|Place of origin||India|
|Region or state||Jaffna, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Batticaloa, Andhra Pradesh|
|Associated national cuisine||India, Sri Lanka|
|Main ingredients||Rice flour, Urad dal flour (Black gram), Salt, Oil|
Murukku is a savoury, crunchy snack originating from the Indian subcontinent, popular in southern India, and Sri Lanka. The snack's name derives from the Tamil word for "twisted", which refers to its shape. In India, Murukku is especially popular in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh. It is also popular in countries with substantial presence of Indian and Sri Lankan diaspora, including Singapore, Fiji, and Malaysia.
Ingredients and preparation
Murukku is typically made from rice and urad dal flour. The flours are mixed with water, salt, chilli powder, asafoetida and either sesame seeds or cumin seeds. The mix is kneaded into a dough, which is shaped into spiral or coil shapes either by hand or extruded using a mould. The spirals are then deep fried in vegetable oil.
The dish has many variations, resulting from the types and proportions of flours used. Mullu Muruku has an uneven texture that gives it an extra crunch. 'Mullu' refers to thorns in Tamil and the snack derives its name from this. The Kai Murukku (literally, "hand murukku") is made by hand using a stiffer dough. Pakoda murukku is another ribbon-shaped variety of the snack. Attayampatti Kai Murukku, a town in Tamil Nadu, is known for its unique variety of murukkus, known as Manapparai murukku. This Manapparai murukku got famous because of Mr. Krishnan iyer who prepared and sold this first in Manaparai.  In 2010, the Tamil Nadu government applied for a geographical indication tag for Manapparai Murukku.
Other varieties include:
- Rice and lentil murukku (Mullu murukku)
- Light crispy murukku (Thenkuzhal murukku)
- Coconut milk murukku (Thengai paal murukku)
- Wheat flour murukku (Godhumai murukku)
- Spicy murukku (Kaara murukku)
- Garlic murukku (Poondu murukku)
- Fish murruku (Min murukku)
- Ring muruku (Seepu Seedai)
- Butter murukku (Vennai murukku)
- Besan Murukku (Kadalai Maavu murukku)
- Rice murukku (Arisi murukku)
- Sweet murukku (Achu murukku or Achappam)
- Jhilinga, a similar Nepalese dish made from rice flour
- Devasahayam, Theresa. "When We Eat What We Eat: Classifying Crispy Foods in Malaysian Tamil Cuisine". Anthropology of food. OpenEdition. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Heavy demand for crispy treat". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 October 2010.
- Gerald, Olympia Shilpa (18 August 2012). "In search of Manapparai Murukku". The Hindu. Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- S. Annamalai (4 November 2013). "Business dynamics, supply issues have hardened the 'Manapparai murukku'". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Geographical indication tag for 'Mannapparai Murukku' sought". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 October 2010.
- Media related to Murukku at Wikimedia Commons