# Mathematicism

**Mathematicism** is any opinion, viewpoint, school of thought, or philosophy that states that everything can be described/defined/modelled ultimately by mathematics, or that the universe and reality (both material and mental/spiritual) are fundamentally/fully/only mathematical, i.e. that 'everything is mathematics' necessitating the ideas of logic, reason, mind, and spirit.

## Contents

## Overview[edit]

Mathematicism is a form of rationalist idealist or mentalist/spiritualist monism). The idea started in the West with ancient Greece's Pythagoreanism, and continued in other rationalist idealist schools of thought such as Platonism.^{[1]} The term 'mathematicism' has additional meanings among Cartesian idealist philosophers and mathematicians, such as describing the ability and process to study reality mathematically.^{[2]}^{[3]}

Mathematicism includes (but is not limited to) the following (chronological order):

- Pythagoreanism (Pythagoras said 'All things are numbers,' 'Number rules all,' though contemporary mathematicists exclude numerology, etc., from mathematicism)
- Platonism (paraphrases Pythagoras's mathematicism)
- Neopythagoreanism
- Neoplatonism (brought Aristotelean mathematical logic to Platonism)
- Cartesianism (René Descartes applied mathematical reasoning to philosophy)
^{[3]} - Leibnizianism (Gottfried Leibniz was a mathematician, called beings 'monads,' which also means 'units')
- Alain Badiou's philosophy
- Physicist Max Tegmark's mathematical universe hypothesis (MUH) described as Pythagoreanism–Platonism
- 'philosophical mathematics' systems described by several authors, such as Tim Maudlin's project of a project aiming at constructing 'a rigorous mathematical structure using primitive terms that give a natural fit with physics' and investigating 'why mathematics should provide such a powerful language for describing the physical world.'
^{[4]}According to Maudlin, 'the most satisfying possible answer to such a question is: Because the physical world literally has a mathematical structure.'^{[4]} - Mike Hockney's Neopythagorean-Neoplatonist-Leibnizian mathematical reality theory (philosophical/ontological mathematics)
^{[5]}(several authors use the term ‘ontological mathematics.’)

## See also[edit]

## Notes[edit]

**^**Gabriel, Markus.*Fields of Sense: A New Realist Ontology*. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2015, ch. 4. Limits of Set-Theoretical Ontology and Contemporary Nihilism.**^**Sasaki, Chikara,*Descartes’s Mathematical Thought*, Springer, 2013, p. 283.- ^
^{a}^{b}Gilson, Étienne.*The Unity of Philosophical Experience. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press*, 1999, p. 133. - ^
^{a}^{b}Maudlin, Tim.*New Foundations for Physical Geometry: The Theory of Linear Structures*. Oxford University Press. 2014, p. 52. **^**Hockney, Mike. The God Series. Hyperreality Books, 2015. 32 vols.

## References[edit]

- "mathematicism".
*Britannica*. - "mathematicism".
*Collins Dictionary*. - "mathematicism".
*Oxford Living Dictionary*.

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