List of state leaders in the 19th century

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State leaders in the 18th centuryState leaders: 1901–1950State leaders by year

This is a list of state leaders in the 19th century (1801–1900) AD, such as the heads of state and heads of government.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 19th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa[edit]

Africa: Central[edit]

Angola

vassal to Portugal: 1888–1914
  • unknown son of Ana III, King (1810–?)
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

German colony, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

Central African Republic

Chad

  • ‘Abd ar-Rahman Gawrang, Mbangi (1785–1806)
  • Malam Ngarmaba Bira, Mbangi (1806)
  • ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi (1806–1807)
  • Malam Ngarmaba Bira, Mbangi (1807)
  • ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi (1807)
  • Muhammad III, Mbangi (1807)
  • ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi (1807–1846)
  • ‘Abdul Qadir II al-Mahdi, Mbangi (1846–1858)
  • Abu-Sekkin Mohammed IV, Mbangi (1858–1870)
  • ‘Abd ar-Rahman II, Mbangi (1870–1871)
  • Abu-Sekkin Mohammed IV, Mbangi (1871–1884)
  • Burkomanda IV as-Saghir, Mbangi (1884–1885)
  • Ngarmane Ermanala, Regent (1885)
  • Gaourang II, Mbangi (1885–1897)
  • Muhammad Salih Derret ibn Jawda, Kolak (1795–1803)
  • Abd al-Karim Sabun, Kolak (1803–1813)
  • Muhammad Busata ibn ‘Abd al-Karim, Kolak (1813–1813)
  • Yusuf Kharifayn ibn ‘Abd al-Qadir, Kolak (1813–1829)
  • Raqib ibn Yusuf ‘Abd al-Qadir, Kolak (1829–1829)
  • Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Dhawiyi ibn Radama (1829–1835)
  • Adham ibn Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, Kolak (1835–1835)
  • ‘Izz ad-Din Muhammad al-Sharif ibn Salih Derret, Kolak (1835–1858)
  • 'Ali ibn Muhammad, Kolak (1858–1874)
  • Yusuf ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1874–1898)
  • Ibrahim ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1898–1900)
  • Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1900–1901)
  • rule of Rabih az-Zubayr
Colony, 1900–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Congo: Belgian

  • Kata Mbula, Nyim (1776–1810)
  • Mikope Mbula, Nyim (1810–1840)
  • Bope Mobinji, Nyim (1840–1885)
  • Mikope Mobinji, Nyim (1885–1890)
  • KotoMboke, Nyim (1890–1896)
  • Mishanga Pelenge, Nyim (1896–1900)
  • Msiri, King (1856–1891)
  • Sovereign –

Congo: French

Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe

Equatorial Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
Kenya
  • Ahmad ibn Fumo Bakari, Mfalume (1858–1888)
  • Fumo Bakari ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1888–1890)
  • Bwana Shaykh ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1890–1891)
  • Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1891–1893,1895–1923)
Independence disputed with Oman
Omani Suzerainty
British protectorate, 1895–1920
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Rwanda
Tanzania
Colony, 1885–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
Uganda
British protectorate, 1894–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Horn of Africa area

Djibouti
Colony, 1896–1946
For details see France under western Europe
Eritrea
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Ethiopia
  • Mijyu, Moti (?–c.1820)
  • Abba Manno, Moti (c.1820–c.1840)
  • Abba Bagibo, Moti (early 19th century)
  • Abba Rebo, Moti (?–1856)
  • Abba Dula, Moti (mid 19th century)
  • Abba Dula, Moti (?–1864)
  • Abba Jifar, Moti (late 19th century)
  • Abba Boka, Moti (?–1886)
  • Adam, Moti, Founder (late 18th century)
  • Oncho, Moti (c.1810)
  • Jawe, Moti (c.1840–1854)
  • Abba Dula, Moti (1854–1879)
  • Abba Jubir, Moti (June 1879–c.1890)
  • Abba Fogi, Moti (c.1890–1899)
  • Firisa, Moti (1899–1902)
  • Hoti Gaocho or Beshi Sheroch, King (1798–1821)
  • Gaha Nechocho or Gali Sheroch, King (1821–1845)
  • Gawi Nechocho or Haji Ginoch, King (1845–1854)
  • Kaye Sherocho or Kamo, King (1854–1870)
  • Gali Sherocho, King (1870–1890)
  • Gaki Sherocho, King (1890–1897)
  • Bofo, Abba Gomoli I, Supera (1800–1825)
  • Ibsa, Abba Bagibo, Supera (1825–1861)
  • Abba Bulgu, Supera (1861–1883)
  • Abba Gomoli II, Supera (1883–1891)
  • Amado, Kawo (1800–1835)
  • Damota, Kawo (1835–1845)
  • Gobe, Kawo (1845–1886)
  • Gaga, Kawo (1886–c.1890)
  • Tona, Kawo (1890–1895)
Somalia
  • Suldaan Maxamuud "Xawaadane" Suldaan Yuusuf Suldaan Cali, King (?–1815)
  • Suldaan Cismaan "Bah-Dir" Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Yuusuf, King (1815–1842)
  • Suldaan Yuusuf "Bah-Yaaquub" Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Yuusuf, King (1842–1844)
  • Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Cismaan Suldaan Maxamuud, King (1844–1860)
  • Osman Mahamuud, King (1860–c.1924)
  • Garaad Mohamud Ali, King (1789–1830)
  • Garaad Aul, King (1830–1870)
  • Garaad Ali Shire, King (1870–1897)
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Indian Ocean

Comoros
  • Ramanetaka, Sultan (1830–1842)
  • Djoumbé Fatima, Queen/Sultan (1842–1865, 1874–1878)
  • Ravao, Tsivandini, Regent (1842–1849)
  • Mohamed bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara, Sultan (1865–1874)
  • Djoumbé Fatima, Regent (1865–1868)
  • Joseph Lambert, Duc d'Imerina, Regent (1868–1871)
  • Djoumbé Fatima, Regent (1871–1878)
  • Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara, Sultan (1878–1885)
  • Mohammed Shekhe, Sultan (1885–1886)
  • Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe, Sultan (1886–1888)
  • Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara Queen/Sultan (1888–1909)
  • Fadeli bin Othman, Balia Juma, Abudu Tsivandini, Regents (1888–1889)
  • Mahmudu bin Mohamed Makadara, Regent (1889–1897)
  • Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara Queen/Sultan (1888–1909)
  • Alawi bin Husain, Sultan (1796–1816)
  • Abdallah bin Alawi, Sultan (1816–1832, 1833–1836)
  • Ali bin Salim, Sultan (1832–1833)
  • Saidi Alawi bin Abdallah, Sultan (1836–1837)
  • Salim bin Alawi, Sultan (1837–1852)
  • Saidi Abdallah bin Salim, Sultan (1852–1891)
  • Salim bin Abdalla, Sultan (1891–1891)
  • Saidi Omar bin Saidi Hasan, Sultan (1891–1892)
  • Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar, Sultan (1892–1912)
French protectorate, 1887–1908
For details see France under western Europe
Madagascar
French protectorate, 1882–1897
Colony, 1897–1958
For details see France under western Europe
Mauritius
French colony, 1715–1810
For details see France under western Europe
Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Seychelles
Part of British Mauritius, 1811–1903
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northcentral[edit]

Libya

Tunisia

Protectorate, 1881–1956
For details see France under western Europe

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Sudan

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, 1899–1956
For details see the United Kingdom and Egypt

Africa: Northwest[edit]

Algeria

Vassal state, 1515–1830
For details see the Ottoman Empire under west Asia
French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe

Morocco and Western Sahara

Overseas territory, 1884–1975
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Africa: South[edit]

Botswana

British protectorate, 1885–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Lesotho

British colony, 1884–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Malawi

British protectorate, 1893–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

  • Shimwemwe (1785–1805)
Colony, 1884–1915
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

South Africa

For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Lucas Johannes Meijer, President (1884–1888)
British colony, 1795–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Protectorate, 1893–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1843–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1877–1881, 1902–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Swaziland

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Company rule, 1890–1924
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Changamire Tohwechipi, King (1831–1866)

Africa: West[edit]

Benin

  • Akengbuda, Oba (1750–1804)[9]
  • Obanosa, Oba (1804–1816)
  • Ogbebo, Oba (1816)
  • Osemwende, Oba (1816–1848)
  • Adolo, Oba (1848–1897)
see also Ovonramwen
Vassal of the Oyo Empire, 1740–1823
French protectorate, 1894–1900
  • Ajibolu, Oba of Ketu (1795–1816)

Burkina Faso

  • Yempaabu, ruler (1890s–?)
  • Yembuado, ruler (unknown date)
  • Bantia, ruler (19th century)
  • Yenkpaari, ruler (19th century)
  • Yembrima, ruler (late 19th century–1897)
  • Yentema, ruler (1897–1899)
  • Hampandi, ruler (1899–1923)
  • Gmarba, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Wori, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Gamambu, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Pangangri, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Mabungu, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Bandigoo, ruler (19th century)
  • Wurbendi, ruler (19th century)
  • Yembuado, ruler (19th century)
  • Baalisongi, ruler (19th century)
  • Yenkoari, ruler (19th century)
  • Yembrima, ruler (late 19th century–1889)
  • Yensombu, ruler (1889–1892)
  • Baahamma, ruler (1892–1905)
  • Alfa Hano, ruler (c.1870–c.1874)
  • Gazari, ruler (c.1874–1883)
  • Babatu, ruler (1883–1899)
  • Builsa Hamaria, ruler (1894–1897)
  • Magan Wule Wattara, ruler (1749–1809)
  • Dramani, ruler (1809–1809)
  • Dyori Wattara, ruler (1809–1839)
  • Bako Moru Wattara, ruler (1839–1851)
  • Laganfyela Moru, ruler (1851–1854)
  • Ali Dyan, ruler (1854–1878)
  • Kokoroko Dyan, ruler (1878–1885)
  • Sabana, ruler (1885–1892)
  • Tyeba Wattara Nyandane, ruler (1892–1897)
  • Pintyeba Wattara, ruler (1897–1909)
  • Yencabri, ruler (1810–early 19th century)
  • Interregnum, ruler (early 19th century)
  • Kalinkuma, ruler (early 19th century)
  • Yembuado, ruler (19th century)
  • Yensombu, ruler (19th century)
  • Yentugri, ruler (19th century)
  • Lansongi, ruler (19th century)
  • Yencirima, ruler (late 19th century)
  • Yenhamma, ruler (late 19th century–1878)
  • Yenkuagu, ruler (1878–1917)
  • Brahima bi Saydu, Ja-oro (1758–1810)
  • Brahima bi Saydu, Almami (1810–1817)
  • Salifu bi Hama, Almami (1817–1832)
  • Brahima Sori bi Hama, Almami (1832–1861)
  • Seku bi Salifu, Almami (1861–1887)
  • Bubakar Amadu bi Isa, Almami (1887–1890)
  • Bubakar bi Sori, Almami (1890–1891)
  • Brahima Usman, Almami (1891–1915)
  • Yembuaro, Boopo (19th century)
  • Yembrima, Boopo (19th century)
  • Baahamma, Boopo (late 19th century)
  • Yempaabu, Boopo (late 19th century)
  • Labidiedo, Boopo (late 19th century–1887)
  • Tintuoriba Adama, Boopo (1887–1896)
  • Hampanli, Boopo (1896–1897)
  • Huntani, Boopo (1897–1902)
  • Baahamma, Nunbado (1791–1822)
  • Yenhamma, Nunbado (1822–1831)
  • Yencirima, Nunbado (1831–1843)
  • Yencabri, Nunbado (1843–1846)
  • Yempabu, Nunbado (1846–1856)
  • Yempadigu, Nunbado (1856–1883)
  • Yentuguri, Nunbado (1883–1892)
  • Bancandi, Nunbado (1892–1911)
  • Yenharima, Jafuali (19th century)
  • Lisongi, Jafuali (19th century)
  • Hampanli, Jafuali (19th century)
  • Hanmiliri, Jafuali (late 19th century)
  • Yembuaro, Jafuali (late 19th century–1878)
  • Baahamma, Jafuali (1878–1918)
  • Baahamma, Pielabedo (19th century)
  • Yembuado, Pielabedo (19th century)
  • Yentema, Pielabedo (19th century)
  • Yentagima, Pielabedo (19th century–1836)
  • Yembrima, Pielabedo (1836–1844)
  • Yenkpaari, Pielabedo (1844–1851)
  • Yencaari, Pielabedo (1851–1856)
  • Yentandi, Pielabedo (1856–1901)
  • Sapilem, Naaba (19th century)
  • Nyambre, Naaba (19th century)
  • Salma, Naaba (19th century)
  • Korongo, Naaba (1894)
  • Naaba Dulugu, Moogo-naaba (1783–1802)
  • Naaba Sawadogo, Moogo-naaba (1802–1834)
  • Naaba Karfo, Moogo-naaba (1834–1842)
  • Naaba Baongo I, Moogo-naaba (1842–1850)
  • Naaba Kutu I, Moogo-naaba (1850–1871)
  • Naaba Sanum, Moogo-naaba (1871–1889)
  • Naaba Wobgo, Moogo-naaba (1889–1897)
  • Naaba Mazi, Moogo-naaba (1896–1896)
  • Naaba Sigiri, Moogo-naaba (1897–1905)
  • Rima Naaba Saaga, Yatenga naaba (1787–1803)
  • Rima Naaba Kaongo, Yatenga naaba (1803–1806)
  • Rima Naaba Tuguri, Yatenga naaba (1806–1822)
  • Naaba Koom I, Yatenga naaba (1822–1825)
  • Naaba Korogo, Yatenga naaba (1825–1825)
  • Naaba Ragongo, Yatenga naaba (1825–1831)
  • Naaba Wobgo II, Yatenga naaba (1831–1831)
  • Naaba Nyambe Moogo, Yatenga naaba (1831–1834)
  • Rima Naaba Totebaldbo, Yatenga naaba (1834–1850)
  • Rima Naaba Yemde, Yatenga naaba (1850–1877)
  • Naaba Sanum, Yatenga naaba (1877–1879)
  • Rima Naaba Woboga, Yatenga naaba (1879–1884)
  • Naaba Piiyo II, Yatenga naaba (1884–1885)
  • Rima Naaba Baongo, Yatenga naaba (1885–1895)
  • Naaba Bulli, Yatenga naaba (1895–1899)
  • Sidiyete Wedraogo, ruler (1895–1896)
  • Naaba Ligidi, Yatenga naaba (1899–1902)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

Colony, 1894–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

  • Biri Kofi Kadyo, Gyaamanhene (1790–1810)
  • Kwadwo Adinkra Kadyo, Gyaamanhene (1810–1820)
  • Fofie, Gyaamanhene (1820–1830)
  • Kwasi Yeboa, Gyaamanhene (1830–1850)
  • Kwadwo Agyeman, Gyaamanhene (1850–1895)
Colony, 1893–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Liberia

Mali

Colony, 1880–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Mauritania

Niger

  • Ahmadou dan Tanimoun, Sultan (1799–1812)
  • Sulayman, Sultan (1812–1822)
  • Ibrahim, Sultan (1843–1851)
  • Fodi Maÿroumfa, Askiya (1798–1805)[10]
  • Tomo, Askiya (1805–1823)
  • Bassarou Missi Izé, Askiya (1823–1842)
  • Boumi, Askiya (1842–1845)
  • Koïzé Babba, Askiya (1845–1864)
  • Koïzé Babba Baki, Askiya (1864–1865)
  • Ouankoÿ, Askiya (1865–1868)
  • Biyo Birma, Askiya (1868–1882)
  • Doauda, Askiya (1882–1887)
  • Malla, Askiya (1887–1901)

Nigeria

  • Ekpenyong Offiong Okoho, King (1786–1805)
  • Ekpenyong Effiom Okoho Eyamba III, King (1805–1814)
  • Effiom Edem Ekpo Effiom I Eyamba IV, King (1814–1834)
  • Edem Ekpenyong Offiong Okoho Eyamba V, King (1834–1847)
  • Effiom Okoho Asibong I Ekpo Minika, King (1849–1852)
  • Ededem Effiom II, King (1852–1858)
  • Eyo Asibong II, King (1859–1872)
  • Edem Asibong III Eyamba VIII, King (1872–1879)
  • Orok Edem Eyamba IX, King (1880–1896)
  • Eyo Etinyin, King (c.1896–c.1903)
Sayfawa dynasty[12]
House of Kanemi
vassal to the United Kingdom: 1888–1896
  • Grand Viziers
  • Muhammadu Bakatsine, Grand Vizier (1807–?)
  • Ahmadu Mai Shahada, Grand Vizier (1889–1903)
  • Muhammadu Dan Ayi dan Ahmadu Jerabana Albishir, Emir (1799–1829)
  • Ibrahimu dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1829–1835)
  • Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1835–1844)
  • Abu Bakr Jatau dan Mustafa Gazari, Emir (1844–1848)
  • Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1848–1849)
  • Ya`quba dan Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki, Emir (1849–1850)
  • Sulaymanu Dan Addo dan Ibrahimu, Emir (1850–1871)
  • Abd Allahi Gallo dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1871–1888)
  • Abd Allahi Abarshi dan `Ali dan Yerima, Emir (1888–1904)
British colony, 1821–1957
British protectorate, 1900–1914
British protectorate, 1900–1914
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Amari Ngone Ndèla Kumba Fal, Damel (1790–1809)
  • Biram Fatma Cub Fal, Damel (1809–1832)
  • Maysa Tènde Jor Samba Fal, Damel (1832–1855)
  • Birima Ngone Latir Fal, Damel (1855–1860)
  • Ma-Kodu Kumba Yande Fal, Damel (1860–1861)
  • Ma-Jojo Jegeñ Kodu Fal, Damel (1861)
  • Lat Jor Ngone Latir Jop, Damel (1862–1864)
  • Ma-Jojo Jegeñ Kodu Fal, Damel (1864–1868)
  • Lat Jor Ngone Latir Jop, Damel (1871–1882)
  • Amari Ngone Fal, Damel (1883)
  • Samba Laobe Fal, Damel (1883–1886)
  • Abdelkedir, Almaami (1776–1804)
  • unknown Almaami (1804–1859)
Vassal of the Toucouleur Empire, 1861–1877
  • Mustafa, Almaami (1859–1868)
  • Ahmadu Sego, Almaami (1868–1875)
  • Abdul Bu Bakar, Almaami (1875–1877)
  • Balleh N'Gougou N'Dao (or Ballé Khordia Ndao), Maad Saloum (1825–1853)[13]
  • Bala Adam Njie, Maad Saloum (1853–1856)[13]
  • Kumba N'Dama Mbodj, Maad Saloum (1856–1859)[13]
  • Samba Laobe Latsouka Fall), Maad Saloum (1859–1864)[13]
Federation of colonies, 1895–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Sierra Leone

  • Farima IV, Bai (1793–1807)
  • Foki, Bai (1807–1817)
  • Moriba Kindo Bangura, Bai (1817–1825)
  • Kunia Banna, Bai (1825–1826)
  • Fatima Brima Kama, Bai-Queen (1826–1840)
  • Moribu Kindo, Bai (1840–1859)
  • Kanta, Bai (1859–1872)
British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Togo

Protectorate, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

Americas[edit]

Americas: Caribbean[edit]

Greater Antilles: Hispaniola

Americas: Central[edit]

Americas: North[edit]

Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis, President (1862-1865)[15]

Mexico

Oil painting of Vicente Guerrero, by Ramón Sagredo (1865)
Santa Anna in a Mexican military uniform
Édouard Manet's Execution of Emperor Maximilian (1868–1869), is one of five versions of his representation of the execution of the Austrian-born Emperor of Mexico, which took place on June 19, 1867. Manet borrowed heavily, thematically and technically, from Goya's The Third of May 1808.

New Spain

Viceroy Iturrigaray and his family

United States of America

An early, undated photograph of Grover Cleveland

Americas: South[edit]

Asia[edit]

Asia: Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

Tibet

Manchu overlordship, 1720-1912
For details see the Qing dynasty under Eastern Asia

Uzbekistan

  • Narbuta Bey, Khan (c.1764–1801)
  • Alim, Khan (1800–1810)
  • Muhammad Umar, Khan (1810–1822)
  • Muhammad Ali, Khan (1822–1842)
  • Shir Ali, Khan (1842–1845)
  • Murad Beg, Khan (1845)
  • Muhammad Khudayar, Khan (1845–1858)
  • Muhammad Mallya Beg, Khan (1858–1862)
  • Shah Murad, Khan (1862)
  • Muhammad Khudayar Khan (1862–1865)
  • Muhammad Sultan, Khan (1863–1865)
  • Bil Bahchi, Khan (1865)
  • Muhammad Sultah, Khan (1865–1866)
  • Muhammad Khudayar, Khan (1866–1875)
  • Nasir ad-Din Abdul Karin, Khan (1875)
  • Muhammad Pulad Beg, Khan (1875–1875)
  • Nasir ad-Din Abdul Karim, Khan (1875–1883)
  • Abu al-Ghazi IV, Khan (1790–1802)
  • Abu al-Ghazi V ibn Gha'ib, Khan (1802–1804)
  • Iltazar Inaq ibn Iwaz Inaq, Khan (1804–1806)
  • Muhammad Rahim Bahadur I.(1806–1825)
  • Allah Quli Bahadur, Khan (1825–1842)
  • Muhammad Rahim Quli, Khan (1842–1846)
  • Abu al-Ghazi Muhammad Amin Bahadur, Khan (1846–1855)
  • Abdullah, Khan (1855)
  • Qutlugh Muhammad Murad Bahadur, Khan (1855–1856)
  • Mahmud, Khan (1856)
  • Sayyid Muhammad, Khan (1856–1864)
  • Muhammad Rahim Bahadur II., Khan (Feruz Khan), Khan (1864–1910)
Russian protectorate, 1873–1917
Russian Krai, 1867–1918
For details see the Russian Empire under Eastern Europe

Asia: East[edit]

China: Qing dynasty

China: Taiwan

Japan

  • Meiji, Emperor (1867–1912)
Vassal state of Satsuma Domain, 1609–1872
  • Shō On, King (1795–1802)
  • Shō Sei, King (1802–1803)
  • Shō Kō, King (1804–1828)
  • Shō Iku, Regent (1828–1835), King (1835–1847)
  • Shō Tai, King (1848–1879), Vassal state of the Empire of Japan, 1872–1879

Korea

  • Sunjo, King (1800–1834)
  • Heonjong, King (1834–1849)
  • Gojong, King (1863–1897), Emperor (1897–1907)
  • Gojong, King (1863–1897), Emperor (1897–1907)

Asia: Southeast[edit]

Brunei

British protectorate, 1888–1984

Cambodia

Protectorate, 1863–1984, part of French Indochina 1887–1953

Indonesia

Indonesia: Java
  • Abdul Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin I, Sultan (1777–1802)[18]
  • Abdul Fath Muhammad Muhyuddin, Sultan (1802–1805)
  • Abu Nazar Muhammad Isyak, Sultan (1805–1808)
  • Abdul Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin II, Sultan (1808–1810)
  • Muhammad Tsafiuddin, Sultan (1810–1811)
  • Pangeran Ahmad, Regent (1811–1813)
  • Muhammad Muhyuddin, Regent (1813–1816)
  • Muhammad Rafiuddin, Sultan (1816–1832)
  • Sepuh VII Joharuddin, Sultan (1791–1816)[19]
  • Sepuh VIII Syamsuddin, Sultan (1816–1819)
  • Anom VI Muhammad Kamaruddin, Sultan (1807–1819)[19]
  • Cirebon IV, Sultan (1808–1810)[19]
  • Cakraningrat VII, Sultan (1780–1815)[20]
  • Cakraningrat VIII, Sultan (1815–1847)
  • Cakraningrat IX, Sultan (1847–1862)
  • Cakraningrat X, Sultan (1862–1882)
  • Cakraningrat XI, Sultan (1882–1885)
  • Tirtanegara, Sultan (1767–1811)[21]
  • Natadiningrat, Regent (1804–1810)
  • Paku Nataningrat, Sultan (1811–1854)
  • Natakusuma, Sultan (1854–1879)
  • Pangeran Pakunataningrat, Regent (1883–1901)
  • Aria Cakraadiningrat II, R. Alsana, Sultan (1800–1804)[22]
  • Panembahan Mangku Adiningrat, Sultan (1804–1842)
  • Pangeran Aria Suriokusumo, Sultan (1842–1853)
  • Mangkunegara II, Sultan (1795–1835)[25]
  • Mangkunegara III, Sultan (1835–1853)
  • Mangkunegara IV, Sultan (1853–1881)
  • Mangkunegara V, Sultan (1881–1896)
  • Mangkunegara VI, Sultan (1896–1916)
  • Mangkudiningrat, Sultan (1831)[26]
  • Pangeran Adipati Natapraja, Sultan (1831–1853)
  • Pangeran Prabu Adiningrat, Sultan (1831–1833)[26]
  • Pakualam I, Sultan (1812–1829)[27]
  • Pakualam II, Sultan (1829–1858)
  • Pakualam III, Sultan (1858–1864)
  • Pakualam IV, Sultan (1864–1878)
  • Pakualam V, Sultan (1878–1900)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahid, Sultan (1761–1805)
  • Amaluddin Mangendar, Sultan (1805–1850)
  • Osman Perkasa Alam Shah, Sultan (1850–1858)
  • Mahmud Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, Sultan (1858–1873)
  • Ma'mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alamyah, Sultan (1873–1924)
  • Kejuruan Hitam (Tuah Hitam), Raja (1750–1818)
  • Ahmad bin Raja Indra Bungsu, Raja (1818–1840)
  • Haji Musa al-Khalid al-Mahadiah Muazzam Shah, Sultan (1840–1893)
  • Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rakhmat Shah, Sultan (1893–1927)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ali Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin Ba'alawi, Sultan (1784–1810)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ibrahim Abdul Jalil Khaliluddin, Sultan (1810–1815)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ismail Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin, Sultan (1815–1854)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Qasim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin I, Sultan (Syarif Qasim I, 1864–1889)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Hashim Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah, Sultan (1889–1908)
  • Al-Marhum Kacapuri, Raja (1782–1822)
  • Al-Marhum Besar, Sultan (1822–1851)
  • Al-Marhum Kota Batu, Sultan (1851–1879)
  • Al-Marhum Perbaungan, Sultan (1879–1946)[28]
  • Ali, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1784–1805)
  • Ja'afar, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1805–1831)
  • Abdul Rahman, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1831–1844)
  • Ali bin Raja Jaafar, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1844–1857)
  • Haji Abdullah, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1857–1858)
  • Muhammad Yusuf, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1858–1899)
  • Jambi Sultanate
    Ratu Seri Ingalaga, Sultan (1790–1812)
    Agung Seri Ingalaga, Sultan (1812–1833)
    Muhammad Fakhruddin, Sultan (1833–1841)
    Abdul Rahman Nazaruddin, Sultan (1841–1855)
    Thaha Safiuddin, Sultan (1855–1858, 1900–1904)
    Ahmad Nazaruddin, Sultan (1858–1881)
    Muhammad Muhieddin, Sultan (1881–1885)
    Ahmad Zainul Abidin, Sultan (1885–1899)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Aji Muhammad Salehudin, Sultan (?–1844)
  • Tahmidullah II/Sultan Nata, Sultan (1761–1801)
  • Sulaiman al-Mutamidullah, Sultan (1801–1825)
  • Adam Al-Watsiq Billah, Sultan (1825–1857)
  • Tamjidullah II al-Watsiqu Billah, Sultan (1857–1859)
  • Hidayatullah II, Sultan (1859–1860)
  • Abu Bakar Taj ud-din I, Sultan (1793–1815)
  • Muhammad 'Ali Shafi ud-din I, Sultan (1815–1828)
  • Usman Kamal ud-din, Sultan (1828–1832)
  • Umar Akam ud-din III, Sultan (1832–1846)
  • Abu Bakar Taj ud-din II, Sultan (1846–1854)
  • Umar Kamal ud-din, Sultan (1854–1866)
  • Muhammad Shafi ud-din II, Sultan (1866–1924)
  • Yan Sibo, President (1799–1804)
  • Jiang Wubo, President (1804–1811)
  • Song, President (1811–1823)
  • Liu Taiji, President (1823–1838)
  • Gu Liubo, President (1838–1842)
  • Xie Guifang, President (1842–1843)
  • Ye Tenghui, President (1843–1845)
  • Liu Ganxing, President (1845–1848)
  • Liu Asheng, President (1848–1876)
  • Aji Muhammad, Sultan (1777–1817)
  • Muhammad Alimuddin Amirul Muminin Kahharuddin I, Sultan (1817–1861, 1866–1873)
  • Muhammad Jalaluddin, Sultan (1861–1866)
  • Muhammad Khalifatul Adil, Sultan (1873–1875)
  • Muhammad Kahharuddin II, Sultan (1875–1889)
  • Azimuddin, Sultan (1889–1899)
  • Pengian Kesuma, Queen (1899–1901)
  • Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie, Sultan (1771–1808)
  • Syarif Kasim Alkadrie, Sultan (1808–1819)
  • Syarif Osman Alkadrie, Sultan (1819–1855)
  • Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, Sultan (1855–1872)
  • Syarif Yusuf Alkadrie, Sultan (1872–1895)
  • Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie, Sultan (1895–1944)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • I Manawari Karaeng Bontolangkasa, Sultan (1778–1810)
  • I Mappatunru/I Mangikarang Karaeng Lembang Parang, Sultan (1816–1825)
  • La Oddanriu Karaeng Katangka, Sultan (1825–1826)
  • Abdul Kadir Moh Aidid, Sultan (1826–1893)
  • Idris, Sultan (1893–1895)
  • Husain, Sultan (1895–1906)
  • La Tenri Peppang, Datu (1778–1810)
  • We Tenri Awaru, Datu (1810–1825)
  • La Oddang Pero, Datu (1825–1854)
  • Patipatau, Datu (1854–1880)
  • We Addi Luwu, Datu (1880–1883)
  • Iskandar Opu Daeng Pali’, Datu (1883–1901)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Lorenzo II, Raja (c.1886–1904)
  • Abdul Hamid Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1773–1817)
  • Ismail Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1817–1854)
  • Abdullah, Sultan (1854–1868)
  • Abdul Aziz, Sultan (1868–1881)
  • Ibrahim, Sultan (1881–1915)
Indonesia: West Timor
  • Nai Taman, Raja (c.1832)
  • Loit Banu Naek, Raja (?–c.1899)
  • Muti Banu Naek, Raja (c.1899–1915)
  • Don Rote Ruatefu, Raja (1774–1802)[29]
  • Kiri Lote, Raja (1803–pre-1832)
  • Koroh Kefi, Raja (pre-1832–1853)
  • Obe Koroh, Raja (1853–1871)
  • Rasi Koroh, Raja (1872–1887, 1892–1914)
  • Taku Obe, Raja (1888–1891)
  • Afu Balthazar, Raja (c.1797–pre-1824)
  • Arnoldus Adriaan Karel Loti, Raja (pre-1824–1834)
  • Osu II, Raja (1834–1859)
  • Mano, Raja (1859–1883)
  • Lelo, Raja (1884–1894)
  • Kusa, Raja (1895–1901)
  • Nai Sobe Sonbai II, Emperor (1808–1867)[30]
  • Nai Bau Sonbai, Emperor (1867–c.1885)
  • Nai Nasu Mollo, co-Emperor (1870–1885)
  • Nai Sobe Sonbai III, Emperor (1885–1906)
  • Nube Bena/ Pieter Nisnoni I, Raja (1798–1820)[30]
  • Isu Baki, Raja (1820s)
  • Ote Nuben Nisnoni, Raja (post-1832)
  • Babkas Nube Nisnoni/ Pieter Nisnoni II, Raja (?–1839)
  • Meis Babkas Nisnoni, Raja (1839–1860)
  • Pieter Messi Nisnoni, Raja (1860–1874)
  • Isu Nisnoni, Raja (1875–1889)
  • Said Meis Nisnoni, Raja (1890–1902)
  • Tobani, Raja (1786–c.1807)
  • Louis, Raja (c.1807–c.1824)
  • Baki, Raja (c.1824–1862)
  • Sanu, Raja (1862–c.1870)
  • Bil Nope, Raja (c.1870–1910)
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
Dutch protectorate 1667–1942
  • Kamarullah, Sultan (1797–1826)[31]
  • Muhammad Hayatuddin Kornabé, Sultan (1826–1861)
  • Muhammad Sadik, Sultan (1862–1889)
  • Muhammad Usman, Sultan (1900–1935)
British occupation 1799–1802
  • Muhammad Arif Bila, Sultan (1797–1806)[32]
  • Muhammad Asgar, Sultan (1808–1818)
  • Muhammad Hajuddin Syah, Sultan (1818–1825)
  • Dano Baba Hasan, Sultan (1875–1878)
Dutch protectorate 1657–1905
  • Nuku, Muhammad al-Mabus Amiruddin Syah, Sultan (1797–1805)[33]
  • Zainal Abidin, Sultan (1805–1810)
  • Muhammad Tahir, Sultan (1811–1821)
  • Al-Mansur Sirajuddin, Sultan (1822–1856)
  • Ahmad Saifuddin Alting, Sultan (1856–1865)
  • Said Ahmad Fathuddin Syah, Sultan (1867–1892)
  • Iskandar Sahajuhan, Sultan (1893–1905)
Dutch protectorate 1683–1915
  • Muhammad Yasin, Sultan (1796–1801)[34][35][36][37]
  • Muhammad Ali, Sultan (1807–1821)
  • Muhammad Sarmoli, Sultan (1821–1823)
  • Muhammad Zain, Sultan (1823–1859)
  • Muhammad Arsyad, Sultan (1859–1876)
  • Ayanhar, Sultan (1879–1900)
  • Muhammad Ilham/ Kolano Ara Rimoi, Sultan (1900–1902)

Laos

  • Somphou, King (1779–1803)
  • Noi, King (1803–1831)
  • Po, King (1848–1865), vassal to Siam and Vietnam
  • Ung, King (1866–1876)
  • Khanti, King (1876–1880), vassal to Siam
  • Kham Ngon, King (1880–1899)
Vassal to Siam (1829–1893)
  • Huy, King (1828–1840)
  • Nark, King (1841–1851)
  • Kham Nai, King (1856–1858)
  • Kham Souk, King (1863–1899)
  • Ratsadanay, King (1900–1904), Regional Governor (1904–1934)
  • Anourouth, King (1791–1817)
  • Mantha Tourath, Regent (1815–1817), King (1817–1836)
  • Unkeo, Regent (1837–1838)
  • Soukhaseum, King (1838–1851)
  • Chantharath, King (1851–1870)
  • Oun Kham, King (1865–1893), King under Protectorate (1893–1895)
Protectorate and constituent of French Indochina (1893–1953)

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia
  • Ahmaddin Shah, Sultan (1786–1806)
  • Abdul Malik Mansur Shah, Sultan (1806–1825)
  • Abdullah Mu’azzam Shah, Sultan (1825–1830)
  • Shahabuddin Riayat Shah, Sultan (1830–1851)
  • Abdullah Muhammad Shah I, Sultan (1851–1857)
  • Ja’afar Safiuddin Mu’azzam Shah, Sultan (1857–1865)
  • Ali Al-Mukammal Inayat Shah, Sultan (1865–1871)
  • Ismail Mu’abidin Riayat Shah, Sultan (1871–1874)
  • Abdullah Muhammad Shah II, Sultan (1874–1876)
  • Yusuf Sharifuddin Muzaffar Shah, Sultan (1886–1887), Regent (1877–1886)
  • Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah, Sultan (1887–1916)
  • Hitam, Yamtuan (1795–1808)
  • Lenggang, Yamtuan (1808–1824)
  • Radin, Yamtuan (1824–1861)
  • Imam, Yamtuan (1861–1869)
  • Tengku Ampuan Intan, Regent (1869–1872)
  • Antah, Yamtuan (1875–1888)
  • Muhammad, Yamtuan (1888–1933)
  • Syed Abu Bakar Harun Jamalullail, Penghulu (1797–1825)[38]
  • Syed Hussein Jamalullail, Penghulu (1825–1843), Raja (1843–1873)
  • Syed Ahmad Jamalullail, Raja (1873–1887)
  • Syed Saffi Jamalullail, Raja (1887–1905)
British protectorate, 1895–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Malaysian Borneo
British colony, 1848–1890, 1904–1906, 1907–1941, 1945–1946
British colony, 1888–1941, 1945–1946; Crown colony, 1946–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Myanmar / Burma

British colony, 1824–1948
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Philippines

  • Kibad Sahriyal, Sultan (c.1780–c.1805)
  • Kawasa Anwar Ud-din, Sultan (c.1805–c.1830)
  • Untong, Sultan (c.1830–c.1854)
  • Muhammad Makakwa, Sultan (c.1854–1884)
  • Wata, Sultan (?–c.1888)
  • Mangigin, Sultan (1896–1926)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Revolutionary Government (1898–1899), President of the First Republic (1899–1901)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Revolutionary Government (1898–1899), President of the First Republic (1899–1901)

Singapore

British colony as part of the Straits Settlements, 1819–1867
British crown colony as part of the Straits Settlements, 1867–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Thailand

Timor

Colony, 1702–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Vietnam

  • Po Chong Chan, King (1799–1822)
Colony, 1887–1946
Vietnamese constituents are below; for details see France under western Europe
French Colony, 1862–1949
French Protectorate, 1883–1949
French Protectorate, 1884–1949

Asia: South[edit]

Afghanistan

Bengal

Bengal
Murshidabad
  • Ram Singh II, King (1790–1832)
  • Rajendra Singh, King (1832–1835)

Bhutan

India

Joint-stock colony, 1757–1858
Colony and princely states, 1858–1947
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
See also the list of princely states of British India (alphabetical) for all princely states

Maldives

Nepal

Pakistan

  • Maharajas –
  • Wazirs –
  • Jamadar Khushal Singh, Wazir (1799–1818)[39]
  • Dhian Singh Dogra, Wazir (1818–1843)
  • Hira Singh Dogra, Wazir (1843–1844)
  • Jawahar Singh Aulakh, Wazir (1844–1845)
  • Gulab Singh, Wazir (1846–1846)[40]

Sri Lanka

Colony, 1815–1948
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Asia: West[edit]

Europe[edit]

Europe: Balkans[edit]

Bulgaria

Greece

Montenegro

  • Petar I, Prince-Bishop (1782–1830)
  • Petar II, Prince-Bishop (1830–1851)
  • Danilo II, Prince-Bishop (1851–1852), Prince (1852–1860)
  • Danilo II, Prince-Bishop (1851–1852), Prince (1852–1860)
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)

Serbia

Europe: British Isles[edit]

Europe: Central[edit]

Austria

Germany

  • Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Elect (1792–1806)

Hungary

Liechtenstein

Switzerland

Europe: East[edit]

Europe: Nordic[edit]

First ministers in Christiania, Norway
Prime ministers in Christiania, Norway

Europe: Southcentral[edit]

Europe: Southwest[edit]

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West[edit]

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

Monaco

Netherlands

Eurasia: Caucasus[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Society Islands

Friendly Islands

Pitcairn

Became a British colony

Wallis and Futuna

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910 ;page 17–19
  2. ^ Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia) (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), p. 64.
  3. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxix
  4. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxvif
  5. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  6. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxv – lxvii.
  7. ^ MacMichael, H. A. (1922). "Appendix I: The Chronology of the Fung Kings". A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. OCLC 264942362.
  8. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (1999). "Genealogical Tables and King-Lists". The Sudan of the Three Niles: The Funj Chronicle 910–1288 / 1504–1871. Islamic History and Civilization, 26. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-90-04-11256-8.
  9. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  10. ^ Tilho 1911, pp. 505-510 Volume 2.
  11. ^ "Nigeria: Traditional polities". Rulers.Org. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  12. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 80-94.
  13. ^ a b c d e Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
  14. ^ Diouf, Chronique du royaume du Sine, loc. cit., p. 712-733
  15. ^ "Civil War BIOGRAPHY Jefferson Davis". American Battlefield Trust. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  16. ^ Curzon, Catherine (November 11, 2013). "Charles IV of Spain, An Abdicated King". A Covent Garden Gilflurt's Guide to Life. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  17. ^ "MIGUEL JOSÉ DE AZANZA". Presidencia de la Republica (in Spanish). Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  18. ^ Hall (1981), p. 972; Stokvis, Sultan (1888); Truhart (2003), p. 1228–9..
  19. ^ a b c Stokvis (1888); Sulendraningrat (1985); Sunardjo (1996), p. 81.
  20. ^ Sutherland (1973–1974).
  21. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  22. ^ Nagtegaal (1996); Sutherland (1973–1974).
  23. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1232; Royal Ark netsite http://www.royalark.net/Indonesia/solo.htm.
  24. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1233; Royal Ark netsite http://www.royalark.net/Indonesia/yogya.htm.
  25. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1233–4.
  26. ^ a b Stokvis (1888).
  27. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Selayang pandang (1990); Truhart (2003), p. 1234.
  28. ^ Buyers, Christopher. "Serdang - Genealogy". Royal Ark. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  29. ^ ; L.J. van Dijk, 'De zelfbesturende landschappen in de Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden', Indische Gids 47 1925 & 56 1934.
  30. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2008-12-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  32. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973–1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I–IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974–1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I–III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, c.van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  33. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ [2]
  36. ^ [3]
  37. ^ [4]
  38. ^ "Dato' Yazid Mat, Page 4 and 5".
  39. ^ Grewal, J.S. (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0 521 63764 3. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  40. ^ Satinder Singh, Raja Gulab Singh's Role 1971, pp. 46-50.