also a member of Liberal International.|
中國國民黨 Zhōngguó Guómíndǎng
|35||15||394||Wu Den-yih||Center-right||Conservatism, Chinese nationalism, Three Principles of the People. Leader of the Pan-Blue Coalition in Taiwan, also a member of International Democrat Union|
|New Power Party
時代力量 Shídài Lìliàng
|5||—||16||Huang Kuo-chang||Center-left||Progressivism, Social liberalism, Taiwanese nationalism. Considered a member of the Pan-Green Coalition.|
|People First Party
親民黨 Qīnmín Dǎng
|3||—||8||James Soong||Center-right||Liberal conservatism, Chinese nationalism. Considered a member of the Pan-Blue Coalition, now functions more independently from Kuomintang, sometimes refers to the Orange Group.|
|Non-Partisan Solidarity Union
無黨團結聯盟 Wúdǎng Tuánjié Liánméng
Bû-tóng Thoân-kiat Liân-bêng
|1||—||5||Lin Ping-kun||Center-right||Conservative liberalism. Considered a member of the Pan-Blue Coalition.|
|Taiwan Solidarity Union
台灣團結聯盟 Táiwān Tuánjié Liánméng
Tâi-oân Thoân-kiat Liân-bêng
|—||—||5||Liu Yi-te||Center-left||Progressivism, Social liberalism, Taiwanese nationalism, Taiwan independence. A member of Pan-Green Coalition.|
|Green Party Taiwan
台灣綠黨 Táiwān Lǜ Dǎng
Tâi-ôan Le̍k Tóng
|Center-left||Green politics. A member of the Social Welfare National Alliance in Taiwan, also a member of Global Greens.|
|Congress Party Alliance
國會政黨聯盟 Guóhuì Zhèngdǎng Liánméng
Kok-hōe Chèng-tóng Liân-bêng
|—||—||3||Miaotian (悟覺妙天禪師)||Center-right||Liberal conservatism, Three Principles of the People. Considered a member of the Pan-Blue Coalition, closer to the Orange Groups.|
勞動黨 Láodòng Dǎng
|—||—||2||Wu Rong-yuan||Far-left||Communism, Chinese nationalism, Chinese Reunification. Unaligned to any political coalitions in Taiwan, a member of International Communist Seminar|
新黨 Xīn Dăng
|—||—||2||Yok Mu-ming||Right-wing||Conservatism, Chinese nationalism, Chinese Reunification. A member of the Pan-Blue Coalition.|
|For Public Good Party
中華民族致公黨 Zhōnghuá Mínzú Zhìgōng Dǎng
Tiong-hôa Bîn-cho̍k Tì-kong Tóng
|—||—||1||Tsai Chun-sheng||Left-wing||Chinese nationalism, Chinese Reunification. Unaligned to any political coalitions in Taiwan.|
|Social Democratic Party
社會民主黨 Shèhuì Mínzhǔ Dǎng
Siā-hōe Bîn-chú Tóng
|—||—||1||Fan Yun||Center-left||Social democracy. A member of the Social Welfare National Alliance in Taiwan.|
Full list of registered political parties
Here is a full list of registered political parties according to the Ministry of the Interior, by order of registration. Dates indicate date of founding.
Taiwan under Japanese rule
Political party movements in Taiwan started in the late 1910s after World War I, during the Taishō period (Taishō Democracy). Taiwanese political movements at this time were to modify the discriminatory colonial laws established in earlier years, and to setup local autonomy systems like in Mainland Japan. The largest political movement at this time was the Petition Movement for the Establishment of a Taiwanese Parliament. At the same time, the International Communist Movement also influenced Taiwan, many Left-wing parties and organizations were also established.
Notable Taiwanese parties during this time are:
- Taiwan Dōkakai (臺灣同化會, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Tông-hòa-hōe, Japanese: Taiwan Dōkakai)
- New People Society (新民會, Taiwanese: Sin-bîn-hōe, Japanese: Shinminkai)
- Taiwanese Cultural Association (臺灣文化協會, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Bûn-hòa Hia̍p-hōe, Japanese: Taiwan Bunka Kyōkai)
- Taiwanese Federation of Workers' Unions (臺灣工友總聯盟, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Kang-iú Chóng Liân-bêng, Japanese: Taiwan Kōyū Sōrenmei)
- Taiwanese Peasants Union (臺灣農民組合, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Lông-bîn Cho͘-ha̍p, Japanese: Taiwan Nōmin Kumiai)
- Taiwanese Communist Party (臺灣共產黨, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Kiōng-sán Tóng, Japanese: Taiwan Kyōsan-tō)
- Taiwanese People's Party (臺灣民眾黨, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Bîn-chiòng Tóng, Japanese: Taiwan Minshu-tō)
- Taiwan Local Autonomy Union (臺灣地方自治聯盟, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân Tē-hng Chū-tī Liân-bêng, Japanese: Taiwan Tihō-jiti Renmei)
At the same time, the political parties in Mainland Japan also affected Taiwan. Most of the Governor-General of Taiwan were also members of the House of Peers of the Imperial Diet (帝国議会). Party affiliations of the Governor-Generals were:
- Rikken Seiyūkai (立憲政友会, Taiwanese: Li̍p-hiàn Chèng-iú-hōe)
- Kenseikai (憲政会, Taiwanese: Hiàn-chèng-hōe)
- Rikken Minseitō (立憲民政党, Taiwanese: Li̍p-hiàn Bîn-chèng Tóng)
- Imperial Rule Assistance Association (大政翼贊會, Japanese: Taisei Yokusankai, Taiwanese: Tāi-chèng-i̍k-chàn-hōe)
with its Taiwanese branch
Taiwan after World War II
Taiwan was ceded back to the Republic of China, founded in 1912 on the mainland, on 25 October 1945 and was placed under martial law from 19 May 1949 to 15 July 1987. At this time, all forms of opposition were forbidden by the government, only three political parties who retreated to Taiwan were allowed to participate the elections.
- Kuomintang (中國國民黨; Chinese: Zhōngguó Guómíndǎng; Taiwanese: Tiong-kok Kok-bîn-tóng)[note 2]
- Chinese Youth Party (中國青年黨; Chinese: Zhōngguó Qīngniándǎng; Taiwanese: Tiong-kok Chheng-liân-tóng)
- China Democratic Socialist Party (中國民主社會黨, Chinese: Zhōngguó Mínzhǔ Shèhuìdǎng, Taiwanese: Tiong-kok Bîn-chú Siā-hoē-tóng)[note 3]
All other oppositions who were not allowed not form a political party could only be listed as "independent candidate". These movements were called Tangwai movement (黨外, literally outside of Kuomintang). A notable exception in this era was
It was established "illegally" in 28 September 1986, then was legalized in the next year by the lift of the martial law.
As Taiwan democratized in the late 1980s, the number of legally registered political parties in Taiwan had increased exponentially and continued to increase year by year, indicating a liberal democracy and high political freedom in Taiwan.
In the recent decades, Taiwan's political campaigns can be classified to two ideological blocs
- The Pan-Green Coalition, led by Democratic Progressive Party, favors Taiwanization and the Taiwan independence movement, eventually aiming to establish a Taiwanese sovereign state.
- The Pan-Blue Coalition, led by Kuomintang, is in favor of building closer ties with China and the eventual Chinese unification under the Government of the Republic of China.
The majority in both coalitions state a desire to maintain the status quo for now. Many minor parties in Taiwan are unaligned with either coalition.
On December 6, 2017, the Political Parties Act (政黨法) was enforced. The Act requires the political parties to maintain a number of compliance, including
- File a declaration to the Ministry of the Interior, AND register as a legal person to a District Court,
- Convene representative assembly or party congress at least once in a four-year period,
- Nominate candidates in national or local elections at least once in a four-year period, and
- Compliance on funding source, accounting, and financial transparency.
By the end of 2018, among the 343 existing political party declarations: 220 have met the new compliance, 56 chose to dissolve or transformed to a national political association.
- Conservatism in Taiwan
- February 28 Incident
- History of Taiwan
- Economic history of Taiwan
- Politics of the Republic of China
- Political parties of the Empire of Japan
- History of political parties in China
- List of political parties by country
- List of rulers of Taiwan
- Elections in Taiwan
- named after the vision 天下為公 (about the Great Unity) in the Book of Rites
- KMT's prior body was Revive China Society (Xinzhonghui 興中會), founded on 24 November 1894. It officially renamed itself as China Nationalist Party 中國國民黨 in 1919.
- The prior body of China Democratic Socialist Party (中國民主社會黨) was China National Socialist Party (中國國家社會黨), which was founded on 16 April 1932. It renamed itself as China Democratic Socialist Party (中國民主社會黨) on 15 August 1946.