National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
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|Formed||June 16, 1948|
|Jurisdiction||Federal government of the United States|
|Parent department||United States Department of Health and Human Services|
|Parent agency||National Institutes of Health|
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is the third largest Institute of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, United States. It is tasked with allocating about $3.0 billion in tax revenue per year (fiscal year 2015 estimate) to advancing the understanding of the following issues: development and progression of disease, diagnosis of disease, treatment of disease, disease prevention, reduction of health care disparities within the American population, and advancing the effectiveness of the US medical system. NHLBI's Director is Gary H. Gibbons (2012-present).
In 1948, the National Heart Act established the National Heart Institute and the National Advisory Heart Council. The intramural research program was established a year later in 1949. In 1969, the National Heart Institute was renamed the National Heart and Lung Institute, and the scope of the institute was expanded. In 1976, it was given its current name, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. It had been designated as the agency responsible for blood research by the National Heart, Blood Vessel, Lung, and Blood Act of 1972, after the newly-created National Sickle Cell Disease Program was put under its aegis.
The Institute plans, conducts, fosters, and supports an integrated and coordinated program of basic research, clinical investigations and trials, observational studies, and demonstration and education projects. Research is related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, and sleep disorders. The NHLBI plans and directs research in development and evaluation of interventions and devices related to prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients suffering from such diseases and disorders. It also supports research on clinical use of blood and all aspects of the management of blood resources. Research by scientific institutions and individuals is supported by research grants and contracts through the NHLBI Extramural Program, while the NHLBI Division of Intramural Research conducts state-of-the-art research on the NIH Bethesda campus in its own laboratories.
For health professionals and the public, the NHLBI conducts educational activities, including development and dissemination of materials in the above areas, with an emphasis on prevention.
The NHLBI supports research training and career development of new and established researchers in fundamental sciences and clinical disciplines to enable them to conduct basic and clinical research related to heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, sleep disorders, and blood resources through individual and institutional research training awards and career development awards.
The NHLBI coordinates relevant activities in the above areas, including the related causes of stroke, with other research institutes and federal health programs. Relationships are maintained with institutions and professional associations, and with international, national, state, and local officials as well as voluntary agencies and organizations working in the above areas.
The NHLBI Division of Intramural Research (DIR) in Bethesda conducts research and training in a wide variety of areas broadly related to the mission of the institute, both clinical research and basic science research. There are 60 investigators, each of whom runs their own research program. They are supported by a group of core services that implement state-of-the-art techniques available to all NHLBI investigators. The NHLBI was home[clarification needed] to Marshall Nirenberg, Nobel laureate for his part in the discovery of the genetic code. The DIR also has a large training component, with opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and medical students as well as post-doctoral training.
The research arm of the institute is organized into the following divisions:
- Biochemistry and Biophysics Center
- Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch
- Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Human Genomics Branch
- Cell Biology and Physiology Center
- Center for Molecular Medicine
- Genetics and Development Biology Center
- Hematology Branch
- Immunology Center
- Population Sciences Branch
- Sickle Cell Branch
- Systems Biology Center
Notes and references
- "National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 9 July 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "Division of Intramural Research". NHLBI, NIH. 2016-02-09. Retrieved 2017-11-30.