Luther Gulick (physician)
Luther Halsey Gulick Jr.
May 4, 1865
|Died||August 13, 1918 (aged 53)|
|Known for||Physical Education|
|Spouse(s)||Charlotte "Lottie" Emily Vetter|
Luther Halsey Gulick Jr. (1865–1918) was an American physical education instructor, international basketball official, and founder with his wife of the Camp Fire Girls, an international youth organization now known as Camp Fire.
Gulick was born December 4, 1865 in Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. His father was missionary physician Luther Halsey Gulick Sr. (1828–1891) and his mother was Louisa Lewis. His paternal grandfather Peter Johnson Gulick (1796–1877) was an even earlier missionary.
He married Charlotte "Lottie" Emily Vetter of Hanover, New Hampshire in 1887.
He studied at Oberlin Academy (a preparatory department of Oberlin College) 1880–1882 and 1883–1886 and at the Sargent Normal School for physical training (now the Boston University college of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences) He graduated from the medical school of New York University in 1889.
He designed a triangle logo -- Spirit, Mind, & Body -- representing the YMCA philosophy. This evolved into the block letter "Y" used in the modern YMCA logo, as well as the Springfield College seal.
Gulick persuaded a young instructor named James Naismith, a teacher at the school, to create an indoor game that could be played during the off-season. In response, Naismith invented and popularized basketball. Gulick worked with Naismith to spread the sport, chairing the Basketball Committee of the Amateur Athletic Union (1895–1905) and representing the United States Olympic Committee during the 1908 Olympic Games. For his efforts to increase the popularity of basketball and of physical fitness in general, Gulick was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor in 1959.
He was principal of the Pratt Institute High School from 1900 to 1903. From 1903 to 1908, he headed physical training in the public schools of New York City, and from 1908 to 1913 directed the department of child hygiene at the Russell Sage Foundation. He served as president of the American Physical Education Association in 1903-1906, of the Public School Physical Training Society in 1905-1908, and of the Camp Fire Girls after 1913.
He gave talks at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair to promote his ideas for physical training in schools In 1907, Gulick was the president of the Playground Association of America, which later became the National Recreation Association and then the National Recreation and Park Association.
With his wife, Gulick founded the Camp Fire Girls to prepare women for work outside the home. In 1975, its name changed to Camp Fire USA as it accepted boys and girls and in 2012 it was renamed Camp Fire. The Gulicks helped create and expand the Boy Scout movement, as both the Camp Fire Girls and Boy Scouts movements helped to promote physical fitness and expand exercise opportunities for youth. Gulick recommending the secretary of the Playground Association, James E. West to head the new Boy Scouts of America.
His sister, Frances Gulick Jewett, wrote a series of books on public health and hygiene, which were regarded as the leading publications on public sanitation for many years, and biography of their father. His other siblings included Reverend Edward Leeds Gulick and Pierre Johnson Gulick. His sister's namesake, daughter Frances Jewett Gulick (1891–1936) was honored for her service in World War I.
Gulick, together with his wife Charlotte, are honored with a bronze medallion on the Extra Mile National Monument.
Gulick family tree
Besides editing Physical Education (1891-1896), Association Outlook (1897-1900), American Physical Education Review (1901-1903), and the Gulick Hygiene Series, he wrote:
- Manual of Physical Measurements (1892)
- Ten minutes' exercise for busy men: a complete course in physical education: five separate courses, free work, chest weights, dumb bells, wands, Indian clubs. American Sports Publishing Company. 1902.
- Physical Education by Muscular Exercise (1904)
- The Efficient Life (1907)
- Mind and Work (1908)
- The Healthful Art of Dancing (1910)
- Medical Inspection of Schools, with Leonard Porter Ayres (1908, 1913)
- Health by Muscular Gymnastics (1916)
- Elizabeth Burchinal, dance educator associated with physical education.
- Hawaiian Mission Children's Society (1901). Portraits of American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii. Honolulu: Hawaiian gazette company. p. 92.
- "Our History: Education Gets Physical". Boston University Sargent College. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- Howard Atwood Kelly (1920). A cyclopedia of American medical biography: comprising the lives of eminent deceased physicians and surgeons from 1610 to 1910. W.B. Saunders company. p. 475.
- Betty L. Mann Jeffery L. Monseau (June 2009). "The College Seal" (PDF). Springfield College web site. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- "Dr. Luther H. Gulick, Educator, is Dead; Former Director of Physical Training in New York Schools, Expires in Maine Camp". New York Times. August 14, 1918. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- Playground Association of America (1907). The Playground. Executive Committee of the Playground Association of America. p. 6.
- "The Story of the Joseph Lee memorial Library and Archives" (PDF). National Recreation and Park Association. April 10, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- "Honorees: Luther & Charlotte Gulick". Extra Mile foundation web site. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- Edward L. Rowan (2005). To Do My Best: James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America. Exeter, NH: Publishing Works, Inc. ISBN 0-9746479-1-8.
- "Camp Timanous". Maine Youth Camping Foundation web site. October 14, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
- "What's Wohelo?". Wohelo Luther Gulick Camps web site. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- Frances Gulick Jewett (1895). Luther Halsey Gulick: missionary in Hawaii, Micronesia, Japan, and China. Congregational Sunday-School and Publishing Society.
- Ethel Josephine Dorgan (1934). Luther Halsey Gulick, 1865-1918. Teachers college, Columbia university.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luther Gulick (physician).|
- "Luther Halsey Gulick, was an expert and prolific writer on physical education, folk dance education and recreation. In this article Thomas Winter examines his contribution and his work with the YMCA, Campfire Girls and other organizations."
- Dr Luther Halsey Gulick Jr. at Find A Grave
- "Luther H. Gulick". Basketball Hall of Fame profile. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- "Luther H. Gulick". Springfield College web site. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.