|• Total||289.72 km2 (111.86 sq mi)|
|• Density||67/km2 (170/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||(+36) 56|
Mezőtúr is a town in Hungary, in the county of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, 88 miles southeast of Budapest by rail. It possesses important potteries. Large herds of cattle are reared on the communal lands, which are productive also of wheat, rapeseed and maize. Several well-attended fairs are held here annually.
The town was founded in the Middle Ages and it was called Túr after the river Berettyó, which was formerly named Túr. Later it was named Mezőtúr (mező means field, referring to the good soil of the Great Plain.) The town was first mentioned under King Andrew II (1205–1235) as villa Tur. The shortest road between Buda and Transylvania led through Mezőtúr, which was the only town in the area having a ferry. Because of this advantage the town prospered and King Louis the Great made it a market town. In the 15th century it held famous markets, and its importance grew.
Mezőtúr was a royal estate until 1378, later it had various owners, and under King Matthias the town was divided into two parts because it was granted to two different people.
During the Ottoman occupation of Hungary, Mezőtúr fell under Ottoman rule in 1562 and was freed in 1692. After the expelling of the Ottomans and during the revolution led by Prince Rákóczi the citizens had to leave the town twice (1692–1699 and 1705–1710).
In the 18th century the town began to prosper again, mainly as an agricultural town.
Following World War One and the instability in Hungary, it became a part of the Hungarian Kingdom. During World War Two, Mezőtúr was occupied by the German Army before being fought over by the Soviets, who captured Mezőtúr in late 1944. The city was damaged; the railway bridge over the Hortobágy-Berettyó river was destroyed, requiring the current one to be built after the war. A monument was erected near the city hall to commemorate the fighting during the war.
The post-office was opened in 1853.
Mezőtúr is a large railroad hub, serviced by MÁV. The railway station and the nearby storage shed are very old. There are five passenger tracks with three platforms, with an additional three freight tracks and a disused storage track. There are daily trains between Mezőtúr and Szolnok, Mezőtúr and Orosháza-Mezőhegyes, as well as being on the important Budapest Keleti-Szolnok-Békéscsaba-Lőkösháza railway line with daily trains to Budapest, among others. There used to be rail service to the nearby town of Túrkeve, but this railroad was closed in the 1960s due to low ridership, and the tracks later removed.
- Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
- "The Pottery Tradition of Mezőtúr - Etnofolk". www.etnofolk.eu. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- "Exhibition - History of pottery in Mezőtúr - Museum.hu". www.museum.hu. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- "Európa a Polgárokért" (PDF). mezotur.hu (in Hungarian). Mezőtúr. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
- "Leslie L. Gonda's Obituary on Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mezőtúr.|
- Official website in Hungarian
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 351. .
- "www.mezotur.com". www.mezotur.com. Retrieved April 2013. Check date values in:
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