Mohamed Hussein Tantawi

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Mohamed Hussein Tantawy
محمد حسين طنطاوي
Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi 2002.jpg
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt
In office
11 February 2011 – 30 June 2012
Prime Minister
DeputySami Anan
Preceded byHosni Mubarak (as President)
Succeeded byMohamed Morsi (as President)
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
11 February 2011 – 30 June 2012
Preceded byHosni Mubarak
Succeeded byMohamed Morsi
Minister of Defence and Military Production
In office
20 May 1991 – 12 August 2012
Prime Minister
Preceded bySabri Abu Taleb
Succeeded byAbdul Fatah al-Sisi
Personal details
Born (1935-10-31) 31 October 1935 (age 83)
Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Political partyIndependent
Awards
  • Liberation Order
  • United Arab Republic Anniversary Order
  • Distinguished Service Order
  • Order of the Nile
Military service
Allegiance Egypt
Branch/serviceEgyptian Army
Years of service1955–2012
RankEgyField Marshal.png Field Marshal
CommandsCommander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
Battles/wars

Mohamed Hussein Tantawy Soliman (Arabic: محمد حسين طنطاوى سليمان‎, Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd ħeˈseːn tˤɑnˈtˤɑːwi seleˈmæːn]; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal and former politician. He was the commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces[1] and, as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, was the de facto head of state from the ousting of Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011 to the inauguration of Mohamed Morsi as President of Egypt on 30 June 2012. Tantawy served in the government as Minister of Defense and Military Production from 1991 until Morsi ordered Tantawy to retire on 12 August 2012.

Military career[edit]

Tantawy, who is of Nubian origin,[2][3] joined the Egyptian Military Academy in 1952 and received his commission as an Army officer on 1 April 1955 in the infantry. The following year he took part in the Suez War (or the Tripartite Aggression as it is often known in Egypt) as an infantry platoon commander. He was promoted to Major in 1961 and commanded an infantry company in Yemen during the North Yemen Civil War. Later in his career he was involved in the Six-Day War of 1967 as a Lt.Colonel and Battalion commander, the War of Attrition of 1967–1970, and the October or Yom Kippur War of 1973. During the Yom Kippur War he was a Lieutenant Colonel commanding of 16th mechanized infantry battalion. He held various command and staff appointments including both the Chief of Staff and then Commander of the Second Field Army between 1986 and 1989. Additionally he has served as a military attaché to Pakistan between 1983 and 1985, an important role given the two countries' political and military links. Tantawy served as a Commander of the Republican Guard Forces between 1989 and 1991, and later a Chief of the Operations Authority of the Armed Forces. In 1991, he also commanded an Egyptian Army unit in the U.S.-led Gulf War against Iraq to force Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, which it had invaded in 1990.

On 29 May 1991, following the dismissal of Colonel General Youssef Sabri Abu Taleb,[4] Tantawi was promoted to lieutenant general rank and appointed as minister of defense and military production and commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces. After one month he was promoted to general colonel rank, which he held for two years before being promoted to the rank of field marshal, the highest rank in the Egyptian military, in 1993. It is believed that Tantawy would have succeeded Mubarak as president of Egypt had the assassination attempt in June 1995 been successful.[5] Early in 2011, Tantawy was seen as a possible contender for the Egyptian presidency.[6]

Robert Springborg wrote that "Foreign military professionals.. liken[ed] Tantawi to the CEO of the largest corporate conglomerate in Egypt" because his primary concern was the economic well-being of the military, not the performance of its nominal tasks and duties.[7]

Egyptian Revolution[edit]

On 11 February 2011, when President Hosni Mubarak resigned, after 18 days of protests from the Egyptian people, Tantawy transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, headed by himself. The council, overseeing issues with the Chairman of the Supreme Constitutional Court, Farouk Sultan, dissolved the Egyptian parliament,[8] oversaw the referendum over temporary constitutional amendments which took place on 19 March, and presided over summons to justice, for accountability, of Mubarak and many of the former regime's top figures.

On a personal level, Tantawy kept a relatively low profile since the handing over of power to the Council, only making a first public appearance in an address to mark the graduation of a batch at the Police Academy on 16 May 2011. He opted to leave most public speeches and press releases to other senior members in the council; he also appointed Prime Minister Essam Sharaf and his cabinet. Tantawy also received a number of foreign officials, including British Prime Minister David Cameron and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

Field Marshal Tantawy with U.S. Army General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, on 11 February 2012

After a new series of protests in November 2011, that escalated by 22 November to over 33 dead and over 2,000 injured in the wake of the use of force by the police to quell protests at Tahrir Square and its vicinity, Tantawy appeared on Egyptian national television to pledge the speeding up of presidential elections – the principal demand of protesters – and that the armed forces "are fully prepared to immediately hand over power and to return to their original duty in protecting the homeland if that's what the people want, through a popular referendum if necessary."[9]

On 12 August 2012, Egypt's president Mohamed Morsi ordered Tantawy to retire as head of the armed forces and defence minister.[10] Tantawy has been decorated with the Order of the Nile and appointed, instead, as an advisor to Morsi; there was speculation that his removal was part of a pre-arranged withdrawal by the military from political power in exchange for immunity from prosecution for earlier actions.[11]

Criticism[edit]

Criticism of Tantawy in Egypt has been manyfold,[12] including many chants in Tahrir for him to leave.[13] Chants against Tantawy included "Tantawi stripped your women naked, come join us."[14] According to The Telegraph, protesters also "demanded the execution of Tantawi."[14]

Nabeel Rajab, the head of Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, criticized Tantawy for his reception for King of Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa in October 2011. "This is a very bad message from the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to the international community, the Egyptian and Bahraini people", he said. "Continuing this path threatens Egypt's democratic future", he added.[15]

Medals and decorations[edit]

Egypt National Honors[edit]

Military[edit]

 
  
Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait) ribbon.svg
  • October War 1973 Medal
  • October War 1973 Combatants Medal
  • Wounded of War Medal
  • Longevity and Exemplary Service Medal
  • Kuwait Liberation Medal (Egypt)
  • Silver Jubilee of October War 1973 Medal (1998)
  • Silver Jubilee of Liberation of Sinai Medal (2007)
  • 25 January 2011 Revolution Medal
  • Army Day Medal
  • Golden Jubilee of 23rd 1952 Revolution Medal (2002)
  • 23rd 1952 Revolution 10th Anniversary Medal (1962)
  • 23rd 1952 Revolution 20th Anniversary Medal (1972)
  • Liberation of Sinai Decoration (25 April 1982)
  • Military Duty Decoration, First Class
  • Distinguished Service Decoration
  • Military Courage Decoration
  • Commemorative Decoration of Establishment of the United Arab Republic
  • Military Decoration of Independence
  • Liberation Decoration (officers)
  • Military Decoration of Evacuation
  • Victory Decoration
  • The Republic's Military Decoration
  • Training Decoration, First Class

Civil[edit]

Foreign Honors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Cabinet". Website of the President of Egypt. 2005. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
  2. ^ Egypt State Information Service (Official Egyptian government website)
  3. ^ Paradise Lost[permanent dead link] Egypt Today (Google cached version)
  4. ^ The Truth Publication Online (11 February 2011)[dead link]
  5. ^ Sobelman, Daniel (2001). "Gamal Mubarak, President of Egypt?". Middle East Quarterly. 8 (2): 31–40.
  6. ^ Morrison, James (30 January 2011). "Cairo in Chaos". Washington Times. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  7. ^ Springborg, Robert. "Learning from failure: Egypt." In The Routledge handbook of civil-military relations, Routledge, 2013, p. 95.
  8. ^ Egypt Trades Torture Supervisor for 'Mubarak's Poodle'? ABC News, 11 February 2011
  9. ^ Egypt military pledges to speed up power transfer, BBC News, 22 November 2011
  10. ^ "Egypt leader Mursi orders army chief Tantawi to resign". BBC News. 12 August 2012.
  11. ^ Hussein, Abdel-Rahman (13 August 2012). "Egypt defence chief Tantawi ousted in surprise shakeup". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  12. ^ Egyptian Military Maintains Censorship Where Criticism of Its Leaders is Concerned « CONNECTED in CAIRO
  13. ^ Million-strong protests in Egypt demand end of military rule, Tantawi accepts Cabinet resignation, battle continues - Ahram Online
  14. ^ a b "Egypt: 10,000 march in protest at woman dragged half-naked through street". The Daily Telegraph. London. 21 December 2011.
  15. ^ Ahmed Al Samany (2 November 2011). "حقوقي بحريني: "استقبال "العسكري" للملك رسال سيئة.. والجزيرة تجاهلت أحداث البحرين"". Tahrir newspaper. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2011.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Youssef Sabri Abu Taleb
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
1991–2012
Succeeded by
Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
Preceded by
Hosni Mubarak
as President of Egypt
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt
2011–2012
Succeeded by
SCAF dissolved
Political offices
Preceded by
Youssef Sabri Abu Taleb
Minister of Defence and Military Production
1991–2012
Succeeded by
Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
Preceded by
Hosni Mubarak
as President of Egypt
Head of state of Egypt
2011–2012
Succeeded by
Mohamed Morsi
as President of Egypt
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Hosni Mubarak
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
2011–2012
Succeeded by
Mohamed Morsi