List of volcanic eruptions by death toll

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Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive, volatile, or neither. Certain volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of humans, and this incomplete list attempts to document those volcanic eruptions by death toll.

Volcanic eruptions[edit]

Death toll Volcano Location Year Source(s)
1 71,000+ (regarded as having caused the Year Without a Summer creating famines in Europe and America) Mount Tambora Indonesia 1815 [1]
2 36,000+ Krakatoa Indonesia 1883 [2]
3 30,000 Mount Pelée Martinique 1902 [3]
4 23,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1985 [4]
5 15,000 to 20,000 in London, England due to post-eruption famine Mount Samalas

Lake Segara Anak

Indonesia 1257
6 15,000 Mount Unzen Japan 1792 [5]
7 13,000+ (estimated) Mount Vesuvius Italy 79 [6]
8 10,000+ (~ 25% of Iceland's population + 80% of sheep, 50% of cattle and 50% of horses died in Iceland) (particulate and sulphur emissions caused widespread deaths and famines throughout Europe and Africa ; 23,000 British died from poisoning) Laki and Grímsvötn Iceland 1783 [7]
9 10,000 Kelud Indonesia 1586
10 6,000 Santa Maria Guatemala 1902 [8]
11 5,000 Kelud Indonesia 1919 [9]
12 4,011 Mount Galunggung Indonesia 1822 [10]
13 3,500 El Chichón Mexico 1982
14 3,360 Mount Vesuvius Italy 1631
15 2,957 Mount Papandayan Indonesia 1772 [11]
16 2,942 Mount Lamington Papua New Guinea 1951 [11]
17 2,806 Awu Indonesia 1856 [11]
18 2,000 Tseax Cone Canada c. 1700 [12][13]
19 1,680 Soufrière St. Vincent 1902
20 1,584 Mount Agung Indonesia 1963
21 1,532 Awu Indonesia 1892 [11]
22 1,500 (atmospheric particulates may have contributed to the Russian famine of 1601–03) Huaynaputina Peru 1600 [14][15]
1,500 Mount Etna Italy 1669
24 1,369 Mount Merapi Indonesia 1930 [11]
25 1,335 Mount Mayon Philippines 1897
26 1,151 Mount Asama Japan 1783
27 1,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1845
1,000 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1877
29 847 Mount Pinatubo Philippines 1991
30 600 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1595
31 477 (official confirmed) Mount Bandai Japan 1888
32 437 Anak Krakatoa Indonesia 2018 [16]
33 400+ Kilauea Kingdom of Hawai'i 1790 [17]
34 353 Mount Merapi Indonesia 2010
35 326 Makian Indonesia 1861 [11]
36 245 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002
37 190 Volcán de Fuego Guatemala 2018 [18]
38 151 Mount Ruapehu New Zealand 1945
39 150 Mount Tarawera New Zealand 1886
150 Tori-shima Japan 1902 [19]
41 144 (official confirmed) Mount Tokachi Japan 1926 [20]
42 106 Dubbi Eritrea 1861 [11]
43 87 Volcán Arenal Costa Rica 1968
44 70 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 1977
45 63 Mount Ontake Japan 2014 [21]
46 57 Mount St. Helens United States 1980
47 56 Mount Etna Italy 1843 [11]
48 43 Mount Unzen Japan 1991
49 31 Bayonnaise Rocks Japan 1952 [11]
31 Nabro Volcano Eritrea 2011 [22]
51 27 Mount Vesuvius Italy 1944 [11]
52 19 Soufrière Hills Montserrat 1997 [23]
53 18 Galunggung Indonesia 1982
54 16 Sinabung Indonesia 2014 [24]
55 9 Galeras Colombia 1993 [25]
56 5 Mount Hudson Chile 1971
57 4 Jebel at Tair Yemen 2007 [26]
58 3 Pacaya Guatemala 2010
59 1 Eldfell Iceland 1973 [27][28]
? ? Thera Greece −1620 (BC)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (1 June 2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.
  2. ^ "Krakatoa Volcano: Facts About Deadly Eruption". Live Science.
  3. ^ "Benchmarks: May 8, 1902: The deadly eruption of Mount Pelée | EARTH Magazine". www.earthmagazine.org.
  4. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY | 13 | 1985: Volcano kills thousands in Colombia". news.bbc.co.uk.
  5. ^ "Mount Unzen eruption of 1792 | Japanese history". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  6. ^ "Vesuvius erupts - Aug 24, 79 - HISTORY.com". history.com.
  7. ^ "Local and Global Impacts of the 1783–84 Laki Eruption in Iceland". Wired.
  8. ^ "What is the largest eruption ever? | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu.
  9. ^ "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Erupts : Natural Hazards". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 14 February 2014.
  10. ^ "Galunggung | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Simkin, T.; Siebert, L. (1994). "Fatalities and Evacuations". Volcanoes of the World (2nd edition). Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press. pp. 163–176. ISBN 978-0-945005-12-4.
  12. ^ Hickson, C.J., Spurgeon, T.C., Cocking, R.B., Russell, J.K., Woodsworth, G.J., Ulmi, M. and Rust, A.C. (2007). "Tseax Volcano: A Deadly Basaltic Eruption in North-Western British Columbia's Stikine Volcanic Belt". Retrieved 23 February 2019.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ Higgins, M.D. (2009). "The Cascadia megathrust earthquake of 1700 may have rejuvenated an isolated basalt volcano in western Canada: Age and petrographic evidence". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 179 (1–2): 149–156. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.10.016.
  14. ^ "Firing the sky". www.thehindu.com. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  15. ^ Zijlstra, Albert (30 June 2017). "The winter of Huaynaputina". volcanocafe.org. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  16. ^ "Number of injured in Indonesia tsunami surges to over 14,000". The Star Online. Asean Plus. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  17. ^ Israel, Brett. "Kilauea Volcano's Deadliest Eruption Revealed". Live Science. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Thousands evacuated as Guatemala's Fuego volcano erupts". Reuters. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  19. ^ "INHABITANTS OF ISLAND ALL KILLED BY VOLCANO:; The 150 Japanese Residents of Torishima Dead – Eruption Still Proceeding" (PDF).
  20. ^ ja:十勝岳#噴火史#大正噴火 Retrieved 19 June 2018.[better source needed]
  21. ^ "Ontake victims mourned a month after eruption as tourism industry scrambles to recover". The Japan Times Online. 27 October 2014.
  22. ^ "Thousands need aid after volcano eruption". IRIN. 6 July 2011.
  23. ^ "The victims of Montserrat's volcano tragedy deserve an investigation". The Guardian. 25 June 2012.
  24. ^ "Indonesian volcano Mount Sinabung eruption causes 16 deaths". The Independent. 2 February 2014.
  25. ^ "Eruption: A Survivor's Tale | Scholastic.com". Scholastic Teachers.
  26. ^ Siebert, L.; et al. (2010). Volcanoes of the World (3rd edition). Smithsonian Institution and University of California Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7.
  27. ^ "Deadly Gases". Oregon State University.
  28. ^ "Which Way The Wind Blows – The Reykjavik Grapevine". The Reykjavik Grapevine. 26 September 2014.