Maxillary hypoplasia is an underdevelopment of the maxillary bones, which produces midfacial retrusion and creates the illusion of protuberance (jutting forward) of the lower jaw. It is associated with Crouzon syndrome, Angelman syndrome, as well as fetal alcohol syndrome. It can also be associated with Cleft lip and cleft palate. Some people could develop it due to poor dental extractions.
Signs and symptoms
The underdevelopment of the bones in the upper jaw, which gives the middle of the face a sunken look and makes the lower jaw seem like it is sticking out, even if anatomically it is normal. This makes it difficult to eat and can cause future problems for the patient, such as, Nasopharyngeal airway restriction, which can then lead to back pain, neck pain, and numbness in the hands and arms, due to constant forward head posture. This restriction can also lead to Sleep apnea and snoring. Sleep apnea can lead to heart problems, endocrine problems, increased weight, cognition problems, etc.
Corrective surgery is the most common treatment to correct this disorder. It involves the repositioning of the upper jaw to align with the lower jaw, to provide symmetry. It is best performed during childhood, if possible, to allow the jaw to recover and develop. The surgery may be performed in consultation with an Orthodontist who works on repositioning the teeth in the mouth.
The recovery time after the surgery depends on the extent of the surgery itself. Patients are usually advised to eat soft foods for days, or sometimes weeks, to allow their jaw time to heal. They also require regular checkups with the doctor to monitor bone displacement, signs of infection, or other issues.
- Van Buggenhout G, Fryns JP (2009). "Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830)". Eur J Hum Genet. 17: 1367–73. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.67. PMC 2986680. PMID 19455185.
- "What Is Maxillary Hypoplasia? (with picture)". Wisegeekhealth.com. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Maxillary Hypoplasia". Thinkbetterlife.com. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
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