List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Maginoo, Wangs, Rajahs, Lakans, Datus and Sultans of the Philippines
Naturales 5.png
A couple belong in maharlika (Noble class).
Details
StyleMaharlika
Kamahalan
Kapunuan
First monarchJayadewa (and other various rulers from the archipelago)
Last monarchMohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram (and other various rulers from the archipelago)
Formationc. 900 (according to LCI)
Abolition1986 (after last officially recognized Sultan dies)
ResidenceTorogan - (Luzon and Visayas area) , Langgal-(Mindanao area) and Astanah Putih - (in sultanate of Sulu).
AppointerBabaylan, Brahmin or Bhikkhu (In Hindu-Buddhist influenced polities).
Pretender(s)various

The types of sovereign state leaders in the Philippine archipelago have varied throughout the country's history, from heads of ancient chiefdoms, kingdoms and sultanates in the pre-colonial period, to the leaders of Spanish, American, and Japanese colonial governments, until the directly-elected President of the modern sovereign state of the Philippines.

Archaic (pre-hispanic) Era[edit]

Before the nation of the Philippines was formed, the area of what was now the Philippines during the pre-colonial times was sets of divided nations ruled by Kings, Chieftains, Datus, Lakans, Rajahs and Sultans in Southeast Asia. It was when the Spaniards arrived that they named the collections of areas they conquered and unite in Southeast Asia as "Las Islas Filipinas" or The Islands of the Philippines.

Legendary rulers[edit]

  • Legendary rulers can be found in the oral tradition in Philippine Mythology, which having an uncertain historical/archeological evidence of their reign.
Image Name Title held From Until
Ama-ron Like most of the male Filipino mythological heroes, he is described as an attractive well-built man who exemplifies great strength. Ama-ron is unique among other Filipino legends due to the lack of having a story on how he was born which was common with Filipino epic heroes. Uncertain possibly Iron Age.
Gat Pangil Gat Pangil was a chieftain in the area now known as Laguna Province, He is mentioned in the origin legends of Bay, Laguna,Pangil, Laguna, Pakil, Laguna and Mauban, Quezon, all of which are thought to have once been under his domain. Uncertain possibly Iron Age.

Archaic rulers[edit]

Wang of Ma-i

Name Image Title held From Until
Gat Sa Li-han Chinese General in Philippines.jpg "王" (King) according to Chinese records 1225? ?
Gat Maitan "王" (King) -

Huangdom of Pangasinan (Luyag na Kaboloan)

Ruler Image Event From Until
Kamayin (細馬銀) Tribute of silver and horses to China 1406 1408
Taymey Embassy to China formally established 1408 1409
Liyu 1409 ?
Yongle Emperor
(Honorary)
明太宗(成祖).jpg Chinese Emperor holds a banquet in honor of Pangasinan December 11, 1411 ?
Warrior-Princess Urduja The Huangdom enjoys prosperity c. 1500s ?
Chinese Warlord Limahong Pangasinan is sacked and a pirate-enclave is established 1575

Tondo Dynasty (Historical rulers of Tondo)

Image Name Title held From Until
Jayadewa Senapati (Admiral)
(Known only in the LCI as the King who give the pardon to Lord Namwaran and his wife Dayang Agkatan and their daughter named Bukah for their excessive debts in 900 AD.)
900? ?
Lakan Timamanukum Father of Rajah Alon, he ruled when Tondo become a fortified Mandala at the mouth of Pasig River. 1150? ?
Alon Lakan Alon
(Son of Timamanukum, he expanded the Tondo territory from Ilocandia to Bicolandia.)
1200? ?
Gambang Lakan Gambang
another ruler who used the title Senapati or Admiral.
1390? 1417?
Suko Lakan Suko
(or also known as Sukwu (朔霧) means "northern mist" , According to the Dongxi Yanggao (東西洋考) Abdicated .)
1417? 1430?
Lontok Lakan Lontok
(later converted his faith to Islam).
1430? 1450?
Kalangitan Dayang Kaylangitan, Queen of Namayan and Tondo.
(the only recorded queen regnant of the pre-Hispanic Philippine Kingdom of Tondo. The eldest daughter of Rajah Gambang and co-regent with her husband, Rajah Lontok, she is considered one of the most powerful rulers in the kingdom's history.)
1450? 1515?
Salalila Rajah Salalila or Rajah Sulayman I
(A puppet Rajah installed by Sultan Bolkiah .)
1515? 1558?
Matanda Rajah Matanda or Rajah Sulayman II or Rajah Ache, King of Namayan 1558? 1571
Lakan Dula Banaw Lakandula, King of Tondo and Sabag 1558? 1571
Sulayman Rajah Sulayman, King of Tondo 1571 1575
Magat Salamat The last ruler of Tondo dynasty after the monarchy is dissolved by the Spanish authorities after he leads the Tondo conspiracy. 1575 1589

Recorded rulers of Namayan[edit]

Title Name Notes Documented Period of Rule Primary Sources
Lakan[1] Tagkan[1] Named "Lacantagcan" by Huerta and described as the ruler to whom the "original residents" of Namayan trace their origin[1] exact years not documented; three generations prior to Calamayin Huerta
(title not documented by Huerta[1]) Palaba Noted by Huerta[1] as the "Principal Son" of Lakan Tagkan. exact years not documented; two generations prior to Calamayin[1] Huerta
(title not documented by Huerta[1]) Laboy Noted by Franciscan genealogical records to be the son of Lakan Palaba, and the father of Lakan Kalamayin.[1] exact years not documented; one generation prior to Calamayin[1] Huerta
Rajah[2] Kalamayin Named only "Calamayin" (without title) by Huerta,[1] referred to by Scott (1984) as Rajah Kalamayin.[2]
Described by Scott (1984)[2] as the paramount ruler of Namayan at the time of colonial contact.
immediately prior to and after Spanish colonial contact (ca. 1571–1575)[2] Huerta
(no title documented by Huerta[1]) Martin* *Huerta[1] does not mention if Kalamayin's son, baptized "Martin", held a government position during the early Spanish colonial period early Spanish colonial period Huerta
Legendary rulers of Namayan
Aside from the records of Huerta, a number of names of rulers are associated with Namayan by folk/oral traditions, as recounted in documents such as the will of Fernando Malang (1589) and documented by academics such as Grace Odal-Devora[3] and writers such as Nick Joaquin.[4]
Title Name Notes Period of Rule Primary Sources
Gat[attribution needed] Lontok In Batangueño Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] husband of Kalangitan, serving as "rulers of Pasig" together.[3](p51) Legendary antiquity[3] Batangueño folk tradition (cited by Odal-Devora, 2000[3])
Dayang[attribution needed] or Sultana[3][note 1] Kalangitan[3] Legendary "Lady of the Pasig"[3] in Batangueño Folk Tradition and "Ruler of Sapa" in Kapampangan Folk Tradition (as documented by Odal-Devora[3]).

Either the mother in law (Batangueño Tradition) or grandmother (Kapampangan Tradition) of the ruler known as "Prinsipe Balagtas"[3]
Legendary antiquity[3] Batangueño and Kapampangan folk traditions (cited by Odal-Devora, 2000[3])
"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora[3])
Sasaban In oral Tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, a "lady of Namayan" who went to the Madjapahit court to marry Emperor Soledan, eventually giving birth to Balagtas, who then returned to Namayan/Pasig in 1300.[3](p51) prior to 1300
(according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio)[3]
Batangueño folk tradition (cited by Odal-Devora, 2000[3]), and oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[3])
Prince[3]
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora[3])
Bagtas or Balagtas In Batangueño Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] the King of Balayan and Taal who married Panginoan, daughter of Kalangitan and Lontok who were rulers of Pasig.(p51)

In Kapampangan[3] Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] the "grandson of Kalangitan" and a "Prince of Madjapahit" who married the "Princess Panginoan of Pampanga"(pp47,51)

Either the son in law (Batangueño Tradition) or grandson (Kapampangan Tradition) of Kalangitan[3]

In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, the Son of Emperor Soledan of Madjapahit who married Sasaban of Sapa/Namayan. Married Princess Panginoan of Pasig at about the year 1300 in order to consolidate his family line and rule of Namayan[3](pp47,51)
ca. 1300 A.D. according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[3] Batangueño and Kapampangan folk traditions cited by Odal-Devora, and oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[3])
"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora[3])
Panginoan In Batangueño Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] the daughter of Kalangitan and Lontok who were rulers of Pasig, who eventually married Balagtas, King of Balayan and Taal.(p51)

In Kapampangan[3] Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] who eventually married Bagtas, the "grandson of Kalangitan."(pp47,51)

In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, "Princess Panginoan of Pasig" who was married by Balagtas, the Son of Emperor Soledan of Madjapahit in 1300 AD in an effort consolidate rule of Namayan[3](pp47,51)
ca. 1300 A.D. according to oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[3] Batangueño and Kapampangan folk traditions cited by Odal-Devora, and oral tradition cited by Joaquin and Vicencio[3])

The Datus of Madja-as[edit]

Commander-In-Chief Image Capital From Until
Datu Puti Aklan 13th century 1212
Datu Sumakwel Malandong (today in Antique) 1213 ?
Datu Bangkaya Aklan ? ?
Datu Paiburong Irong-Irong ? ?
Datu Balengkaka Aklan ? ?
Datu Kalantiaw Batan 1365 1437
Datu Manduyog Batkcan 1437 ?
Datu Padojinog Irong-Irong ? ?
Datu Kabnayag Kalibo ? 1565
Datu Lubay San Joaquín ? ?

The Datus of Katugasan[edit]

The Reigning Datu Events From Until
Kihod last reigning monarch of the Kedatuan of Katugasan[5] ? 1565

The Datus of Dapitan[edit]

The Reigning Datu Events From Until
Sumanga Datu Sumanga raids China to win the hand of Dayang-dayang (Princess) Bugbung Humasanum ? ?
Dailisan The Kedatuan was destroyed by the Sultanate of Ternate 1563 ?
Pagbuaya The Kedatuan is re-established in Mindanao ? 1564
Manooc The Kedatuan is incorporated to the Spanish Empire ? ?

Rulers of the Maynila[edit]

Name Image Events From Until
Sultan Bolkiah The 5th Sultan of Brunei who also ruled Tondo after he defeated Rajah Suko which widened Brunei's influence in the Philippines. c. 1500 1571
Rajah Sulayman Malate Monument.jpg He also inherited rule of nearby Tondo and Namayan, becoming the first sovereign to hold all three realms in personal union. 1571 1575
Legendary rulers of Maynila
Title Name Specifics Dates Primary source(/s) Academic notes on primary source(/s)
Rajah Avirjirkaya According to Henson (1955),[6] he was a "Majapahit Suzerain" who ruled Maynila[6] before he was defeated in 1258[6] by a Bruneian naval commander named Rajah Ahmad,[6] who then established Manila as a Muslim principality.[6] before 1258[7] Genealogy proposed by Mariano A. Henson in 1955[6] Cited in César Adib Majul's 1973 book "Muslims in the Philippines",[7] published by the UP Asian Center and in turn referenced widely in semitechnical and popular texts.
The veracity of "quasi-historical" (meaning not physically original)[8] genealogical documents remains subject to scholarly peer review.[9][10]
Rajah Ahmad According to Henson (1955),[6] he established Manila as a Muslim[6] principality in 1258[6] by defeating the Majapahit Suzerain Rajah Avirjirkaya.[6] c. 1258[7] Genealogy proposed by Mariano A. Henson in 1955[6] Cited in César Adib Majul's 1973 book "Muslims in the Philippines",[7] published by the UP Asian Center and in turn referenced widely in semi-technical and popular texts.
The veracity of "quasi-historical" (meaning not physically original)[8] genealogical documents remains subject to scholarly peer review.[9][10]

Monarchs of the Butuan Rajahnate[edit]

The Royal Title of the Reigning Rajah Image Events From Until
Rajah Kiling The Embassy of I-shu-han (李竾罕) 989 1009
Sri Bata Shaja Mission by Likanhsieh (李于燮) 1011 ?
Rajah Siagu Annexation by Ferdinand Magellan ? 1521

Raja's of Cebu[edit]

The Royal Title of the Reigning Rajah Image Events From Until
Sri Lumay Founded the rajahnate, he is a minor prince of the Chola dynasty which occupied Sumatra. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces but he rebelled and established his own independent rajahnate. c. 1200 ?
Rajah Humabon The Rajah of Cebu at the time Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Cebu and is the first Filipino chieftain to embrace Christianity. ? ?
Rajah Tupas Last Rajah of Cebu, he ceded the Rajahnate to the Spanish Empire when he is defeated by Miguel López de Legazpi's forces in 1565. ? 1565

Sultans of Maguindanao[edit]

Reign Sultan Other name(s)
1520–1543 Shariff Kabungsuwan A Johore (Singapore) Makdum Prince who fled to Malabang, Lanao del Sur and seated as Sharif Kabungsuwan. Married the daughter of Chieftain Aliwya of the Maguindanao family clan at Dulawan, Cotabato. Took over the father inlaw's political powers establishing the Sultanate of Maguindanao later called by the Spanish as Mindanao. He is the second Makdum known as Karim Ul-Makdum who reinforced Islam and His brother Sulu Sultan Shariful Hashim promulgated Kor'anic studies or Madrassahs.

The said Sharif is buried at Simunul Island Tamppat.

1543–1574 Sultan Maka-alang Saripada
1574–1578 Sultan Bangkaya
1578–1585 Sultan Dimasangcay Adel
1585–1597 Sultan Gugu Sarikula Datu Salikala
1597–1619 Sultan Laut Buisan Datu Katchil
1619–1671? Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat Datu Qudratullah Katchil
1671?–1678? Sultan Dundang Tidulay Sultan Saif ud-Din (Saifud Din)
1678?–1699 Sultan Barahaman Sultan Muhammad Shah Minulu-sa-Rahmatullah
1699–1702 Sultan Kahar ud-Din Kuda Maulana Amir ul-Umara Jamal ul-Azam
1702–1736 Sultan Bayan ul-Anwar { Maruhom Batua } Dipatuan Jalal ud-Din
Mupat Batua (posthumously)
1710–1736
(in Tamontaka)
Sultan Amir ud-Din Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Jafar Sadiq Manamir
Shahid Mupat (posthumously)
1736–1748
(in Sibugay, Buayan, Malabang)
Sultan Muhammad Tahir ud-Din Dipatuan Malinug
Muhammad Shah Amir ud-Din
1733–1755
(paramount chief of Maguindanao by 1748)
Sultan Rajah Muda Muhammad Khair ud-Din Pakir Maulana Kamsa
Amir ud-Din Itamza
Azim ud-Din Amir ul-M'umimin
1755–1780? Sultan Pahar ud-Din Datu Panglu/Pongloc
Mupat Hidayat (posthumously)
1780?–1805? Sultan Kibad Sahriyal Muhammad Azim ud-Din Amir ul-Umara
1805?–1830? Sultan Kawasa Anwar ud-Din Muhammad Amir ul-Umara Iskandar Jukarnain
1830–1854 Sultan Qudratullah Untung Iskandar Qudratullah Muhammad Jamal ul-Azam
Iskandar Qudarat Pahar ud-Din. Properly place, his name was Ullah Untong and seated as Sultan Ashrf Samalan Farid Quadratullah or better known as Sultan Qudarat. www.royalsultanate.weebly.com
1854–1884 Sultan Muhammad Makakwa
1884–1888 Sultan Wata Sultan Muhammad Jalal ud-Din Pablu
1888–1896 No sultan
Sultan Anwar ud-Din contested Datu Mamaku (son of Sultan Qudratullah Untung) of Buayan for the throne versus the then sultan Datu Mangigin of Sibugay.
1896–1898 Sultan Taha Colo Sultan Rabago sa Tiguma
1908-1933 Sultan Mastura Kudarat Sultan Muhammad Hijaban Iskandar Mastura Kudarat, Sultan Mastura

The Sultans of Sulu (1405–present)[edit]

Sultans Image From Until
Sharif ul-Hāshim 18th Century Flag of Sulu.svg 1480 1505
Kamal ud-Din 18th Century Flag of Sulu.svg 1505 1527
Sultan Amir ul-Umara Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg 1893 1899
Jamal ul-Kiram I War Flag of Sulu Sultanate.svg 1893 1899
Mahakuttah Kiram Suluflag.jpg 1974 1986
Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram Suluflag.jpg 1986

Philippines Era[edit]

The collection of islands conquered by the Spaniards was named Las islas Filipinas; a name given by Ruy López de Villalobos. It's the exact geographical location on which the modern day Republic of the Philippines based its territory.

Rulers during the Spanish colonization[edit]

During the Spanish colonization, Remaining monarchs reign until their kingdoms was absorbed to the new colonial nation of the Philippines through Spanish conquest. Many of these territories are absorbed much later.

  • Rajah Colambu – King of Limasawa in 1521, brother of Rajah Siagu of Butuan. He befriended Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and guided him to Cebu on April 7, 1521.
  • Rajah Humabon – King of Cebu who became an ally of Ferdinand Magellan and the Spaniards. Rival of Datu Lapu-Lapu. In 1521, he and his wife were baptized as Christians and given Christian names Carlos and Juana after the Spanish royalty, King Carlos and Queen Juana.
  • Sultan KudaratSultan of Maguindanao.
  • Lakan Dula or Lakandula – King of Tondo, one of the last princes of Manila.
  • Datu Lapu-Lapu – King of Mactan Island. He defeated the Spaniards on April 27, 1521.
  • Datu Sikatuna – King of Bohol in 1565. He made a blood compact with Spanish explorer, Miguel López de Legazpi.
  • Datu Pagbuaya – King of Bohol. He governed with his brother Datu Dailisan, a settlement along the shorelines between Mansasa, Tagbilaran and Dauis, which was abandoned years before the Spanish colonization due to Portuguese and Ternatean attacks. He founded Dapitan in the northern shore of Mindanao.
  • Datu Dailisan – King of Mansasa, Tagbilaran and Dauis and governed their kingdom along with his brother Datu Pagbuaya. His death during one of the Portuguese raids caused the abandonment of the settlement.
  • Datu Manooc – Christian name – Pedro Manuel Manooc, son of Datu Pagbuaya who converted to Christianity, defeated the Higaonon tribe in Iligan, Mindanao. He established one of the first Christian settlements in the country.
  • Datu Macabulos – King of Pampanga in 1571.
  • Rajah Siagu – King of the Manobo in 1521.
  • Apo Noan – Chieftain of Mandani (present day Mandaue) in 1521.
  • Apo Macarere – Famous Chieftain of the Tagbanwa warrior tribe in Corong Island (Calis).
  • Rajah Sulaiman III – One of the last King of Manila, was defeated by Martín de Goiti, a Spanish soldier commissioned by López de Legazpi to Manila.
  • Rajah Tupas – King of Cebu, conquered by Miguel López de Legazpi.
  • Datu Urduja – Female Leader in Pangasinan.
  • Datu Zula – Chieftain of Mactan, Cebu. Rival of Lapu-lapu
  • Datu Kalun – Ruler of the Island of the Basilan and the Yakans in Mindanao, converted his line to Christianity
  • Datu Sanday – Ruler of Marawi City
  • Datu Saiden Borero – King of Antique
  • unnamed Datu – King of Taytay Palawan. Mentioned by Pigafetta, chronicler of Magellan. The king, together with his wife were kidnapped by the remnant troops from Magellan's fleet after fleeing Cebu to secure provisions for their crossing to the Moluccas.
  • Datu Cabaylo (Cabailo) – The last king of the Kingdom of Taytay

Colonial Governor-Generals[edit]

Under New Spain (1565–1761)[edit]

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Real Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members.

After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

  Ad interim   Real Audiencia

# Photo Name From Until Monarch
1 Miguel López de Legazpi, en La Hormiga de Oro.jpg Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565 August 20, 1572 Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg
Philip II
(25 July 1554 – 13 September 1598)
2 Guido de Lavezares.jpg Guido de Lavezaris August 20, 1572 August 25, 1575
3 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580).svg Francisco de Sande August 25, 1575 April 1580
4 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580).svg Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa April 1580 March 10, 1583
5 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego Ronquillo March 10, 1583 May 16, 1584
6 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Santiago de Vera May 16, 1584 May 1590
7 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas June 1, 1590 October 25, 1593
8 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Pedro de Rojas October 1593 December 3, 1593
9 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Luís Pérez Dasmariñas December 3, 1593 July 14, 1596
10 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Francisco de Tello de Guzmán July 14, 1596 May 1602
Diego Velázquez - Philip III on Horseback (detail) - WGA24408.jpg
Philip III
(13 September 1598 – 31 March 1621)
11 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Pedro Bravo de Acuña May 1602 June 24, 1606
12 Sangelys, detail from Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas (1734).jpg Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza
(Real Audiencia)
June 24, 1606 June 15, 1608
13 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia June 15, 1608 April 1609
14 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan de Silva April 1609 April 19, 1616
15 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Andrés Alcaraz
(Real Audiencia)
April 19, 1616 July 3, 1618
16 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Alonso Fajardo de Entenza July 3, 1618 July 1624
PhilipIV01.jpg
Philip IV
(31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665)
17 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Jeronimo de Silva
(Real Audiencia)
July 1624 June 1625
18 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Fernándo de Silva July 1624 June 29, 1626
19 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan Niño de Tabora June 29, 1626 July 22, 1632
20 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Lorenzo de Olaza y Lecubarri
(Real Audiencia)
July 22, 1632 1633
21 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan Cerezo de Salamanca August 29, 1633 June 25, 1635
22 Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera.jpg Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera June 25, 1635 August 11, 1644
23 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11, 1644 July 25, 1653
24 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Sabiniano Manrique de Lara July 25, 1653 September 8, 1663
25 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego de Salcedo September 8, 1663 September 28, 1668
Juan de Miranda Carreno 002.jpg
Charles II
(17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700)
26 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz September 28, 1668 September 24, 1669
27 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Manuel de León September 24, 1669 September 21, 1677
28 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Francisco Coloma y Maceda
(Real Audiencia)
April 11, 1677 September 25, 1677
29 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 28, 1678
30 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Juan de Vargas y Hurtado September 28, 1678 August 24, 1684
31 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola August 24, 1684 April 1689
32 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Alonso de Avila Fuertes
(Real Audiencia)
April 1689 July 1690
33 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Fausto Cruzat y Gongora July 25, 1690 December 8, 1701
Felipe V de España.jpg
Philip V

November 1700 – 15 January 1724

34 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri December 8, 1701 August 25, 1709
35 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, count of Lizárraga August 25, 1709 February 4, 1715
36 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Torralba
(Real Audiencia)
February 4, 1715 August 9, 1717
37 Governor General Fernando Bustamante.JPG Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda August 9, 1717 October 11, 1719
- Francisco de la Cuesta.jpg Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta
(acting)
October 11, 1719 August 6, 1721
38 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Toribio José Cosio y Campo August 6, 1721 August 14, 1729
Luis I, rey de España.jpg
Louis I

(15 January – 31 August 1724)

Felipe V de España.jpg
Philip V

(6 September 1724 – 9 July 1746)

39 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernándo Valdés y Tamon August 14, 1729 July 1739
40 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Gaspar de la Torre July 1739 September 21, 1745
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Archbishop Juan Arrechederra
(acting)
September 21, 1745 July 20, 1750
Ferdinand VI 2.jpg Ferdinand VI

(9 July 1746 – 10 August 1759)

41 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco José de Ovando, 1st Marquis of Brindisi July 20, 1750 July 26, 1754
42 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban July 26, 1754 May 31, 1759
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
(acting)
June 1759 May 31, 1761
Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III

(10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788)

- Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio Vera.jpg Archbishop Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
(acting)
July 1761 October 6, 1762 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III

British Occupation of Manila (1761–1764)[edit]

Great Britain occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War.

# Photo Governor-General From Until Monarch
43 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Simón de Anda y Salazar
(Provisional Government in Bacolor, Pampanga)
October 6, 1762 February 10, 1764 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
44 Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Dawsonne Drake November 2, 1762 May 31, 1764 Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
George III

Under New Spain (1764–1821)[edit]

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
45 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco Javier de la Torre March 17, 1764 July 6, 1765 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
46 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez July 6, 1765 July 1770
(43) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Simón de Anda y Salazar July 1770 October 30, 1776
47 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro de Sarrio October 30, 1776 July 1778
48 José Basco y Vargas.jpg José Basco y Vargas July 1778 September 22, 1787
(47) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro de Sarrio September 22, 1787 July 1, 1788
49 Felix Berenguer.jpg Félix Berenguer de Marquina July 1, 1788 September 1, 1793
Carlos IV de rojo.jpg
Charles IV
50 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León September 1, 1793 August 7, 1806
51  
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg
 
Mariano Fernández de Folgueras August 7, 1806 March 4, 1810
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
Ferdinand VII
Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg
Joseph Bonaparte
52 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg| Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar March 4, 1810 September 4, 1813
53 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Gardoqui Jaraveitia September 4, 1813 December 10, 1816
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
Ferdinand VII
(51) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Fernández de Folgueras December 10, 1816 September 15, 1821

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)[edit]

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
(51) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Fernández de Folgueras September 16, 1821 October 30, 1822 Fernando VII, by López.jpg
Ferdinand VII
54 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Antonio Martínez October 30, 1822 October 14, 1825
55 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca October 14, 1825 December 23, 1830
56 Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo.png Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo December 23, 1830 March 1, 1835
Isabel II reina de España.jpg
Isabella II
57 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Gabriel de Torres March 1, 1835 April 23, 1835
58 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín de Crámer April 23, 1835 September 9, 1835
59 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona September 9, 1835 August 27, 1837
60 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Andrés García Camba August 27, 1837 December 29, 1838
61 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Luis Lardizábal December 29, 1838 February 14, 1841
62 Oraa-Calbo.jpg Marcelino de Oraá Lecumberri February 14, 1841 June 17, 1843
63 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre June 17, 1843 July 16, 1844
64 El teniente general Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa, conde de Manila (Museo del Prado).jpg Narciso Clavería, 1st Count of Manila July 16, 1844 December 26, 1849
65 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio María Blanco December 26, 1849 July 29, 1850
66 Juan Antonio de Urbiztondo, marqués de la Solana.jpg Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía July 29, 1850 December 20, 1853
67 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón Montero y Blandino December 20, 1853 February 2, 1854
68 El marqués de Novaliches con el manto de la Real y Militar Orden de San Fernando.jpg Manuel Pavía, 1st Marquis of Novaliches February 2, 1854 October 28, 1854
(67) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón Montero y Blandino October 28, 1854 November 20, 1854
69 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel Crespo y Cebrían November 20, 1854 December 5, 1856
(67) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón Montero y Blandino December 5, 1856 March 9, 1857
70 Fernando Escudero Norzagaray.jpg Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero March 9, 1857 January 12, 1860
71 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón María Solano y Llanderal January 12, 1860 August 29, 1860
72 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Herrera Dávila August 29, 1860 February 2, 1861
73 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González February 2, 1861 July 7, 1862
74 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Salvador Valdés July 7, 1862 July 9, 1862
75 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham July 9, 1862 March 24, 1865
76 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez March 24, 1865 April 25, 1865
77 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan de Lara e Irigoyen April 25, 1865 July 13, 1866
78 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Laureano de Sanz y Posse July 13, 1866 September 21, 1866
79 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Antonio Osorio September 21, 1866 September 27, 1866
(76) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez September 27, 1866 October 26, 1866
80 José de la Gándara y Navarro.jpg José de la Gándara y Navarro October 26, 1866 June 7, 1869
No Monarch
81 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Manuel Maldonado June 7, 1869 June 23, 1869
82 Carlos Maria de la Torre.jpg Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada June 23, 1869 April 4, 1871
Amadeo I, rey de España.jpg
Amadeo I
(December 16, 1870 – February 11, 1873)
83 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez April 4, 1871 January 8, 1873
84 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel MacCrohon January 8, 1873 January 24, 1873
85 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Juan Alaminos y Vivar January 24, 1873 March 17, 1874
No Monarch
- Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Manuel Blanco Valderrama
(acting)
March 17, 1874 June 18, 1874
86 José Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael.jpg José Malcampo y Monje June 18, 1874 February 28, 1877
Retrato de Alfonso XII con uniforme de gala (Palacio de Aranjuez).jpg
Alfonso XII
(December 29, 1874 – November 25, 1885)
87 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Domingo Moriones y Murillo February 28, 1877 March 20, 1880
88 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael Rodríguez Arias March 20, 1880 April 15, 1880
89 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak.jpg Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 15, 1880 March 10, 1883
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Molíns 1st term,
(acting)
March 10, 1883 April 7, 1883
90 General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg Joaquín Jovellar April 7, 1883 April 1, 1885
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Molíns 2nd term,
(acting)
April 1, 1885 April 4, 1885
91 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Terrero y Perinat April 4, 1885 April 25, 1888
Roi Alfonso XIII.jpg
Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886)
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio Moltó
(acting)
April 25, 1888 June 4, 1888
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Federico Lobatón
(acting)
June 4, 1888 June 5, 1888
92 Valeriano Weyler.gif Valeriano Wéyler June 5, 1888 November 17, 1891
93 Eulogio Despujols y Dusay.jpg Eulogio Despujol November 17, 1891 March 1, 1893
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Federico Ochando
(acting)
March 1, 1893 May 4, 1893
94 Ramon Blanco y Erenas.jpg Ramón Blanco, 1st Marquis of Peña Plata May 4, 1893 December 13, 1896
- Camilo Polavieja, en La Esfera.jpg Camilo de Polavieja, 1st Marquis of Polavieja
(acting)
December 13, 1896 April 15, 1897
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José de Lachambre
(acting)
April 15, 1897 April 23, 1897
95 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak.jpg Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 23, 1897 April 11, 1898
96 Basilio Augustín y Dávila.jpg Basilio Augustín[11] April 11, 1898 July 24, 1898
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fermín Jáudenes[11]
(acting)
July 24, 1898 August 13, 1898
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco Rizzo[11]
(acting)
August 13, 1898 September 1898
- Diego de los Ríos y Nicolau (22 de enero de 2010, La Ilustración Española y Americana, Franzen).jpg Diego de los Rios[11]
(acting)
September 1898 June 3, 1899

United States Military Government (1898–1901)[edit]

The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War. During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Wesley Merritt.jpg Wesley Merritt August 14, 1898[12] August 30, 1898[13] William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg
William McKinley
2 Elwell S. Otis.jpg Elwell S. Otis August 28, 1898 May 5, 1900
3 Arthur MacArthur Jr.jpg Arthur MacArthur, Jr. May 5, 1900 July 4, 1901
4 AdnaChaffee.jpg Adna Chaffee[14] July 4, 1901 July 4, 1902

Insular Government (1901–1935)[edit]

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with civil governor, William Howard Taft.[15] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon.[16] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.[14] Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30, 1902.[17]

The title was changed to Governor General in 1905 by an act of Congress (Public 43 - February 6, 1905).[14] The term "insular" (from insulam, the Latin word for island)[18] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas was under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department.[19][20]

# Picture Name From Until President
1 William Howard Taft.jpg William Howard Taft July 4, 1901 February 1, 1904 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg
William McKinley
To September 1901
T Roosevelt.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
From September 1901
2 Luke Edward Wright.jpg Luke Edward Wright February 1, 1904 November 3, 1905
T Roosevelt.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
3 Henry Clay Ide 710x1024.jpg Henry Clay Ide November 3, 1905 September 19, 1906
4 GenJFSmith.jpg James Francis Smith September 20, 1906 November 11, 1909
5 William Cameron Forbes William Cameron Forbes November 11, 1909 September 1, 1913 William Howard Taft.jpg
William Howard Taft
- Newton W. Gilbert Newton W. Gilbert
(Acting Governor-General)
September 1, 1913 October 6, 1913 Thomas Woodrow Wilson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg
Woodrow Wilson
6 Francis Burton Harrison, seated.jpg Francis Burton Harrison October 6, 1913 March 5, 1921
- Charles Emmett Yeater (Philippines Governor General).jpg Charles Yeater
(Acting Governor-General)
March 5, 1921 October 14, 1921 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg
Warren G. Harding
To September 1923
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg
Calvin Coolidge
7 General Leonard Wood Rol BNF Gallica.jpg Leonard Wood October 14, 1921 August 7, 1927
- Eugene Allen Gilmore in "The badger" (1916).jpg Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
August 7, 1927 December 27, 1927
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg
Calvin Coolidge
8 Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg Henry L. Stimson December 27, 1927 February 23, 1929
- Eugene Allen Gilmore in "The badger" (1916).jpg Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
February 23, 1929 July 8, 1929 President Hoover portrait.jpg
Herbert Hoover
9 Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Dwight F. Davis July 8, 1929 January 9, 1932
- George C. Butte (Philippines Governor).jpg George C. Butte
(Acting Governor-General)
January 9, 1932 February 29, 1932
10 Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921.jpg Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. February 29, 1932 July 15, 1933
11 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy July 15, 1933 November 14, 1935
Became High Commissioner to the Philippines
FDR in 1933.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)[edit]

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic.[21]

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
1 Honma Masaharu.jpg Masaharu Homma January 3, 1942 June 8, 1942 Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg
Emperor Hirohito
2 Tanaka Shizuichi.jpg Shizuichi Tanaka June 8, 1942 May 28, 1943
3 Governor General Shigenori Kuroda.jpg Shigenori Kuroda May 28, 1943 September 26, 1944
4 Yamashita.jpg Tomoyuki Yamashita September 26, 1944 September 2, 1945

Independent Ilocos (1762-1763)[edit]

Free Ilocos
Emperor Image From Until Notes
Diego Silang Diego Silang of Ilocos Philippines.jpg 1762 1763 a Filipino revolutionary leader who conspired with British forces to overthrow Spanish rule in the northern Philippines and establish an independent Ilocano nation.

Emperor[edit]

Philippines
Emperor Image From Until Notes
Andrés Novales 1823 1823 His discontentment with the treatment of creole soldiers led him to start a revolt in 1823 that inspired even the ranks of José Rizal. He successfully captured Intramuros and was proclaimed Emperor of the Philippines by his followers. However, he was defeated within the day by Spanish reinforcements from Pampanga.[22]

Other revolutionary republics and states[edit]

The Ruling Leaders during Philippine Revolution[edit]

Tagalog Republic
President Image From Until
Andres Bonifacio Andrés Bonifacio.jpg 1896 1897
Biak-na-Bato – 1897
President Image From Until
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1898).jpg 1897 December 15, 1897
First Philippine Republic – Continuation 1901-1902
President Image From Until
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1898).jpg 1897 1901
Miguel Malvar Miguel malvar PG.jpg 1901 1902
Tagalog Republic – Continuation 1902-1906
President Image From Until
Macario Sakay Macario Sacay.jpg 1902 1906
Republic of Zamboanga – 1899-1903
President Image From Until
Vicente Alvarez 1899 1899
Isidro Midel 1899 1901
Mariano Arquiza 1901 1903
Negros Republic – 1898-1901
President Image From Until
Aniceto Lacson Aniceto Lacson.gif 1898 1899
Melecio Severino 1899 1901

Presidents[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term "Sultana" is used by Odal-Devora in her essay The River Dwellers (2000, page 47), saying "This Prince Bagtas, a grandson of Sultana Kalangitan, the Lady of Pasig, was also said to have ruled the Kingdom of Namayan or Sapa, in the present Sta Ana-Mandaluyong-San Juan- Makati Area. This would explain the Pasig-Sta Ana-Tondo-Bulacan-Pampanga-Batangas interconnections of the Tagalog ruling elites."

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Huerta, Felix, de (1865). Estado Geografico, Topografico, Estadistico, Historico-Religioso de la Santa y Apostolica Provincia de San Gregorio Magno. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Sanchez y Compañia.
  2. ^ a b c d Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Odal-Devora, Grace P. (2000). "The River Dwellers". In Alejandro, Reynaldo Gamboa (ed.). Pasig: River of Life. Water Series Trilogy. Unilever Philippines. ISBN 978-9719227205.
  4. ^ Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young. City of Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-971-569-313-4.
  5. ^ http://www.luzpalma.com/Information%20gather%20from%20the%20island%20of%20Siquijor.html
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Henson, Mariano A (1955). The Province of Pampanga and its towns (A.D. 1300–1955) with the genealogy of the rulers of central Luzon. Manila: Villanueva Books.
  7. ^ a b c d Majul, César Adib (1973). Muslims in the Philippines. Diliman: University of the Philippines Asian Center.
  8. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Scott1984 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Dery2001 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b Junker, Laura Lee (1998). "Integrating History and Archaeology in the Study of Contact Period Philippine Chiefdoms". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 2 (4).
  11. ^ a b c d Peterson 2007, p. 11.
  12. ^ Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 116.
  13. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  14. ^ a b c Elliott (1917), p. 509
  15. ^ Elliott (1917), p. 4
  16. ^ Tanner (1901), p. 383
  17. ^ Philippine Academy of Social Sciences (1967). Philippine social sciences and humanities review. pp. 40.
  18. ^ "Island - from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  19. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations" Archived September 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of the Interior.
  20. ^ "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  21. ^ Cahoon (2000)
  22. ^ Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila,My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc.

External links[edit]