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Emirate of Granada|
|Historical Arab states and dynasties|
The Nasrid dynasty (Arabic: بنو نصر banū Naṣr or banū al-Aḥmar, Spanish: Nazarí) was the last Moorish Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until 2 January 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered all lands to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.
The Nasrid dynasty was descended from the Arab Banu Khazraj tribe, and claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, the chief of the tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The nasab of Yusuf (nicknamed "al-Ahmar", meaning "the Red").
Conflicts of succession and civil war
During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of Granada that would effectively end the Nasrid dynasty, the Nasrids were engaged in a civil war over the throne of Granada. When Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada, was ousted by his son Muhammad XII, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to Málaga and civil war broke out between the competing factions. Christians took full advantage of this and continued capturing Muslim strongholds. Muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at Lucena, Córdoba. He was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Abu l-Hasan Ali finally abdicated in favor of his brother Muhammad XIII, Sultan of Granada, known as Al-Zaghal (the valiant), and a power struggle with Muhammad XII continued. Al-Zaghal prevailed in the inner struggle but was forced to surrender to the Christians. Muhammad XII was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains but instead took financial compensation from the Spanish crown to leave the Iberian Peninsula.
The Nasrid dynasty was the longest ruling Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, reigning for more than 250 years from the establishment of the Emirate of Granada in 1230 to its annexation in 1492. The Nasrids constructed the Alhambra palace-fortress complex in Granada.
The family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty. It starts with their common ancestor, Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted, as are sons whose descendants never reigned. During times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree generally recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace.
List of Nasrid sultans of Granada
| Monarchs of|
Emirate · Caliphate
Medieval · Modern
First dynasty (al-dawla al-ghalibiyya):
- Muhammad I ibn Nasr (1238–1272)
- Muhammed II al-Faqih (1273–1302)
- Muhammed III (1302–1309)
- Nasr (1309–1314)
Second dynasty (al-dawla al-isma'iliyya al-nasriyya):
- Ismail I (1314–1325)
- Muhammed IV (1325–1333)
- Yusuf I (1333–1354)
- Muhammed V (1354–1359, 1362–1391)
- Ismail II (1359–1360)
- Muhammad VI (1360–1362)
- Yusuf II (1391–1392)
- Muhammad VII (1392–1408)
- Yusuf III (1408–1417)
- Muhammed VIII (1417–1419, 1427–1429)
- Muhammed IX (1419–1427, 1430–1431, 1432–1445, 1448–1453)
- Yusuf IV (1432)
- Yusuf V (1445–1446, 1462)
- Muhammad X (1446–1448)
- Muhammad XI (1453–1454)
- Sa'ad (1454–1464)
- Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén (1464–1482, 1483–1485)
- Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil (1482–1483, 1486–1492)
- Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muhammad XIII, known as El Zagal (1485–1486)
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