Military Religious Freedom Foundation

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The Military Religious Freedom Foundation (MRFF) is a watchdog group and advocacy organization founded in 2005 by Michael L. "Mickey" Weinstein. The group's stated goal is to "ensure that members of the United States Armed Forces receive the Constitutional guarantee of religious freedom to which they are entitled by virtue of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment."[1]

Weinstein describes the group's target as "a small subset of Fundamentalist Christianity that's called premilliennial, dispensational, reconstructionist, dominionist, fundamentalist, or just Dominionist Christianity."[2]


The organization was founded by USAFA graduate and former USAF Judge Advocate General's Corps officer Michael Weinstein in 2005 for the purpose of opposing the spread of alleged religious intimidation by Christians in positions of power within the US military.[3]

Weinstein said he experienced discrimination due to his Jewish faith while a cadet at the United States Air Force Academy. After his sons reportedly experienced discrimination as well while at the Academy, Weinstein founded the MRFF in 2005. He describes the group's target as "a small subset of Fundamentalist Christianity that's called premilliennial, dispensational, reconstructionist, dominionist, fundamentalist, or just Dominionist Christianity."[2] He further characterized their target as ""incredibly well-funded gangs of fundamentalist Christian monsters who terrorize their fellow Americans by forcing their weaponized and twisted version of Christianity upon their helpless subordinates in our nation's armed forces."[4] The group is asking the United States Congress to hold oversight hearings regarding what it alleges is the Defense Department's failure to abide by the Constitutionally mandated separation of Church and State.[5]

From its inception, the Military Religious Freedom Foundation has advocated for many active duty U.S. servicemen/women and veterans who have contacted the MRFF[6] regarding alleged religious discrimination, harassment and aggressive proselytizing by Fundamentalist Christians. MRFF reports that it currently represents over 50,000 active duty U.S. marines, sailors, soldiers, airmen, cadets, midshipmen, national guard, reservists and veterans, about 96% of whom self-identify as practicing Christians. Of the remaining 4%, MRFF represents Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu, Sikh, Native American Spiritualist, Humanist, Pagan, Atheist, slightly over 18% of all Muslim Americans in the U.S. military, other minority faith and non-faith military members, and slightly under 1,000 LGBT military members.[7]

On September 11, 2012, advisory board member Glen Doherty, a Roman Catholic, died in the U.S. Consulate attack in Benghazi, Libya.[8] MRFF founder Michael L. Weinstein said that Doherty had "helped me on many MRFF client cases behind the scenes to facilitate assistance to armed forces members abused horribly by fundamentalist Christian proselytizing."[9]

On November 13, 2014, for the sixth consecutive year, the Military Religious Freedom Foundation was officially nominated again for the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize (its seventh total nomination).[10]

Notable cases[edit]

MRFF has filed multiple federal lawsuits against the Pentagon and the Secretary of Defense, with military members as co-plaintiffs, asserting a pattern and practice of constitutionally impermissible promotions of religion by the military. MRFF founder Weinstein has spoken to students at a number of the U.S. military's educational institutions: The U.S. Air Force Academy's National Character and Leadership Symposium, the Air Force JAG School, the Air Command and Staff College, and the US Army War College.[citation needed]

Jewish veteran Akiva David Miller,[11][12] who alleged he had suffered religious discrimination and aggressive Christian proselyzation while receiving care at the Iowa City, Iowa V.A. Medical Center beginning in 2005 was a client of the MRFF.[citation needed]

2006 saw the exposure by the MRFF of a promotional video by Christian Embassy (an offshoot of the evangelical Campus Crusade for Christ) which was filmed in the Pentagon and featured uniformed Generals. Following a MRFF-requested[13] internal investigation carried out by the Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General, the report on "Alleged Misconduct by DoD Officials Concerning Christian Embassy"[14] concluded that several violations of Defense Department policy were committed during the production of the promotional video. Chief among the violations was the obtaining of permission to film the video at the Pentagon by means of a willful "[mischaracterization] of the purpose and proponent of the video" by Chaplain (Colonel) Ralph G. Benson, as well as the acts of officers who used their name, rank, and uniforms as a means towards endorsing the Christian Embassy proselytizing message.[15][16]

In September 2008, the California Council of Churches IMPACT (CCCI), a public policy advocacy organization which represents numerous and diverse mainstream Christian and Orthodox Christian communities, formally announced its endorsement of the MRFF's mission, with CCCI Board President Rev. John Freeseman stating "Our alignment with the Military Religious Freedom Foundation is on behalf of religious freedom for all people, regardless of belief or non-belief. It is not the function of the U.S. Military to proselytize our troops but to protect our constitutional freedoms."[17]

In February 2009, Colonel Kimberly Toney, commander of the USAF's 501st Combat Support Wing sent an email with a link to a religious-themed web video about the life story of Nick Vujicic. The sponsoring site of the video,, is a Catholic website. USAF service members who looked at the site after following the emailed link complained that the site contained criticism of President Barack Obama. Weinstein said the incident represented a textbook case of improper religious influence and added, "There's a pervasive pattern of constitutional abuse when you have a wing commander who sends out a direct, proselytizing e-mail with a link to a Web site that slanders the president of the United States."[18]

Following the Fort Hood shooting in November 2009, the religious right American Family Association issued the statement "No More Muslims in the US Military", which explicitly stated that Muslim military enlistees be barred from military service in the United States armed forces on the grounds that "... just as Christians are taught to imitate the life of Christ, so Muslims are taught to imitate the Prophet in all things. Yesterday, Nidal Malik Hasan was simply being a good Muslim."[19] Weinstein's denunciation of the AFA position as "bigoted, racist, [and] vile" was featured prominently by Hatewatch, the official blog of the Southern Poverty Law Center civil rights organization.[20]

MRFF Senior Research Director Chris Rodda was invited to contribute an essay on religious expression in the military to the discursive volume "Attitudes Aren't Free: Thinking Deeply About Diversity in the US Armed Forces" published by Air University Press, the publishing arm of the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base.[21]

The MRFF initiated the January 2010 media coverage of the Jesus rifles controversy, when rifle scopes manufactured by US government contractor Trijicon were discovered to be engraved with scripture citations. Following the breaking of this story by ABC News, the outrage provoked by this discovery was voiced by a diverse range of religious and political constituencies and within a week of the ABC News report, Trijicon announced that it would halt the engraving of the biblical inscriptions on all products sold to the government.[22][23]

Pressure on United States Air Force Academy Superintendent Lt Gen Michael C. Gould throughout 2010[24] resulted in the release of the bi-annual Academy Climate Survey's results. The survey revealed that 41% of non-Christian cadets and 19% of all cadets were allegedly subjected to unwanted proselytizing.[25]

In January 2011, the MRFF demanded that the US Army cease and desist their policy of administering a "spiritual fitness" component to the mandatory Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program test, whereby soldiers' combat-readiness and ability are judged on the basis of their religiosity. MRFF criticized the fact that evangelical Christian rock concerts were being organized and funded under the auspices of the Spiritual Fitness program.[26]

MRFF litigation sparked by a prayer luncheon hosted by the US Air Force Academy's chaplain service (which featured retired Marine Corps Lt. and fundamentalist Christian Clebe McClary as keynote speaker) was reviewed by a federal judge on February 2011. U.S. District Judge Christine Arguello ruled the plaintiffs (which included the MRFF and USAFA professor David Mullin) lacked sufficient legal standing to challenge the event.[27][28]

The United States Air Force, in response to the pressure caused by the release of internal training material via a Freedom of Information Act request, revised the ethical indocrination course material to which nuclear missile launch officers were exposed as a standard component of their training. The course was defended by a spokesman for the Air Force's Air Training and Education Command as a means towards "[helping] folks understand why we're doing what we're doing. In the missile launch industry, it takes a certain mindset to be able to walk in the door and say, yes, I can do that"[28] Included in the a course is the PowerPoint presentation Who Are You When No One Is Looking: Five Ethical Principles For Service To The Air Force, a presentation which reveals a Christian militarist perspective and which heavily quotes Judeo-Christian scripture and contains a synopsis of the Just War Theory of St. Augustine of Hippo. Controversially, the PowerPoint also contains a slide excerpting the words of former Nazi Party member, SS Sturmbannführer, aerospace engineer and rocket scientist Wernher Von Braun, who is quoted as stating that "We wanted to see the world spared another conflict such as Germany had just been through and we felt that only by surrendering such a weapon [the ballistic missile] to people who are guided by the Bible could such an assurance to the world best be secured", in reference to his 1945 surrender to American occupation forces and subsequent recruitment by the United States Office of Strategic Services via Operation Paperclip.[29] MRFF client and missile officer training attendee Damon Bosetti recounted to the media that he and his Air Force colleagues would refer to the religious portion of the ethics training course as the "Jesus loves nukes speech".[28] In September 2011, Senator John Cornyn (R-TX) encouraged the Air Force to resume the class.[30]

Following the MRFF threatening suit over the "Crusaders" name and Cross and Shield logo for the Marine Fighter Attack Squadron VMFA-122, the Marine Deputy Commandant for Aviation directed VMFA-122 to revert the unit's identification back to the previous name and logo "Werewolves" on May 24, 2012.[31]

In December 2012, Weinstein was named #95 of the "100 Most Influential People in U.S. Defense" by Defense News.[32]


Weinstein has come under criticism for his larger than average (for a non-profit) salary and his practice of voting on his own compensation (he is one of the voting members of MRFF's 3 member board).[33] In 2012, he received total compensation worth $273,355 according to IRS filings accessed on the nonprofit transparency website GuideStar[33]


  1. ^ "Our Mission".
  2. ^ a b "With God on Our Side" Talk given July 10, 2007 Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine at Hammer Museum, Los Angeles. First aired on C-SPAN August 11, 2007. Accessed on Aug. 19, 2007
  3. ^ Alex Kopperman (December 13, 2006). "These people should be court-martialed". Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-14.
  4. ^ Michael Weinstein (April 16, 2013). "Fundamentalist Christian Monsters: Papa's Got A Brand New Bag."; accessed July 26, 2013.
  5. ^ Richard Lardner (August 6, 2007). "Officers' Role in Christian Video Probed". Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved 2008-02-14.
  6. ^ "Atheist soldier sues Army for 'unconstitutional' discrimination - CNN". 9 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
  7. ^ official website; April 14, 2017.
  8. ^ Ellement, John R. "Winchester native among victims of Libya attack". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  9. ^ Stone, Andrea. "Glen Doherty, Security Officer Killed In Libya Attack, Fought Religious Proselytizing In Military". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  10. ^ "About Mikey Weinstein, MRFF's Founder and President". April 14, 2017.
  11. ^ "Orthodox US Jewish Navy Veteran: Chaplains repeatedly tried to convert me",, May 28, 2008.
  12. ^ "Jewish vet tells of repeated proselytizing by VA hospital chaplains" Recorded interview by Haim Dov Beliak,, May 15, 2007; accessed May 24, 2008.
  13. ^ Cooperman, Alan (December 10, 2006). "Inquiry Sought Over Evangelical Video".
  14. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2011-07-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Pulling Rank on Religion,, August 12, 2007.
  16. ^ Not so fast, Christian soldiers,; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  17. ^ California Christian Organization Endorses Military Religious Freedom Foundation; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  18. ^ Eric Lichtblau, "Air Force Looks Into ‘Inspirational’ Video", New York Times, March 15, 2009, pg. 27.
  19. ^ American Family Association blog No More Muslims in the U.S. Military Archived March 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ SPLC Hatewatch (November 12, 2009) Violate the Constitution? Christian Right Group Says Yes; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  21. ^ Parco, J.E., and Levy, D.A, Eds. (2010) "Attitudes Aren't Free: Thinking Deeply About Diversity in the US Armed Forces",; accessed July 13, 2018.
  22. ^ BBC News (January 22, 2011) US firm to remove Biblical references on gunsights; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  23. ^ Eckholm, Erik, "Firm to Remove Bible References From Gun Sights, "New York Times", January 21, 2010.
  24. ^ Colorado Springs Independent (September 17, 2011) Weinstein: 'A state of war' with AFA; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  25. ^ Elliot, Dan, "41% Of Non-Christian AF Cadets Cite Proselytizing"], Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 29, 2010.
  26. ^ RT America, January 1, 2011 Thou Shall Not Rock-n-Roll?; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  27. ^ The Denver Post, February 2, 2011 Judge rejects bid to stop Air Force Academy prayer luncheon; retrieved July 25, 2011.
  28. ^ a b c The Washington Post, August 2, 2011 Air Force suspends ethics course that used Bible passages to train missile launch officers,; retrieved August 2, 2011.
  29. ^ Leopold, Jason. July 27, 2011; retrieved August 2, 2011.
  30. ^ Starnes, Todd. "Suspension of Air Force Class Over Bible Passages 'Misrepresents First Amendment'" [1],; accessed July 19, 2018.
  31. ^ Huus, Kari (May 24, 2012). "Marine Werewolves transform into Crusaders, and back again". MSNBC. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-15. Retrieved 2013-01-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ a b Losey, Stephen. "Exclusive: Nonprofit CEO cashes in on religious freedom campaign". Archived from the original on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2014-03-07.

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