Mid back unrounded vowel

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Mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ̞
ʌ̝
IPA Number315 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɤ​̞
Unicode (hex)U+0264 U+031E

The mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back unrounded vowel between close-mid [ɤ] and open-mid [ʌ] because no language is known to distinguish all three, ⟨ɤ⟩ is normally used. If more precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ɤ̞⟩ or ⟨ʌ̝⟩.

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bulgarian[2] път [pɤ̞t̪] 'path' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Bulgarian phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[3] [kɤ̞¹] 'ditch' Tends to be diphthongized to [ɤ̞ɯ̞] by younger speakers.[3]
Danish Standard[4] læger [ˈleːɤ̞] 'doctors' One of possible realizations of the sequences /ər, rə, rər/.[4] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩. See Danish phonology
English Cardiff[5] plus [pl̥ʌ̝s] 'plus' May be [ə], [ɜ], [ɜ̟] or [ë̞] instead.[5] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.
Norfolk[6] Corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See English phonology
Philadelphia[7] [pɫ̥ʌ̝s] May be either open-mid [ʌ] or a lowered and unrounded /uː/ ([ɯ̽]) instead.[7] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See English phonology
Gayo[8] kule [kuˈlɤ̞ː] 'tiger' One of the possible allophones of /ə/.[8]
German Chemnitz dialect[9] Schirm [ʃʌ̝ˤːm] 'umbrella' Pharyngealized; may be an opening diphthong [ɪːɒ̯] instead.[9]
Ibibio[10] [dʌ̝k˦] 'enter' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[10]
Vietnamese Hanoi[11] t [t̻ɤ̞˧˨] 'sheet' Realization of /ɤ/ (also transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩) according to Kirby (2011). See Vietnamese phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  3. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  4. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  5. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 93.
  6. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  7. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  8. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  9. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  10. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  11. ^ Kirby (2011), p. 384.

References[edit]

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Chen, Yiya; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2015), "Shanghai Chinese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 321–327, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000043
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107–115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416
  • Gordon, Matthew J. (2004), "New York, Philadelphia, and other northern cities: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 282–299, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
  • Kirby, James P. (2011), "Vietnamese (Hanoi Vietnamese)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (3): 381–392, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000181
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550

External links[edit]