# Maxime Bôcher

Maxime Bôcher | |
---|---|

Born | |

Died | September 12, 1918 | (aged 51)

Nationality | American |

Alma mater | Harvard University University of Göttingen |

Known for | Differential equations, series, and algebra |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Mathematics |

Institutions | Harvard University |

Doctoral advisor | Felix Klein |

Doctoral students | William Brenke David R. Curtiss Griffith C. Evans Lester R. Ford Walter B. Ford James W. Glover Charles N. Moore William H. Roever Joseph L. Walsh |

**Maxime Bôcher** (August 28, 1867 – September 12, 1918) was an American mathematician who published about 100 papers on differential equations, series, and algebra.^{[1]} He also wrote elementary texts such as *Trigonometry* and *Analytic Geometry*.^{[2]} Bôcher's theorem, Bôcher's equation, and the Bôcher Memorial Prize are named after him.

## Contents

## Life[edit]

Bôcher was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His parents were Caroline Little and Ferdinand Bôcher. Maxime's father was professor of modern languages at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology when Maxime was born, and became Professor of French at Harvard in 1872.

Bôcher received an excellent education from his parents and from a number of public and private schools in Massachusetts. He graduated from the Cambridge Latin School in 1883. He received his first degree from Harvard in 1888. At Harvard, he studied a wide range of topics, including mathematics, Latin, chemistry, philosophy, zoology, geography, geology, meteorology, Roman art, and music.

Bôcher was awarded many prestigious prizes, which allowed him to travel to Europe to do research. Göttingen was then the leading mathematics university, and he attended lectures by Klein, Schönflies, Schwarz, Schur and Voigt. He was awarded a doctorate in 1891 for his dissertation *Über die Reihenentwicklungen der Potentialtheorie* (German for "On the Development of the Potential Function into Series"), he was encouraged to study this topic by Klein. He received a Göttingen university prize for this work.

In Göttingen he met Marie Niemann, and they were married in July 1891. They had three children, Helen, Esther, and Frederick. He returned with his wife to Harvard where he was appointed as an instructor. In 1894 he was promoted to assistant professor, due to his impressive record. He became a full professor of mathematics in 1904. He was president of the American Mathematical Society from 1908 to 1910.^{[3]}

Although he was only 46 years old, there were already signs that his weak health was failing. He died at his Cambridge home after suffering a prolonged illness.

## Bôcher's theorem[edit]

Bôcher's theorem states that the finite zeros of the derivative of a nonconstant rational function that are not multiple zeros of are the positions of equilibrium in the field of force due to particles of positive mass at the zeros of and particles of negative mass at the poles of , with masses numerically equal to the respective multiplicities, where each particle repels with a force equal to the mass times the inverse distance.

## Bôcher's equation[edit]

Bôcher's equation is a second-order ordinary differential equation of the form:

## The Bôcher Memorial Prize[edit]

The Bôcher Memorial Prize is awarded by the American Mathematical Society every five years for notable research in analysis that has appeared in a recognized North American journal.

Winners have included James W. Alexander II (1928), Eric Temple Bell (1924), George D. Birkhoff (1923), Paul J. Cohen (1964), Solomon Lefschetz (1924), Marston Morse and Norbert Wiener (1933), and John von Neumann (1938).

## Works[edit]

- 1894: Ueber die Reihenentwicklungen der Potentialtheorie via Internet Archive
- 1900: "Randwertaufgaben bei Gewöhnlich Differentialgleichung",
*Encyclopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften*Band 2–1–1. - 1907: (with E.P.R.DuVal) Introduction to Higher Algebra via HathiTrust
- 1909: Introduction to the study of Integral Equations via Internet Archive
- 1917: Leçons sur les méthodes de Sturm dans la théorie des équations différentielles linéaires et leurs développements modernes via Internet Archive.

Bôcher was one of the editors of the *Annals of Mathematics*, of the *Transactions* of the American Mathematical Society.^{[3]}

## References[edit]

**^**Birkhoff, George D. (1919). "The scientific work of Maxime Bôcher".*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**25**(5): 197–215. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1919-03172-3. MR 1560177.**^**Osgood, William F. (1919). "The life and services of Maxime Bôcher".*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**25**(8): 337–350. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1919-03198-x. MR 1560199.- ^
^{a}^{b}One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). .*Encyclopedia Americana*.

## External links[edit]

- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Maxime Bôcher",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics archive*, University of St Andrews. - Maxime Bocher biographical memoirs of the national academy of sciences.
- Maxime Bôcher at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir

- 19th-century American mathematicians
- 20th-century American mathematicians
- Mathematical analysts
- Harvard University faculty
- Harvard University alumni
- University of Göttingen alumni
- 1867 births
- 1918 deaths
- Presidents of the American Mathematical Society
- Cambridge Rindge and Latin School alumni
- People from Boston
- Mathematicians from Massachusetts
- Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences