Middle-earth in film

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J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, set in Middle-earth, have been the subject of various film adaptations. There were many early failed attempts to bring the fictional universe to life in screen, some even rejected by the author himself. The first depictions of Middle-earth on film were realized in 1966 as a short cartoon film. In 1978 the first big screen adaptation of the fictional setting was introduced in The Lord of the Rings. The story was more or less completed with the animated television special The Return of the King. In 1985, Middle-earth was depicted in a live-action film for the first time by an adaptation produced in the Soviet Union. In 1993, a live-action television miniseries titled Hobitit was aired by the Finnish broadcaster Yle.

New Line Cinema released the first part of director Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film series in 2001 as part of a trilogy and several actors and roles were introduced once again in a trilogy in The Hobbit film series. There have also been fan films of Middle-earth such as The Hunt for Gollum and Born of Hope, which were uploaded to YouTube on May 8, 2009 and December 11, 2009 respectively.

Collectively, the franchise has received a record 38 Academy Award nominations, winning 17, and one special award, also a record. Along with The Godfather trilogy, it is one of two film series to date to have received three Best Picture nominations. The third film in Peter Jackson's trilogy, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, was the first and, as of 2017, only fantasy film to win Best Picture, as well as the second sequel to do so after The Godfather Part II. Furthermore, it is currently the only film to be the third in a series and win the award. Along with Titanic and Ben-Hur, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King holds the record for Academy Awards won by a single film and is the only one of the three films to win every category for which it was nominated.

Early attempts[edit]

In 1957, Tolkien received a film proposal from Forrest J. Ackerman, Morton Grady Zimmerman, and Al Brodax. The proposed film, a mix of animation, miniature work, and live action, was to be three hours long with two intermissions. Tolkien was enthusiastic about the film's concept art, described as akin to Arthur Rackham rather than Walt Disney[1] whose works Tolkien intensely disliked.[2] However, Tolkien was dissatisfied with the script[3] and the financial arrangements which would have brought him little profit. Thus the project was turned down.[4][5]

Tolkien criticized the script for divergence to the tone of the book (such as a "fairy-tale" depiction of Lothlórien, as well as elements cut "upon which [the book's] characteristic and peculiar tone principally depends") and character representation (such as Sam leaving Frodo to Shelob and going on to Mount Doom alone). He also took issue with dialogue changes as regards to the "style and sentiment" of characters, and with intercutting between the storylines of Frodo and Aragorn. He suggested eliminating the battle of Helm's Deep to better emphasize the defense of Minas Tirith, as well as cutting characters out instead of diminishing their roles. Tolkien protested against added "incantations, blue lights, and some irrelevant magic" and "a preference for fights".[5]

In 1966 William L. Snyder commissioned a 12-minute film of cartoon stills from Gene Deitch, as related by Deitch himself.[6][7] This film was created in the Czech Republic and publicly screened in New York City.[6][8]

The Beatles planned to do a live-action version with Paul McCartney as Frodo Baggins, Ringo Starr as Sam Gamgee, George Harrison as Gandalf, and John Lennon as Gollum. The group approached Stanley Kubrick to direct the film. Even though he briefly considered directing the film, Kubrick turned the offer down, as he felt the novel was unfilmable due to its immensity.[9] Soon the plans for the film came to nothing because Tolkien didn't want the Beatles in the film. Tolkien sold the film rights to United Artists in 1969.[10]

In the 1970s John Boorman was contracted by United Artists to direct an adaptation that would have collapsed the entire story into a single film.[11] Boorman corresponded with Tolkien about the project.[5][12] In the script by Boorman and Rospo Pallenberg, many new elements have been inserted or modified. Among other things, Gimli is put in a hole and beaten so he can retrieve the password to Moria from his ancestral memory, Frodo and Galadriel have sexual intercourse, Arwen is made into a teenaged spiritual guide with her role as Aragorn's love interest wholly transferred to Éowyn, and Aragorn’s healing of Éowyn takes place on the battlefield and given sexual overtones.[5][12][13] The project ultimately proved too expensive to finance at that time. Again collaborating with Pallenberg, Boorman later made the Arthurian epic Excalibur where he used special effects techniques and locations intended for the Tolkien project.[5][12][13]

Materials pertaining to Ackerman/Zimmerman/Brodax and Boorman's treatments, as well as Ralph Bakshi's (below) are stored in the Tolkien papers collection of Marquette University.[5]

Animated films[edit]

The Hobbit, an animated version of the story produced by Rankin/Bass, debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977. In 1978, Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost to Star Wars.[14]

Filmmaker Ralph Bakshi was introduced to the work of J. R. R. Tolkien by a director at Terrytoons in 1956. In 1957, he started trying to obtain the rights by convincing producers that the books could be animated.[15] Following John Boorman's attempt to adapt the books, Bakshi proposed that United Artists produce the story as three animated films.[11] Bakshi and Dan Melnick, then-president of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, made a deal with United Artists to purchase the film rights to the story for $3 million, but the deal fell through when Melnick was fired from MGM.[11] Bakshi contacted Saul Zaentz, who had helped finance Fritz the Cat, and persuaded him to produce The Lord of the Rings. United Artists agreed to produce the story as two films.[11] Voice actors included Christopher Guard, William Squire, Michael Scholes and John Hurt. The film incorporated the use of rotoscoping, brief snippets of cel animation, and live-action footage mixed with animation. Bakshi later regretted his use of the rotoscoping technique, stating that he made a mistake by tracing the source footage rather than using it as a guide.[16] Once the film was completed, Bakshi was told that audiences would not pay to see an incomplete film, and The Lord of the Rings was released without any indication that a second part would follow, in spite of Bakshi's objections.[11][17] The film cost $4 million to produce and grossed $30.5 million at the box office.[18] Film critic Leonard Maltin said that it was one of only two major commercial successes in Bakshi's career, the other being Fritz the Cat.[19] Despite this, the studio refused to fund the sequel, which would have adapted the remainder of the book series.[11] The Lord of the Rings won the Golden Gryphon at the 1980 Giffoni Film Festival.[20]

In 1980, Rankin/Bass more or less completed what Bakshi had started with their own animated adaptation of The Return of the King,[21] based on their own concepts previously applied to their earlier animated adaptation of The Hobbit.

First live-action versions[edit]

The first live-action film depicting characters and stories of Middle-earth was shown in 1985 in the Soviet Union. Skazochnoye puteshestviye mistera Bilbo Begginsa Khobbita (Russian: Сказочное путешествие мистера Бильбо Беггинса Хоббита) [The Fabulous Journey of Mr. Bilbo Baggins the Hobbit] was a film based on the events of The Hobbit. Shot in 1984[22] as a teleplay and produced in the framework of the children's TV series Tale after Tale (Russian: Сказка за сказкой), it featured actors such as Zinovy Gerdt as Narrator (Tolkien), Mikhail Danilov as Bilbo Baggins, Anatoly Ravikovich as Thorin and Igor Dmitriev as Gollum.

In 1991 there was another USSR adaptation, called Khraniteli (Russian: Хранители) [The Keepers], based on the events of The Fellowsip of the Rings[23][24], with Andrei Romanov as Frodo and Victor Kostetskiy as Gandalf. The music from the film was included in Andrei Romanov's album The music of Middle-Earth. Now this TV-film is lost.

In 1993, the Finnish broadcaster Yle produced a live-action miniseries called Hobitit ("The Hobbits"). Despite the name it was based on The Lord of the Rings rather than The Hobbit; but it included only the parts of the story that the hobbits had witnessed themselves (hence the title). The nine episodes were aired on Yle TV1. The series was written and directed by Timo Torikka. Toni Edelmann composed the soundtrack.[25] Actors included Pertti Sveholm as Sam, Taneli Mäkelä as Frodo, Martti Suosalo as Bilbo, Matti Pellonpää as Saruman, Vesa Vierikko as Gandalf, Ville Virtanen as Legolas, Kari Väänänen (as Aragorn and Gollum in the same time) and Leif Wager as Elrond. This is the only official film adaptation which includes Tom Bombadil, the Barrow-wights and the scourging of the Shire.

Peter Jackson's film series[edit]

The Lord of the Rings[edit]

Miramax Films developed a full-fledged live action adaptation of The Lord of the Rings, with Peter Jackson as director. Eventually, with Miramax owner Disney becoming increasingly uneasy with the sheer scope of the proposed project, Jackson was given the opportunity to find another studio to take over. In 1999, New Line Cinema assumed production responsibility (while Miramax executives Bob Weinstein and Harvey Weinstein retained on-screen credits as executive producers). The three films were shot simultaneously. They featured extensive computer-generated imagery, including major battle scenes utilizing the "Massive" software program. The first film subtitled, The Fellowship of the Ring was released on December 19, 2001, the second film subtitled, The Two Towers on December 18, 2002 and the third film subtitled, The Return of the King worldwide on December 17, 2003. All three won the Hugo Award for Best (Long-form) Dramatic Presentation in their respective years.

The films were met with both critical and commercial success. Jackson's adaptations garnered seventeen Oscars, four for The Fellowship of the Ring, two for The Two Towers, and eleven for The Return of the King; these covered many of the award categories. The Return of the King in fact won all of the eleven awards for which it was nominated, including Best Picture. With a total of 30 nominations, the trilogy also became the most-nominated in the Academy's history, surpassing the Godfather series' 28 (with the release of The Hobbit, the series currently has 36 nominations total). Its 11 Oscars at the 2004 Academy Awards tied it for most awards won for one film with Titanic six years earlier and the 1959 version of Ben-Hur. It also broke the previous "sweep" record, beating Gigi and The Last Emperor (which each took 9 out of 9). The Return of the King also made movie history as the highest-grossing film opening on a Wednesday and was the second film after Titanic to earn over US$1 billion worldwide.

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy is verified to be the currently highest grossing motion picture trilogy worldwide of all time, evidenced by its earning close to $3-billion (US).[26] The film trilogy also set a record for the total number of Academy Awards won, tallying a total of seventeen Oscars.[27] Critical acclaim has commonly hailed the trilogy as "the greatest films of our era,"[28] and "the trilogy will not soon, if ever, find its equal."[29]

On the other hand, some readers of the book decried certain changes made in the adaptation, including changes in tone,[30][31] various changes made to characters such as Aragorn, Arwen, Denethor and Faramir, as well as to the main protagonist Frodo himself, and the deletion of the next to the last chapter of Tolkien's work, "The Scouring of the Shire", a part he himself felt thematically necessary.

The Hobbit[edit]

A three-part prequel based on The Hobbit and directed by Peter Jackson was released between 2012 and 2014. The three films are subtitled An Unexpected Journey, The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies.[32] As with The Lord of the Rings trilogy, the prequel movies were filmed back to back in New Zealand; principal photography began on 21 March 2011.[33] The first film was released on 14 December 2012, the second was released on 13 December 2013, and the third was released on 17 December 2014.

The films star Martin Freeman as Bilbo Baggins,[34] Richard Armitage as Thorin Oakenshield and Benedict Cumberbatch as Smaug.[35] Several actors from The Lord of the Rings reprised their roles, including Ian McKellen, Andy Serkis, Hugo Weaving, Cate Blanchett, Christopher Lee, Ian Holm, Elijah Wood and Orlando Bloom. Also returning for the production were a big part of the production crew; among others, illustrators John Howe and Alan Lee, art director Dan Hennah and cinematographer Andrew Lesnie. As with the trilogy, props were generally crafted by Weta Workshop and visual effects managed by Weta Digital. Additionally, composer Howard Shore, who wrote the score for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, confirmed his role in all three parts of the film project.[36] Following the release of The Battle of the Five Armies, Freeman reprised his role as Bilbo Baggins in the Saturday Night Live sketch known interchangeably either as The Office: Middle Earth or The Hobbit Office, alongside Bobby Moynihan, Taran Killam, Kyle Mooney and Kate McKinnon as Gandalf, Gollum, Legolas and Tauriel respectively as they take up office jobs. The skit explains that during the events of The Lord of the Rings, Tauriel remained working at this office. The skit is based on the fact that Freeman starred in the British series of The Office as Tim Canterbury.[37]


Crew Films
The Lord of the Rings The Hobbit
The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King An Unexpected Journey The Desolation of Smaug The Battle of the Five Armies
Release date December 19, 2001 December 18, 2002 December 17, 2003 December 14, 2012 December 13, 2013 December 17, 2014
Director Peter Jackson
Producers Peter Jackson, Barrie M. Osborne, Fran Walsh and Tim Sanders Peter Jackson, Barrie M. Osborne and Fran Walsh Peter Jackson, Carolynne Cunningham, Zane Weiner and Fran Walsh
Writers Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens and Stephen Sinclair Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens and Guillermo del Toro
Composer Howard Shore
Cinematographer Andrew Lesnie
Editor(s) John Gilbert Michael Horton Jamie Selkirk Jabez Olssen
Production designer Dan Hennah and Grant Major Dan Hennah
Conceptual designers Alan Lee and John Howe
Based on The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien
Production companies New Line Cinema and WingNut Films New Line Cinema, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and WingNut Films
Distributor New Line Cinema Warner Bros.
Running time 178 mins. (208/228[a] mins. - EE[b]) 180 mins. (223/235[a] mins. - EE[b]) 200 mins. (251/263[a] mins. - EE[b]) 169 mins. (182 mins. - EE[b]) 161 mins. (186 mins. - EE[b]) 144 mins. (164 mins. - EE[b])
  1. ^ a b c With additional credits.
  2. ^ a b c d e f EE stands for Extended Edition.

Fan films[edit]

The Hunt for Gollum, a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings, was released on the internet in May 2009. It is set between the events of The Hobbit and The Fellowship of the Ring, and depicts Aragorn's quest to find Gollum. The film's visual style is based on that of the Jackson films. Although it is completely unofficial, it has received coverage in major media.[38]

Another fan made feature film, Born of Hope, produced and directed by Kate Madison, was released online on December 1, 2009 on Dailymotion and later on YouTube. It takes place before the events of The Hobbit. The film can be streamed freely on its main website.[39] Like The Hunt for Gollum, this film triggered reviews in various media.[40]


Character Animated films Live action films
The Hobbit The Lord of the Rings The Return of the King The Lord of the Rings The Hobbit
The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King An Unexpected Journey The Desolation of Smaug The Battle of the Five Armies
1977 1978 1980 2001 2002 2003 2012 2013 2014
Bilbo Baggins Orson Bean Norman Bird Orson Bean Ian Holm Ian Holm Martin Freeman
Ian Holm
Oscar Strik
Martin Freeman Martin Freeman
Ian Holm
Frodo Baggins Christopher Guard Elijah Wood
Gandalf John Huston William Squire John Huston Ian McKellen
Aragorn II Elessar John Hurt Theodore Bikel Viggo Mortensen Mentioned
Samwise Gamgee Michael Scholes Roddy McDowall Sean Astin
Meriadoc Brandybuck Simon Chandler Casey Kasem Dominic Monaghan
Peregrin Took Dominic Guard Sonny Melendrez Billy Boyd
Legolas Anthony Daniels Orlando Bloom Orlando Bloom
Gimli David Buck John Rhys-Davies Mentioned
Boromir Michael Graham Cox Sean Bean Sean Bean
Extended Edition only
Sean Bean
Arwen Evenstar Liv Tyler
Gollum Brother Theodore Peter Woodthorpe Brother Theodore Andy Serkis
Elrond Cyril Ritchard André Morell Paul Frees Hugo Weaving Hugo Weaving
Galadriel Annette Crosbie Cate Blanchett
Saruman Fraser Kerr Christopher Lee Christopher Lee
Extended Edition only
Christopher Lee Mentioned Christopher Lee
Thorin II Oakenshield Hans Conried Richard Armitage
Dwalin Jack DeLeon Graham McTavish
Balin Don Messick Mentioned Ken Stott
Kíli Jack DeLeon Aidan Turner
Fíli Dean O'Gorman
Dori John Stephenson Mark Hadlow
Nori Jack DeLeon Jed Brophy
Ori Prop only Adam Brown
Óin John Callen
Glóin Peter Hambleton
Bifur William Kircher
Bofur James Nesbitt
Bombur Paul Frees Stephen Hunter
Théoden Philip Stone Don Messick Bernard Hill
Éowyn Non-speaking role Nellie Bellflower Miranda Otto
Éomer Karl Urban
Faramir David Wenham
Treebeard John Westbrook John Rhys-Davies
Gríma Wormtongue Michael Deacon Brad Dourif Brad Dourif
Extended Edition only
Denethor William Conrad John Noble
Extended Edition only
John Noble
Thranduil Otto Preminger Lee Pace
Radagast Sylvester McCoy
Tauriel Evangeline Lilly
Beorn Mikael Persbrandt
Bard the Bowman John Stephenson Luke Evans
Master of Lake-town Stephen Fry
Alfrid Ryan Gage
Sauron Sala Baker
Alan Howard
Sala Baker
Alan Howard
Benedict Cumberbatch
The One Ring Alan Howard
Prop only
Non-speaking role
Alan Howard
Prop only
Non-speaking role
Benedict Cumberbatch
Prop only
Non-speaking role
Smaug Richard Boone Non-speaking role Benedict Cumberbatch
Celeborn Marton Csokas Marton Csokas
Haldir Craig Parker
Gamling Bruce Hopkins
Madril John Bach
Háma John Leigh
Bain John Bell
Sigrid Peggy Nesbitt[41]
Tilda Mary Nesbitt[41]
Dáin II Ironfoot Billy Connolly
Isildur Harry Sinclair Harry Sinclair
Gil-galad Mark Ferguson
Elendil Peter McKenzie
Thrór Jeffrey Thomas
Thráin II Michael Mizrahi
Thomas Robins
Antony Sher
Extended Edition only
Girion Luke Evans
Extended Edition only
Luke Evans
Witch-king of Angmar   John Stephenson Brent McIntyre
Andy Serkis
Lawrence Makoare Non-speaking role Mentioned Non-speaking role
King of the Dead Paul Norell
Lurtz Lawrence Makoare
Uglúk Nathaniel Lees
Grishnákh Stephen Ure
Lugdush Sala Baker
Mauhúr Robbie Magasiva
Andy Serkis
Sharku Jed Brophy
Snaga Jed Brophy
Andy Serkis
Gothmog Lawrence Makoare
Craig Parker
Gorbag Stephen Ure
Murgash Sala Baker
Shagrat Peter Tait
Bolingúl Robert Pollock
Azog Manu Bennett
Bolg Conan Stevens Lawrence Makoare John Tui
Great Goblin John Stephenson Barry Humphries
Yazneg John Rawls
Fimbul Stephen Ure
Grinnah Stephen Ure
Goblin scribe Kiran Shah[42]
Narzug Benjamin Mitchell
Ragash Allan Smith Allan Smith
Martin Kwok
Keeper of the Dungeons Conan Stevens
Tom Paul Frees Non-speaking role William Kircher
Bert Mark Hadlow
William Don Messick Peter Hambleton
Barliman Butterbur Alan Tilvern David Weatherley
Harry Goatleaf Martyn Sanderson
Butterbur Sr. Richard Whiteside
Non-speaking role
Betsy Butterbur Katie Jackson
Bill Ferny Sr. Dallas Barnett
Squint Matt Smith
Lobelia Sackville-Baggins Elizabeth Moody
Extended Edition only
Erin Banks
Extended Edition only
Erin Banks
Otho Sackville-Baggins Peter Corrigan
Extended Edition only
Brian Hotter
Extended Edition only
Brian Hotter
Rosie Cotton Sarah McLeod Sarah McLeod
Everard Proudfoot Noel Appleby Noel Appleby
Mrs. Proudfoot Megan Edwards
Farmer Maggot Cameron Rhodes
Mike Hopkins
Gaffer Gamgee Norman Forsey
Extended Edition only
Ted Sandyman Brian Sergent
Extended Edition only
Old Noakes William Johnson
Extended Edition only
Bounder Ian Mune
Mrs. Bracegirdle Lori Dungey
Elanor Gamgee Alexandra Astin
Baby Gamgee Maisy McLeod-Riera
Belladonna Took Sonia Forbes-Adam
Extended Edition only
Old Took Dan Hennah
Extended Edition only
Master Worrywort Timothy Bartlett Timothy Bartlett
Tosser Grubb Mervyn Smith
Extended Edition only
Mervyn Smith
Fredegar Chubb Eric Vespe
Extended Edition only
Old Gammidge Stephen Gledhill
Extended Edition only
Old Hob Tim Gordon
Extended Edition only
Morwen Robyn Malcolm
Éothain Sam Comery
Freda Olivia Tennet
Théodred Paris Howe Strewe
Aldor Bruce Alpress
Haleth Calum Gittins
Bereg Ray Trickett
Grimbold Bruce Phillips
Damrod Alistair Browning
Déagol Thomas Robins
Irolas Ian Hughes
Mouth of Sauron Don Messick Bruce Spence
Extended Edition only
Braga Mark Mitchinson
Soury Kelly Kilgour
Hilda Bianca Sarah Peirse
Percy Nick Blake
Olga Miranda Harcourt
Astrid Thomasin McKenzie
Figwit / Lindir Bret McKenzie   Bret McKenzie
Eldarion Sadwyn Brophy
Galion Craig Hall  
Elros Robin Kerr
Feren Simon London
Lethuin Eli Kent  
Albert Dreary Peter Jackson Peter Jackson
Man of Rohan Peter Jackson
Corsair Peter Jackson
Dwarf of Erebor Peter Jackson

Box office performance[edit]

Motion picture Release date Box office gross Budget Ref(s)
Worldwide North America Other territories
The Lord of the Rings 15 November 1978 (1978-11-15) $35.992.637 $30.471.420 $5.521.217 $4.000.000 [43][44]
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring 19 December 2001 (2001-12-19) $871.530.324 $315.544.750 $555.985.574 $93.000.000 [45]
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers 18 December 2002 (2002-12-18) $926.047.111 $342.551.365 $583.495.746 $94.000.000 [46]
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King 17 December 2003 (2003-12-17) $1.119.929.521 $377.845.905 $742.083.616 $94.000.000 [47]
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey 14 December 2012 (2012-12-14) $ $303.003.568 $714.000.000 $180.000.000 [48]
The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug 13 December 2013 (2013-12-13) $960.366.855 $258.366.855 $702.000.000 $200.000.000 [49]
The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies 17 December 2014 (2014-12-17) $955.119.788 $255.119.788 $700.000.000 $250.000.000 [50]
Total $5.885.989.804 $1.882.903.651 $ $915.000.000 [51]

Public and critical reception[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
The Hobbit (animated) 67%[52]
The Lord of the Rings (animated) 50%[53]
The Return of the King (animated) 67%[54]
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring 91%[55] 92[56] A−[57]
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers 95%[58] 88[59] A[57]
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King 93%[60] 94[61] A+[57]
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey 65%[62] 58[63] A[64]
The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug 74%[65] 66[66] A-[67]
The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies 60%[68] 59[69] A-[70]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #261, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
  2. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #17, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
  3. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #266, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
  4. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-04-928037-6
  5. ^ a b c d e f Croft, Janet B. "Three Rings for Hollywood: Scripts for The Lord of the Rings by Zimmerman, Boorman, and Beagle". Archived from the original on 3 September 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2006.
  6. ^ a b "William L. Snyder". genedeitchcredits. Gene Deitch. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  7. ^ "Gene Deitch's 'The Hobbit' Short Film Surfaces Online Nearly 50 Years On". Huff Post Culture. The Huffington Post. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  8. ^ Kayatta, Mike (9 January 2012). "A Long Lost Adaptation of The Hobbit Makes Its Way Online". The Escapist. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  9. ^ Interview in "Show" magazine vol. 1, No. 1, 1970.
  10. ^ "Beatles plan for Rings film". CNN. 28 March 2002. Retrieved 14 June 2006.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Robinson, Tasha (January 31, 2003). "Interview with Ralph Bakshi". The Onion A.V. Club. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
  12. ^ a b c OUTRE: The World Of Ultramedia, issue #26
  13. ^ a b ""The One Ring" forum thread "John Boorman's LOTR Screenplay"". Retrieved 9 January 2006.
  14. ^ Kask, TJ, NBC's The Hobbit, Dragon Magazine, December 1977
  15. ^ Korkis, Jim. "If at first you don't succeed ... call Peter Jackson". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  16. ^ Gallagher, John A. The Directors Series: Interview with Ralph Bakshi (Part One). Google Video.
  17. ^ Riley, Patrick (July 7, 2000). "'70s Version of Lord of the Rings 'Devastated' Director Bakshi". Fox News. Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
  18. ^ Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. pp. age 155. ISBN 978-1-55652-591-9.
  19. ^ Maltin, Leonard (1987). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
  20. ^ "Awards for Ralph Bakshi". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
  21. ^ "The Return of the King". Retrieved 16 June 2006.
  22. ^ "'The Hobbit': Russian Soviet Version Is Cheap & Delightful". Huffington Post. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  23. ^ "Форум by ArjLover - Показать сообщение отдельно - Советская экранизация "Властелина Колец"". forum.arjlover.net.
  24. ^ "Форум by ArjLover - Показать сообщение отдельно - Советская экранизация "Властелина Колец"". forum.arjlover.net.
  25. ^ "Yle teettää oman sovituksen Taru sormusten herrasta-sadusta" [Yle to produce its own version of the tale of The Lord of the Rings]. Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 18 June 1991.
  26. ^ Top Box Office Earning Trilogies Worldwide at Box Office Mojo.com, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  27. ^ The film trilogy's entry at UsefulTrivia.com Archived 2011-11-11 at the Wayback Machine, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  28. ^ Tyler, Joshua. "The Lord of the Rings: Return of the King". Cinema Blend. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  29. ^ Return of the King review at CalendarLive.com by Kenneth Turan, last retrieved on 5 August 2006 Archived September 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Croft, Janet B. The Mines of Moria: "Anticipation" and "Flattening" in Peter Jackson's The Fellowship of the Ring Archived 2011-10-31 at the Wayback Machine. From http://faculty-staff.ou.edu, last retrieved on 21 August 2006
  31. ^ Chance, Jane. Is there a text in this Hobbit? Peter Jackson's The Fellowship of the Ring. Originally for Literature Film Quarterly, 2002. Last retrieved on 25 August 2006
  32. ^ "Titles and Release Dates Announced for the Hobbit Films!". ComingSoon.net. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
  33. ^ Bulbeck, Pip (2011-03-20). "'Hobbit' Filming Finally Under Way in New Zealand". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2011-03-21.
  34. ^ Michael Bodey (October 22, 2010). "The Office's Martin Freeman as Bilbo Baggins leads Hobbit cast". The Australian. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  35. ^ Fleming, Mike (2011-06-16). "Benedict Cumberbatch To Voice Smaug in 'The Hobbit'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 2011-06-16.
  36. ^ Composer Howard Shore to Score THE HOBBIT. Collider.com (2010-11-18). Retrieved on 2011-05-19.
  37. ^ "Hobbit Office - SNL". December 14, 2014 – via YouTube.
  38. ^ Masters, Tim (30 April 2009). "Making Middle-earth on a shoestring". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
    Sydell, Laura (30 April 2009). "High-Def 'Hunt For Gollum' New Lord Of The Fanvids". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
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