List of proper names of stars

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These names of stars that have either been approved by the International Astronomical Union (its Working Group on Star Names has since 2016 been publishing a "List of IAU-approved Star Names", which as of June 2018 included a total of 330 proper names of stars[1]) or which have been in somewhat recent usage. See also the lists of stars by constellation, which give variant names, derivations, and magnitudes.

Of the roughly 10,000 stars visible to the naked eye, only a few hundred have been given proper names in the history of astronomy.[2] Traditional astronomy tends to group stars into asterisms, and give proper names to those, not to individual stars.

Many star names are in origin descriptive of the part of the asterism they are found in; thus Phecda, a corruption of the Arabic -فخذ الدب- fakhth al-dubb "thigh of the bear". Only a handful of the brightest stars have individual proper names not depending on their asterism; so Sirius "the scorcher", Antares "like Mars", Canopus (of uncertain origin), Alphard "the solitary one", Regulus "kinglet"; and arguably Aldebaran "the follower" (of the Pleiades), Procyon "preceding the dog [Sirius]". The same holds for Chinese star names, where most stars are enumerated within their asterisms, with a handful of exceptions such as 織女 "weaving girl" (Vega).

In addition to the limited number of traditional star names, there are some coined in modern times, e.g. "Avior" for Epsilon Carinae (1930), and a number of stars named after people (mostly in the 20th century).

IAU Catalog[edit]

In 2016, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)[3] to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin dated July 2016[4] included a table of 125 stars comprising the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN (on 30 June and 20 July 2016) together with names of stars adopted by the IAU Executive Committee Working Group on Public Naming of Planets and Planetary Satellites during the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign[5] and recognized by the WGSN. Further batches of names were approved on 21 August, 12 September, 5 October and 6 November 2016. These were listed in a table of 102 stars included in the WGSN's second bulletin dated November 2016.[6] The next additions were done on 1 February 2017 (13 new star names), 30 June 2017 (29), 5 September 2017 (41), 17 November 2017 (3), 1 June 2018 (17), and on 10 August 2018 (6). All 336 are included in the current List of IAU-approved Star Names, last updated on 10 August 2018.[1]

List[edit]

In the table below, unless indicated by a "†", the "Modern proper name" is that approved by the WGSN and entered in the List of IAU-approved Star Names.[1] The WGSN decided to attribute proper names to individual stars rather than entire multiple systems.[7] For such names relating to members of multiple star systems, and where a component letter (from e.g. Washington Double Star Catalog) is not explicitly listed, the WGSN says that the name should be understood to be attributed to the brightest component by visual brightness.[6]

Constellation Designation Modern proper name Historical names / comments English pronunciation[note 1]
[8][9][10][11][12]
Eridanus θ¹ Eridani A Acamar

Originally called آخر النهرākhir al-nahr in Arabic, meaning "river's end", named because it was the brightest star in the constellation Eridanus (the River). (Before the 16th century, this was the last star in the Eridanus constellation; it was later extended to Achenar, below).[13]:p219 The spelling "Acamar" was first used in the Alphonsine tables (circa 1252).[13]:p219

/ˈækəmɑːr/
Eridanus α Eridani A Achernar

The name was originally Arabic آخر النهرākhir al-nahr "river's end"

/ˈkərnɑːr/
Cassiopeia η Cassiopeiae A Achird Apparently first applied to Eta Cassiopeiae in the Skalnate Pleso Atlas of the Heavens published in 1950, but is not known prior to that.[14] /ˈərd/
Scorpius β Scorpii Aa Acrab The traditional name of the β Scorpii system has been rendered Akrab and Elakrab, derived (like Acrab) from Arabic العقرب al-ʽaqrab, "the scorpion". /ˈkræb/
Crux α Crucis Aa Acrux Acrux is a modern contraction of the Bayer designation, coined in the 19th century, but which entered into common use only by the mid 20th century.[15] /ˈkrʌks/
Cancer α Cancri Aa Acubens The name was originally Arabic الزبانىal-zubānā, "the claws". /ˈækjuːbɛnz/
Leo ζ Leonis Aa Adhafera Also called Aldhafera.

The name is originally from Arabic الضفيرةal-ḍafīrah, "the braid (or curl, or strand) (of the lion's mane)"

/ædəˈfɪərə/
Canis Major ε Canis Majoris A Adhara

The name is originally from Arabic عذارىʽaðārā, "virgins". In the Calendarium of Al Achsasi Al Mouakket it is designated أول ألعذاريawwil al-aðāriy, translated into Latin as Prima Virginum, "first virgin".

/əˈdɛərə/
Andromeda ξ Andromedae Adhil The name was originally Arabic الذيل‎ að-ðayl, 'the train' (lit. 'the tail') /əˈdɪl/
Taurus ε Tauri Aa1 Ain

The name is originally from Arabic عينʽayn, "eye" and was reviewed and adopted by the IAU Executive Committee WG Public Naming of Planets and Planetary Satellites.[1]

/ˈeɪn/
Sagittarius ν¹ Sagittarii A Ainalrami /ˌɛnəlˈreɪmi/
Lyra η Lyrae Aa Aladfar

The name is originally from Arabic الأظفرal-uẓfur, "the talons (of the swooping eagle)", shared with μ Lyrae (Alathfar).

/əˈlædfɑːr/
Andromeda γ Andromedae Alamak †

The name is originally from Arabic العناق الأرضal-ʽanāq al-arḍ, "the caracal" (desert lynx).

/ˈæləmæk/
Lyra μ Lyrae Alathfar †

The name is originally from Arabic الأظفرal-uẓfur, "the talons (of the swooping eagle)", shared with η Lyrae (Aladfar).

/əˈlæθfɑːr/
Sagittarius π Sagittarii A Albaldah

The name is originally from Arabic بلدةbaldah, "town". In the Calendarium of Al Achsasi Al Mouakket designated نير البلدةnayyir al-baldah, translated into Latin as Lucida Oppidi "brightest of the town".

/ælˈbɔːldə/
Aquarius ε Aquarii Albali

The name is originally from Arabic البالعalbāliʽ, "the swallower".

/ælˈbeɪli/
Cygnus β¹ Cygni Aa Albireo

The source of the name Albireo is not entirely clear.[16]

/ælˈbɪrioʊ/
Corvus α Corvi Alchiba

From Arabic الخباءal-khibāʼ, "tent". In the Calendarium of Al Achsasi Al Mouakket designated ألمنخر ألغرابal-mankhar al-ghurāb, translated into Latin as Rostrum Corvi, "beak of the crow".

/ˈælkɪbə/
Ursa Major 80 Ursae Majoris Ca Alcor

From Arabic الخوّارal‑khawwār, "the faint one".

/ˈælkɔːr/
Taurus η Tauri A Alcyone

Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Alcyone was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology.

/ælˈsaɪəniː/
Taurus α Tauri Aldebaran

The name was originally Arabic لدبرانal-dabarān, "the follower (of the Pleiades)".[17]

/ælˈdɛbərən/
Cepheus α Cephei Alderamin

From Arabic الذراع اليمينal-ðirāʽ al-yamīn, "the right arm (of Cepheus)".

/ælˈdɛrəmɪn/
Grus γ Gruis Aldhanab

The name was originally Arabic الذنبal-ðanab, "the tail (of the constellation of the Southern Fish)"".

/ˈældənæb/
Draco ζ Draconis A Aldhibah

From Arabic الضّباعal ḍibāʽ, "the hyenas"", shared with η Draconis.

/ælˈdaɪbə/
Delphinus ε Delphini Aldulfin /ælˈdʌlfən/
Cepheus β Cephei Aa Alfirk /ˈælfərk/
Capricornus α² Capricorni A Algedi Alternative traditional names of Al Giedi, Secunda Giedi and Algiedi Secunda /ælˈdʒiːdi/
Pegasus γ Pegasi Algenib /ælˈdʒiːnɪb/
Leo γ¹ Leonis Algieba /æˈdʒiːbə/
Perseus β Persei Aa1 Algol From Arabic رأس الغولraʼs al-ghūl, "head of the ogre". In Egyptian, Horus.[18] /ˈælɡɒl/
Corvus δ Corvi A Algorab The traditional name Algorab is derived from Arabic الغراب al-ghurāb, "the crow"). The WGSN re-designated the star as Algorab in July 2016.[19] /ˈælɡəræb/
Gemini γ Geminorum Aa Alhena Derived from Arabic الهنعة al-hanʽah, "the brand" (on the neck of the camel) /ælˈhiːnə/
Ursa Major ε Ursae Majoris A Alioth Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK). /ˈæliɒθ/
Cygnus ε Cygni Aa Aljanah /ˈældʒənə/
Ursa Major η Ursae Majoris Alkaid Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK). /ælˈkeɪd/
Cepheus ρ² Cephei Al Kalb al Rai †
Boötes μ¹ Boötis Aa Alkalurops /ælkəˈljʊərɒps/
Ursa Major κ Ursae Majoris A Alkaphrah /ælˈkæfrə/
Pegasus υ Pegasi Alkarab /ˈælkəræb/
Crater α Crateris Alkes /ˈælkɛs/
Auriga ε Aurigae Almaaz /ˈælmeɪ.əz/
Andromeda γ Andromedae A Almach /ˈælmæk/
Leo κ Leonis Al Minliar al Asad †
Grus α Gruis Alnair /ælˈnɛər/
Sagittarius γ² Sagittarii Alnasl From Arabic النصل al-naṣl, "arrowhead".[20] /ælˈnæzəl/
Orion ε Orionis Alnilam Middle star in the belt of Orion. /ˈælnɪlæm/
Orion ζ Orionis Aa Alnitak The traditional name, alternately spelled Al Nitak or Alnitah, is from Arabic النطاق al-niṭāq, "the girdle".[13]:pp314-315 /ˈælnɪtæk/
Scorpius σ Scorpii Aa1 Alniyat /ælˈnaɪæt/
Hydra α Hydrae Alphard /ˈælfɑːrd/
Corona Borealis α Coronae Borealis Alphecca The name nayyir al-fakkah نير الفكّة "bright (star) of the broken (ring of stars)" is found in the Al Achsasi al Mouakket catalogue (c. 1650).[21] /ælˈfɛkə/
Andromeda α Andromedae Aa Alpheratz /ælˈfɪəræts/
Pisces η Piscium Alpherg /ˈælfɜːrɡ/
Draco μ Draconis A Alrakis From Arabic الراقصal-rāqiṣ, "the dancer"; also spelled Arrakis and Elrakis. /ælˈreɪkɪs/
Pisces α Piscium A Alrescha /ælˈriːʃə/
Draco HD 161693 Alruba /ælˈruːbə/
Draco σ Draconis Alsafi /ælˈseɪfi/
Lynx 31 Lyncis Alsciaukat /ælʃiˈɔːkæt/
Vela δ Velorum Aa Alsephina /ælsɪˈfaɪnə/
Aquila β Aquilae A Alshain /ælˈʃeɪn/
Capricornus ν Capricorni A Alshat /ˈælʃæt/
Aquila α Aquilae Altair From Arabic النسر الطائر(al-nasr) al-ṭāʼir, "the flying (eagle)". /ælˈteɪ.ər/
Draco δ Draconis Altais /ˈælteɪs/
Leo λ Leonis Alterf /ˈæltərf/
Canis Major η Canis Majoris Aludra /əˈluːdrə/
Ursa Major ξ Ursae Majoris Aa Alula Australis /əˈluːlə ɔːˈstreɪlɪs/
Ursa Major ν Ursae Majoris Alula Borealis /əˈluːlə bɒriˈælɪs/
Serpens θ¹ Serpentis A Alya /ˈeɪliə/
Gemini ξ Geminorum Alzirr alternately spelled Alzir /ˈælzər/
Aquarius θ Aquarii Ancha /ˈæŋkə/
Eridanus τ² Eridani Angetenar

The name is originally from Arabic عرجة النهرʽarjat al-nahr, "the bend of the river"[citation needed]

/ænˈdʒɛtɪnɑːr/
Phoenix α Phoenicis Ankaa /ˈæŋkə/
Vulpecula α Vulpeculae Anser Alternative traditional name is Lucida Anseris.
Scorpius α Scorpii A Antares Ancient Greek, Άντάρης, "like Ares (Mars)". /ænˈtɛəriːz/
Boötes α Boötis Arcturus /ɑːrkˈtjʊərəs/
Sagittarius β² Sagittarii Arkab Posterior
Sagittarius β¹ Sagittarii A Arkab Prior
Lepus α Leporis A Arneb Traditional name Arneb is from the Arabic أرنب arnab, 'hare'[13]:p268 ('Lepus' is Latin for hare).
Sagittarius ζ Sagittarii A Ascella Part of Teapot Asterism.
Cancer δ Cancri Aa Asellus Australis
Cancer γ Cancri Aa Asellus Borealis
Hydra ε Hydrae Ashlesha
Boötes θ Boötis Asellus Primus † Latin for "first donkey colt"
Boötes ι Boötis Asellus Secundus † Latin for "second donkey colt"
Boötes κ Boötis Asellus Tertius †
Carina ι Carinae Aspidiske
Taurus 21 Tauri A Asterope, Sterope Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Asterope was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /(ə)ˈstɛrəpi:/
Draco η Draconis A Athebyne
Perseus ο Persei A Atik
Taurus 27 Tauri Aa1 Atlas Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Atlas was the Titan god of endurance and astronomy[22] and the father of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /ˈætləs/
Triangulum Australe α Trianguli Australis Atria
Carina ε Carinae A Avior Designated 'Avior' by His Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office for the Royal Air Force in the 1930s.[23]
Cygnus π¹ Cygni Azelfafage Variously reported as from Arabic السلحفاةal-sulaḥfāh "turtle", ألطلف ألفرسal-ṭīlf al-faras, "horse track", or عزلألدجاجةal-ʽazal al-dajājah, "the tail of the hen" [13]:pp192-197
Eridanus η Eridani Azha

Originally from Arabic اشيانة‎ "nest (of the ostrich)"

Puppis ξ Puppis Azmidi alternative rendering Asmidiske †
Ophiuchus GJ 699 Barnard's Star Named after the American astronomer E E Barnard, the first to measure its high proper motion.
Cetus ζ Ceti Aa Baten Kaitos
Eridanus υ³ Eridani Beemim
Eridanus ο¹ Eridani Beid The name is originally from Arabic البيضal-bayḍ, "the eggs".
Orion γ Orionis Bellatrix Latin for "female warrior"; applied to this star in the 15th century.[24] /bɛˈleɪtrɪks/
Orion α Orionis Aa Betelgeuse Derived from Arabic يد الجوزاء yad al-jauzāʼ, "the hand of (an old asterism)". /ˈbɛtəldʒuːz, ˈbiːtəl-, -dʒuːs/
Aries 41 Arietis Aa Bharani
Pegasus θ Pegasi Biham
Aries δ Arietis Botein
Libra σ Librae A Brachium
Aquarius ξ Aquarii Bunda
Carina α Carinae A Canopus Ptolemy's Κάνωβος, after Canopus (Kanopos, Kanobos), a pilot from Greek mythology, whose name is itself of uncertain etymology. /kəˈnoʊpəs/
Auriga α Aurigae Aa Capella The traditional name Capella (English: small female goat) is from Latin, and is a diminutive of the Latin Capra (English: female goat).[13]:p86 /kəˈpɛlə/
Cassiopeia β Cassiopeiae A Caph The name is originally Arabic كفkaf, "palm", a residue of an old name of Cassiopeia, ' al-kaff al-khadib, "the stained hand"; also known as al-sanam al-nakah, "the camel's hump".
Gemini α Geminorum Aa Castor /ˈkæstər/
Cassiopeia υ² Cassiopeiae Castula
Ophiuchus β Ophiuchi Cebalrai
Taurus 16 Tauri Celaeno Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Celaeno was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /sɪˈliːnoʊ/
Ara μ Arae Cervantes Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the Spanish author of El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha.[25]
Ursa Major 47 Ursae Majoris Chalawan Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after a mythological crocodile king from a Thai folktale.[25]
Taurus θ² Tauri Aa Chamukuy
Canes Venatici β Canum Venaticorum Aa Chara
Leo θ Leonis Chertan Alternative traditional name of Chort.
Cancer 55 Cancri A Copernicus Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign[5] in honor of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.[25]
Canes Venatici α Canum Venaticorum Aa Cor Caroli Named after Charles I of England by Sir Charles Scarborough[13][26][27]
Hercules ω Herculis A Cujam Traditional name, variously spelled Kajam.
Eridanus β Eridani Cursa
  • The name is originally from Arabic الكرسيal-kursiy, "the chair, footstool"
Capricornus β¹ Capricorni Aa Dabih
Fornax α Fornacis A Dalim
Cygnus α Cygni Deneb The name is originally from Arabic ذنب الدجاجةðanab al-dajājahh}}. In Chinese, Deneb is part of 鵲橋 "Magpie bridge" in the Qi Xi love story. Deneb is one of the vertices of the Summer Triangle. /ˈdɛnɛb/
Capricornus δ Capricorni Aa Deneb Algedi
Leo β Leonis Denebola /dəˈnɛbələ/
Coma Berenices α Comae Berenices A Diadem
Cetus β Ceti Diphda
Scorpius δ Scorpii A Dschubba
Ursa Major α Ursae Majoris A Dubhe Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK). /ˈdʌbiː/
Draco ψ¹ Draconis A Dziban From the traditional name of Dziban or Dsiban for ψ¹ Draconis, derived from Arabic al-dhiʼban, meaning "the two wolves" or "The two jackals".[13]:p212
Draco ι Draconis Edasich Common name reviewed and adopted by the IAU Executive Committee WG Public Naming of Planets and Planetary Satellites.[1]
Taurus 17 Tauri Electra Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Electra was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /ɪˈlɛktrə/
Virgo φ Virginis Elgafar
Columba θ Columbae Elkurud
Taurus β Tauri Aa Elnath Variously El Nath or Alnath, from Arabic النطح an-naṭḥ, meaning "the butting" (i.e. "the bull's horns").
Draco γ Draconis Eltanin Alternative traditional name of Etamin; both originally from the Arabic constellation name التنينal-tinnīn, "the great serpent". γ Dra was also one of the "Five Camels", Quinque Dromedarii, in Arabic al‑ʽawāïd.
Pegasus ε Pegasi Enif
Cepheus γ Cephei Aa Errai Common name reviewed and adopted by the IAU Executive Committee WG Public Naming of Planets and Planetary Satellites.[1]
Draco 42 Draconis A Fafnir Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after a Norse mythological dwarf who turned into a dragon.[25]
Scorpius π Scorpii Aa Fang From Chinese name 房 (Fáng, "Room").
Cygnus δ Cygni Fawaris
Hydra HD 85951 Felis
Piscis Austrinus α Piscis Austrini A Fomalhaut The name is originally from Arabic فم الحوتfum al-ḥawt, "mouth of the fish". To Persian astrologers this was a Royal star: Haftorang, Watcher of the South. The name was reviewed and adopted by the IAU Executive Committee WG Public Naming of Planets and Planetary Satellites.[1] /ˈfoʊməl.hɔːt/
Cassiopeia ζ Cassiopeiae Fulu From Chinese name 附路 (Fù Lù, Auxiliary Road).
Pisces β Piscium Fumalsamakah
Canis Major ζ Canis Majoris Aa Furud
Scorpius G Scorpii Fuyue From Chinese name Fu Yue.
Crux γ Crucis Gacrux The name "Gacrux" is a contraction of the Bayer designation, coined by astronomer Elijah Hinsdale Burritt (1794–1838).[28][29]
Cepheus μ Cephei Garnet Star † Its colour was described as "garnet" by William Herschel. Following Herschel, it was called garnet sidus by Giuseppe Piazzi
Draco λ Draconis Giausar Traditional name, variously spelled Gianfar.
Corvus γ Corvi A Gienah Also known as Gienah Gurab; the star ε Cygni is also traditionally known as Gienah.[citation needed]
Crux ε Crucis Ginan Traditional name in the culture of the Wardaman people of the Northern territory of Australia.[30]
Canis Minor β Canis Minoris A Gomeisa
Scorpius ξ Scorpii Graffias † Italian for "claws"; also once applied to β Scorpii.[31][13]:p367
Draco ξ Draconis A Grumium
Serpens κ Serpentis Gudja
Ophiuchus 36 Ophiuchi Guniibuu
Centaurus β Centauri Aa Hadar
Auriga η Aurigae Haedus
Aries α Arietis Hamal Traditional name (also written Hemal, Hamul, or Ras Hammel), derived from Arabic راس الحملrās al-ḥamal, "head of the ram", in turn from the name for the constellation as a whole, al ḥamal, "the ram".[13]:pp78,80
Auriga ι Aurigae Hassaleh
Orion ι Orionis Aa Hatysa
Pegasus 51 Pegasi Helvetios Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Latin for 'the Helvetian' and refers to the Celtic tribe that lived in Switzerland during antiquity.[25]
Sagittarius τ Sagittarii Hecatebolus Along with Nunki, it makes handle, in Teapot Asterism.
Virgo ζ Virginis Heze
Virgo δ Lupi Hilasmus[not in citation given]
Pegasus ζ Pegasi A Homam
Scorpius ρ Scorpii Aa Iklil
Crux δ Crucis Imai
Ursa Major 41 Lyncis Intercrus Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Intercrus means "between the legs" in Latin style, referring to the star's position in the constellation Ursa Major.[25]
Boötes ε Boötis A Izar Originally from Arabic إزارizār, "veil". In the Calendarium of Al Achsasi Al Mouakket designated منتقة ألعوعmintaqah al‑ʽawwaʽ, translated into Latin as Cingulum Latratoris, "belt of barker". Named Pulcherrima (most beautiful) by Otto Struve.[32]
Scorpius ν Scorpii Aa Jabbah
Gemini ο Geminorum Jishui
Cetus γ Ceti A Kaffaljidhma
Sagittarius α Lupi Kakkab
Virgo κ Virginis Kang From Chinese name 亢 (Kàng, Neck).
Sagittarius ε Sagittarii A Kaus Australis Part of Teapot Asterism.
Sagittarius λ Sagittarii Kaus Borealis The top of Teapot Asterism.
Sagittarius δ Sagittarii Kaus Media Part of Teapot Asterism.
Lupus λ Sagittarii Kekouan .
Eridanus 40 Eridani A Keid
Virgo λ Virginis A Khambalia
Equuleus α Equulei A Kitalpha
Ursa Minor β Ursae Minoris Kochab
Hercules β Herculis Aa Kornephoros
Corvus β Corvi Kraz
Draco ν Draconis Kuma †
Cepheus ξ Cephei Aa Kurhah
Canes Venatici Y Canum Venaticorum La Superba A modern (19th century) name, due to Angelo Secchi.
Scorpius ε Scorpii Larawag Traditional name in the culture of the Wardaman people of the Northern territory of Australia.[30]
Scorpius υ Scorpii Lesath
Aquila ξ Aquilae A Libertas Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Latin for 'liberty' ('Aquila' is Latin for 'eagle', a popular symbol of liberty).[25]
Virgo PSR B1257+12 Lich A neutron star and pulsar with planets. Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] A lich is a fictional undead creature known for controlling other undead creatures with magic.[25]
Aries 39 Arietis Lilii Borea
Hercules λ Herculis Maasym
Auriga θ Aurigae A Mahasim
Taurus 20 Tauri Maia Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Maia was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /ˈmeɪ.ə, ˈmaɪ.ə/
Cassiopeia θ Cassiopeiae Marfark †

The name is originally from Arabic المرفقal-mirfaq, "the elbow"[citation needed]

Ophiuchus λ Ophiuchi A Marfik
Pegasus α Pegasi Markab
Vela κ Velorum Markeb
Hercules κ Herculis A Marsic
Pegasus η Pegasi Aa Matar
Gemini ε Geminorum Mebsuta
Ursa Major δ Ursae Majoris Megrez Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK). /ˈmiːɡrɛz/
Orion λ Orionis A Meissa Traditional name deriving from Arabic al-maisan, "The Shining One".
Gemini ζ Geminorum Aa Mekbuda
Cancer ε Cancri Aa Meleph
Auriga β Aurigae Aa Menkalinan
Cetus α Ceti Menkar Derived from Arabic منخر manḥar, "nostril", or al‑minhar, "nose" (of Cetus).[33][13]:p162
Centaurus θ Centauri Menkent
Perseus ξ Persei Menkib
Ursa Major β Ursae Majoris Merak Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK). /ˈmɪəræk/
Boötes 38 Boötis Merga
Corona Australis α Coronae Australis Meridiana
Taurus 23 Tauri Aa Merope Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Merope was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /ˈmɛrəpi/
Aries γ² Arietis A Mesarthim
Carina β Carinae Miaplacidus
Crux β Crucis Mimosa Also bore the alternative historical name Becrux, a modern contraction of the Bayer designation.[34]
Hydra σ Hydrae Minchir
Virgo δ Virginis Minelauva alternately spelled "Minelava"
Orion δ Orionis Aa Mintaka Right-most star in the belt of Orion. The name Mintaka itself is derived from Arabic منطقة manṭaqah, "belt".[13]:pp314-315 /ˈmɪntəkə/
Cetus ο Ceti Aa Mira Latin for "wonderful" or "astonishing"; named by Johannes Hevelius in his Historiola Mirae Stellae (1662).
Andromeda β Andromedae Mirach
Perseus η Persei A Miram
Perseus α Persei Mirfak
Canis Major β Canis Majoris Mirzam
Perseus κ Persei Aa Misam
Ursa Major ζ Ursae Majoris Aa Mizar
  • Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK).
  • The name is originally from Arabic المئزرal-miʾzar, "apron, waistband, girdle".
  • "Status", one of the "Three Stars" in Chinese mythology, the Lu star is believed to be Zhang Xian, who lived during the Later Shu dynasty. The word lu specifically refers to the salary of a government official. As such, the Lu star is the star of prosperity, rank, and influence.
/ˈmaɪzɑːr/
Triangulum α Trianguli Mothallah
Canis Major γ Canis Majoris Muliphein
Boötes η Boötis Aa Muphrid Alternative traditional spelling of "Mufrid".
Ursa Major ο Ursae Majoris A Muscida
Delphinus 18 Delphini Musica Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Latin for 'music' (the ancient Greek musician Arion's life was saved at sea by dolphins (Latin: 'delphinus') after attracting their attention by playing his kithara.[25]
Cancer ξ Cancri Nahn
Sagittarius φ Sagittarii Nanto Part of Teapot Asterism.
Puppis ζ Puppis Naos
Sagittarius γ¹ Sagittarii A Nash Along with brighter Alnash (,γ2 Sagittarii) it makes spout, in Teapot Asterism. It can be
Capricornus γ Capricorni A Nashira
Cassiopeia γ Cassiopeia Navi † "Navi" is a modern name, due to Gus Grissom (his middle name "Ivan" spelled backward). In Chinese astronomy, it is known as "the whip".
Boötes β Boötis Nekkar
Andromeda 51 Andromedae Nembus
Lepus β Leporis A Nihal
Sagittarius σ Sagittarii Aa Nunki Along with Hecatebolus, it makes the handle in Teapot Asterism.
Corona Borealis β Coronae Borealis A Nusakan
Hercules HD 149026 Ogma Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after Ogma, a deity in Celtic mythology.[25]
Aquila ζ Aquilae Okab
Scorpius τ Scorpii Paikauhale
Pavo α Pavonis Aa Peacock Designated "Peacock" (after the constellation) by His Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office for the Royal Air Force in the 1930s.[23]
Columba α Columbae Phact
Ursa Major γ Ursae Majoris Aa Phecda Member of the Big Dipper or the Plough (UK). Alternative traditional names Phekda or Phad. /ˈfɛkdə/
Ursa Minor γ Ursae Minoris Pherkad
Cancer λ Cancri A Piautos
Scorpius μ² Scorpii A Pipirima
Taurus 28 Tauri Aa Pleione Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Pleione was the mother of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /ˈplaɪəniː, ˈpliːəniː/
Ursa Minor α Ursae Minoris Polaris Became known as stella polaris ("polar star") during the Renaissance.[8]p.23 See polar star for other names based on its position close to the celestial pole. /poʊˈlɛərɪs/
Octans σ Octantis Aa Polaris Australis see South Star
Sagittarius μ Sagittarii Aa Polis
Gemini β Geminorum Pollux /ˈpɒləks/
Virgo γ Virginis A Porrima
Leo Minor 46 Leonis Minoris Praecipua
Taurus γ Tauri A Prima Hyadum
Canis Minor α Canis Minoris A Procyon Greek προκύον "preceding the Dog (viz. Sirius)"; Latinized as Antecanis. /ˈproʊsiɒn/
Gemini η Geminorum A Propus
Centaurus α Centauri C Proxima Centauri Nearest star to the sun. /ˌprɒksɪmə sɛnˈtɔːraɪ/
Eridanus ε Eridani Ran Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after the Norse goddess of the sea.[25]
Leo μ Leonis Rasalas
Hercules α¹ Herculis Aa Rasalgethi also Ras Algethi.
Ophiuchus α Ophiuchi A Rasalhague also Ras Alhgue.
Draco β Draconis A Rastaban
Vela γ Velorum Regor † Also known as Suhail and Suhail al Muhlif, which also apply to lambda Velorum
Leo α Leonis A Regulus Latin for "prince" or "little king". Regulus was known to Persian astrologers as the Royal Star Venant, Watcher of the North. /ˈrɛɡjʊləs/
Pisces ζ Piscium A Revati
Orion β Orionis A Rigel Traditional name first recorded in the Alfonsine Tables of 1252 and derived from the Arabic name rijl jauzah al uusrā, "the left leg (foot) of Jauzah" (rijl meaning "leg, foot").[13]:pp312-313 /ˈraɪdʒəl/
Centaurus α Centauri A Rigil Kentaurus The name is originally from Arabic رجل قنطورسrijl qantūris, "foot of the centaur". /ˈraɪdʒəl kɛnˈtɔːrəs/
Delphinus β Delphini A Rotanev The name appeared in the Piazzi's Palermo Star Catalogue in 1814, added by Niccolo Cacciatore as a prank along with Sualocin (alpha Delphini); Rotanev is Venator, Latin for "Hunter", spelt backwards. Cacciatore is Italian for "Hunter".
Cassiopeia δ Cassiopeiae Aa Ruchbah Derived from Arabic ركبة rukbah, "knee".[35] Alternative historical name Ksora appeared in a 1951 publication, Atlas Coeli (Skalnate Pleso Atlas of the Heavens) by Czech astronomer Antonín Bečvář; Professor Paul Kunitzch has been unable to find any clues as to the origin of the name.[36]
Sagittarius α Sagittarii Rukbat
Ophiuchus η Ophiuchi A Sabik
Auriga ζ Aurigae A Saclateni
Aquarius γ Aquarii Aa Sadachbia
Pegasus μ Pegasi Sadalbari
Aquarius α Aquarii A Sadalmelik
Aquarius β Aquarii A Sadalsuud
Cygnus γ Cygni A Sadr
Orion κ Orionis Saiph Traditional name from Arabic سیف الجبّار sayf al-jabbār, literally sword of the giant.[37]
Pegasus τ Pegasi Salm
Scorpius θ Scorpii A Sargas
Hercules δ Herculis Aa Sarin
Ursa Major θ Ursae Majoris Sarir † [citation needed]
Eridanus 53 Eridani A Sceptrum Formerly "p Sceptri", in the constellation of Sceptrum Brandenburgicum
Pegasus β Pegasi Scheat
Cassiopeia α Cassiopeiae Schedar
  • Also traditionally bore the name Schedir; both originally from Arabic صدرṣadr, "breast"; also ألضاة ألكرسيal-ḍāh al-kursiyy, "the lady in the chair (Ulugh Beg)", whence Dath Elkarti (Riccoli 1651).
Taurus δ¹ Tauri Aa Secunda Hyadum
Cassiopeia ε Cassiopeia Segin Probably originates from an erroneous transcription of Seginus, the traditional name for γ Boötis, which itself is of uncertain origin.[38]
Boötes γ Boötis Aa Seginus Of uncertain origin.[38]
Sagittarius η Sagittarii Sephdar
Sagitta α Sagittae Sham
Scorpius λ Scorpii Aa Shaula
Lyra β Lyrae Aa1 Sheliak
Aries β Arietis A Sheratan
Canis Major α Canis Majoris A Sirius Greek Σείριος "the scorcher"; in Egyptian Sopdet, rendered in Greek as Σῶθις. As the brightest star in the sky, Sirius has proper names in numerous cultures, including Polynesian (Maori Takurua; Hawaiian Ka'ulua, "Queen of Heaven", among others). Also known as the Dog Star. /ˈsɪriəs/
Aquarius κ Aquarii A Situla
Aquarius δ Aquarii A Skat
Virgo α Virginis Aa Spica Other traditional names are Azimech, from Arabic السماك الأعزل al-simāk al-aʽzal, "the undefended", and Alarph, Arabic for "the grape gatherer"; in Indian astronomy known as Chitra "the bright one". /ˈspaɪkə/
Delphinus α Delphini Aa Sualocin The name appeared in the Piazzi's Palermo Star Catalogue in 1814, added by Niccolo Cacciatore as a prank along with Rotanev (beta Delphini); Sualocin is Nicolaus, Latin form of "Niccolo" (Nicholas).
Leo ο Leonis Aa Subra
Vela λ Velorum Suhail Traditionally, this name also applied to gamma Velorum, also known as Regor.
Lyra γ Lyrae Sulafat
Virgo ι Virginis Syrma
Orion π³ Orionis Tabit
Ursa Major χ Ursae Majoris Taiyangshou From Chinese name 太陽守 (Tài Yáng Shǒu, Guard of the Sun).
Draco 8 Draconis Taiyi From Chinese name 太乙 (Tài Yǐ) or 太一 (Tài Yī, the Great One), both of which refer to Tao.
Ursa Major ι Ursae Majoris Aa Talitha or Talitha Borealis, as Talitha originally referred to κ UMa and ι UMa together[citation needed]
Ursa Major μ Ursae Majoris A Tania Australis
Ursa Major λ Ursae Majoris A Tania Borealis
Aquila γ Aquilae Tarazed Alternative traditional spelling of Tarazet
Cancer β Cancri Tarf
Taurus 19 Tauri Aa Taygeta Member of the Pleiades open star cluster (M45). Taygete was one of the Pleiades sisters in Greek mythology. /teɪˈɪdʒɪtə/
Cancer ζ¹ Cancri A Tegmine Alternative traditional name of Tegmen.
Gemini μ Geminorum Aa Tejat Traditional name, also called Tejat Posterior.
Sagittarius ω Sagittarii A Terebellum From Ptolemy's τετράπλευρον, a quadrangle of stars of which ω Sag is the brightest[citation needed]
Orion υ Orionis Thabit †
Eridanus υ² Eridani Theemin Also written as Theemim or Beemin.
Draco α Draconis A Thuban
Grus β Gruis Tiaki
Taurus ζ Tauri A Tianguan
  • In Chinese 天關 (Tiānguān, English: Celestial Gate).
  • Also reported as Shurnarkabti-sha-shūtū, from Babylonian "the star in the bull towards the south" or "the southern star towards the chariot".[13]:p391
Draco 7 Draconis Tianyi From Chinese name 天乙 (Tiān Yǐ) or 天一 (Tiān Yī, the Celestial Great One), a deity in Taoism.
Andromeda υ Andromedae A Titawin Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after the settlement in northern Morocco and UNESCO World Heritage Site now known as the medina (old town) of Tétouan.[25]
Lupus γ Lupi Thusia[not in citation given]
Centaurus α Centauri B Toliman The name is originally from Arabic ظَلِيمَان‎ẓalīmān (ṭhalīmān) '(two male) Ostriches'. /ˈtɒlɪmæn/
Camelopardalis HD 104985 Tonatiuh Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Named after the Aztec god of the Sun.[25]
Pisces ο Piscium A Torcular
Puppis ρ Puppis A Tureis
Hydra ι Hydrae Ukdah
Serpens α Serpentis Unukalhai Arabic عنق الحيّة ʽunuq al-ḥayyati, "the Serpent's Neck", in Latin Cor Serpentis, "Heart of the Serpent".
Canis Major σ Canis Majoris Unurgunite
Lyra α Lyrae Vega The name is originally from Arabic an-nasr al-wāqiʽ, "the alighting vulture", also translated as vulture cadens (see also Aetos Dios, Stymphalian birds). As the second brightest star in the northern sky, Vega has names in numerous cultures. In Chinese it is known as 織女 "weaving girl" from the Qi Xi love story. Vega is one of the vertices of the Summer Triangle. /ˈviːɡə, ˈveɪɡə/
Andromeda 14 Andromedae A Veritate Name adopted by the IAU following the 2015 NameExoWorlds campaign.[5] Latin for 'where there is truth'.[25]
Virgo ε Virginis Vindemiatrix Vindemiatrix is Latin for "(female) grape gatherer"
Gemini δ Geminorum Aa Wasat
Columba β Columbae Wazn
Canis Major δ Canis Majoris Aa Wezen
Phoenix ζ Phoenicis Aa Wurren Traditional name in the culture of the Wardaman people of the Northern territory of Australia.[30]
Scorpius μ¹ Scorpii Aa Xamidimura
Boötes λ Boötis Xuange From Chinese name 玄戈 (Xuán Gē, Sombre Lance).
Ophiuchus ε Ophiuchi Yed Posterior
Ophiuchus δ Ophiuchi Yed Prior
Ursa Minor δ Ursae Minoris Yildun
Virgo η Virginis Aa Zaniah
Eridanus γ Eridani Zaurak Traditional name, alternatively spelled Zaurac; originally from Arabic زورقzawraq, "boat".[13]:p218
Virgo β Virginis Zavijava
Hydra υ¹ Hydrae A Zhang From Chinese name 張 (Zhāng, Extended Net).
Eridanus ζ Eridani Aa Zibal
Leo δ Leonis Zosma
Libra α² Librae Aa Zubenelgenubi
Libra γ Librae A Zubenelhakrabi
Libra β Librae Zubeneschamali
Need verification
Constellation Designation Modern proper name Historical names / comments
Capricornus δ Capricorni Scheddi †
Leo ε Leonis Ras Elased Australis †
Eridanus δ Eridani Rana † Rana is Latin for "frog".
Virgo μ Virginis Rijl al Awwa †
Cygnus ω² Cygni Ruchba †
Auriga ζ Aurigae Sadatoni †
Ophiuchus ν Ophiuchi Sinistra †
Sagittarius δ Sagittarii Media †
Cetus α Ceti Menkab †
Corvus ε Corvi Minkar †
Canis Major β Canis Majoris Murzim †
Ursa Major π Ursae Majoris Muscida †
Orion ι Orionis Nair Al Saif †
Sagittarius γ² Sagittarii Nash †
Andromeda 51 Andromedae Nembus †
Capricornus π Capricorni Okul †
Capricornus α Capricorni Giedi †
Scorpius κ Scorpii Girtab †
Perseus ρ Persei Gorgonea Tertia †
Auriga ζ Aurigae Haedus †
Orion λ Orionis Heka
Auriga ζ Aurigae Hoedus (I) †
Auriga η Aurigae Hoedus II †
Hydra ζ Hydrae Hydrobius †
Auriga ι Aurigae Kabdhilinan †
Capricornus ε Capricorni Kastra †
Draco ν Draconis Kuma †
Ursa Major ι Ursae Majoris Dnoces †
Leo δ Leonis Duhr †
Triangulum α Trianguli Elmuthalleth †
Pisces β Piscium Fum al Samakah †
Triangulum Australe γ Trianguli Australis Gatria †
Sagittarius ζ Sagittarii Askella †
Canes Venatici β Canum Venaticorum Asterion †
Virgo δ Virginis Auva †
Auriga ζ Aurigae Azaleh †
Pegasus θ Pegasi Baham †
Ursa Major η Ursae Majoris Benetnasch †
Triangulum Australe β Trianguli Australis Betria †
Canes Venatici α² Canum Venaticorum Chara
Ophiuchus β Ophiuchi Cheleb
Serpens β Serpentis Chow †
Delphinus ε Delphini Deneb Dulfim †
Cetus ι Ceti Deneb Kaitos Schemali †
Cetus η Ceti Dheneb †
Aquila ι Aquilae Al Thalimain †
Aquila λ Aquilae Al Thalimain †
Virgo γ Virginis Arich †
Capricornus η Capricorni Armus †
Boötes θ Boötis Asellus Primus †
Boötes ι Boötis Asellus Secundus †
Boötes κ Boötis Asellus Tertius †
Corona Australis α Coronae Australis Alfecca Meridiana †
Cepheus ρ² Cephei Al Kalb al Rai †
Cepheus ξ Cephei Alkurah †
Leo κ Leonis Al Minliar al Asad †
Cepheus γ Cephei Alrai †
Sagittarius α Sagittarii Alrami †
Gemini η Geminorum Tejat Prior †
Orion υ Orionis Thabit †
Draco ε Draconis Tyl †
Libra γ Librae Zuben-el-Akrab †
Libra δ Librae Zuben-el-Akribi †

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Few of these names have established pronunciations in English, and care needs to be taken when interpreting our often contradictory sources. For example, as Kunitzsch & Smart explain in their introduction, they sometimes blend Arabic and English pronunciations in novel ways that Latinized Arabic star names were not traditionally pronounced, such as transcribing a as if it were u, or making ante-penultimate vowels long because they were long in Arabic when a literary English pronunciation would make them short. (In some cases, the result is not a possible combination of sounds in English.) Webster's dictionary, Rumrill and Davis may attempt to render the original Arabic pronunciation using English sounds as approximations, and not distinguish that pseudo-Arabic pronunciation from an English pronunciation that people actually use. (Kunitzsch and the OED do try to distinguish these two cases.) Where sources disagree on Latinized Arabic names, the form closest to the traditional English pronunciation of Latin is followed, with the assumption that the usually unmarked Latin vowel length is as faithful to Arabic as it is to Greek.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Naming Stars". IAU.org. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  2. ^ The NASA in 1971 compiled a "technical memorandum" collecting a total of 537 named stars.
  3. ^ "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  4. ^ "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Final Results of NameExoWorlds Public Vote Released" (Press release). IAU.org. 15 December 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 2" (PDF). Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  7. ^ "WG Triennial Report (2015-2018) - Star Names" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  8. ^ a b Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations (2nd rev. ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Pub. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
  9. ^ Rumrill, H. B. (June 1936). "Star Name Pronunciation". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. San Francisco, California. 48 (283).
  10. ^ Davis, George A. (1944). "The pronunciations, derivations, and meanings of a selected list of star names". Popular Astronomy. 52: 8–30.
  11. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963) [1899]. Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-21079-0.
  14. ^ Hoffleit, D.; Warren, W. H. (1995). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: V/50. Originally published in: 1964BS....C......0H. 5050. Bibcode:1995yCat.5050....0H.
  15. ^ Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China (1849), p. 93. Described as an "Americanism" in The Geographical Journal, vol. 92, Royal Geographical Society, 1938.
  16. ^ Hinckley 1899 sees the name as originating from a typographical error.Allen, Richard Hinckley (1899). Star-names and their meanings. New York, Leipzig, London, Paris: G. E. Stechert. p. 196.
  17. ^ Falkner, David E. (2011). "The Winter Constellations". The Mythology of the Night Sky. Patrick Moore's Practical Astronomy Series. p. 19. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0137-7_3. ISBN 978-1-4614-0136-0.
  18. ^ Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S. (2015). "Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed". PLOS One. 10 (12): e.0144140 (23pp). arXiv:1601.06990. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1044140J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144140.
  19. ^ "International Astronomical Union | IAU". www.iau.org. Retrieved 2017-03-20.
  20. ^ Ridpath, Ian (1989), Star tales, James Clarke & Co., p. 113, ISBN 0-7188-2695-7
  21. ^ Knobel, E. B. (June 1895). "Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, on a catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Mohammad Al Achsasi Al Mouakket". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 55 (8): 429. Bibcode:1895MNRAS..55..429K. doi:10.1093/mnras/55.8.429.
  22. ^ Stenner, Paul (auth.); Martin, Jack. Slaney, Kathleen L. Sugarman, Jeff. (edit.) The Wiley Handbook of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology: Methods, Approaches, and New Directions for Social Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, 2015; pg. 311.
  23. ^ a b Sadler, Donald H. (2008). "A Personal History of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office" (PDF). United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. p. 48. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  24. ^ Kunitzsch, Paul (1986). "The Star Catalogue Commonly Appended to the Alfonsine Tables". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 17 (49): 89–98. Bibcode:1986JHA....17...89K.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n NameExoWorlds The Approved Names
  26. ^ Robert Burnham, Jr. Burnham's Celestial Handbook, Volume 1, p. 359.
  27. ^ Ian Ridpath: "Star Tales", Canes Venatici. See also Deborah J. Warner, The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography 1500–1800.
  28. ^ "Gacrux/Gamma Crucis 2?". SolStation.com. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  29. ^ Lesikar, Arnold V. "Gacrux". Dome Of The Sky. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  30. ^ a b c "IAU Approves 86 New Star Names From Around the World" (Press release). IAU.org. 11 December 2017.
  31. ^ R. G. Aitken Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Vol. 36, No. 211 (June, 1924), pp. 124–130 JSTOR 40692425
  32. ^ Norton's Star Atlas, publ. Gall & Inglis, Edinburgh, 2nd Ed., 1959
  33. ^ Kaler, James B., "MENKAR (Alpha Ceti)", Stars, University of Illinois, retrieved 2011-12-24
  34. ^ Hoffleit, Dorrit; Jaschek, Carlos (1991). The Bright star catalogue. New Haven. Bibcode:1991bsc..book.....H.
  35. ^ Bakich, Michael E. (1995), The Cambridge guide to the constellations, Cambridge University Press, p. 170, ISBN 0-521-44921-9
  36. ^ Kunitzch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006) [1986]. A Dictionary of Modern Star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Publishing Corporation. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
  37. ^ Kaler, James B., "SAIPH (Kappa Orionis)", Stars, University of Illinois, retrieved 2012-01-27
  38. ^ a b Simpson, Phil (2012). "3". Guidebook to the constellations. New York: Springer. ISBN 9781441969408.

General references[edit]

External links[edit]