Nazism in Brazil
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Nazism in Brazil began even before World War II, when the National Socialist German Workers' Party made political propaganda in the country to attract militants among the members of the German community. Germans began immigrating to Brazil around 1824, when even the country named as Germany didn't exist yet. That's why the first generations of German immigrants didn't identify themselves as "Germans". In the 1920s and 1930s, almost a hundred years after the first wave of immigrants had arrived, another major wave of German immigrants began arriving in Brazil again. It was tens of thousands of Germans immigrating to Brazil, due to the socioeconomic problems faced by Weimar Republic Germany and the post World War I. It was this new wave of German immigration that originated most of the Nazis in Brazil, since these new immigrants had stronger ties with Germany than the immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the 19th century.
It can not be said that the majority of the German community in Brazil adhered to the Nazi ideology, but important segments of this community were infiltrated by Nazis. The Nazis in Brazil were concentrated mainly between the business and urban strata of the German community, and not in the German colonies. Not all affiliates to the Nazi party in Brazil engaged in ideology; many did so in pursuit of economic benefits that such membership could provide.
In 1939, 87,024 German immigrants lived in Brazil, of which 33,397 were in São Paulo, 15,279 in Rio Grande do Sul, 12,343 in Paraná and 11,293 in Santa Catarina. Of the total number of Germans, only 2,822 were affiliated with the Nazi party, less than 5% of the German community. The Nazis were spread across 17 Brazilian states, from north to south. The largest number of Nazis was in São Paulo (785), followed by Santa Catarina (528) and Rio de Janeiro (447). At that time, there were also 900,000 Brazilians—descendants of Germans, but these could not join the party; that was reserved to the born Germans.
It was not in the interest of the Nazis to participate in the elections in Brazil, and the party was never registered in the Brazilian Electoral Court. According to the then German ambassador to Brazil, Karl Ritter, there were explicit guidelines that the party should not interfere in Brazil's internal affairs. The party operated in Brazil from 1928 to 1938, without being bothered by the Brazilian government, then led by Getúlio Vargas. In the last year, after the establishment of the Estado Novo dictatorship, the Nazi party and all other foreign political associations were declared illegal.
- 1 Nazi propaganda in Brazil
- 2 German community in Brazil
- 3 The party under Vargas rule
- 4 Vargas Estado Novo and nazism
- 5 Nazis in Brazil after the war
- 6 Neo-nazism in Brazil
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Nazi propaganda in Brazil
In 1928, the Brazilian section of the Nazi Party was founded in Timbó, Santa Catarina. About 100 thousand born Germans and about one million descendants lived in Brazil at that time. Most of them lived in isolated communities in southern Brazil that preserved German language and culture. With Adolf Hitler's rise to the Chancellor's office in Germany, German-Brazilians began to be besieged by propaganda by Nazism to attract followers abroad.
Although there has never been a Nazi Party organized, legally or clandestinely in the country, several members of the Teuto-Brazilian community were members of the Brazilian section of the Nazi Party of Germany. This section reached 2,822 members and was the largest section of the German Nazi Party outside Germany. As it was a foreign organization, only born Germans could be affiliated; and the Brazilian descendants of Germans, who might want to, could act only as sympathizers.
It is estimated that about 5% of the German immigrants then residing in Brazil were, at one time, associated with the German Nazi Party. These Nazis resided in 17 Brazilian states, most of them in São Paulo, mainly in Santo André. However, the overwhelming majority of Brazilians were not seduced by propaganda and never joined Nazism.
German community in Brazil
Until 1930, there were two flows of German immigration into Brazil. The first flow occurred in the nineteenth century, which gave rise to several colonies scattered throughout Brazil, but concentrated in the South. At the time of the rise of Nazism in Germany, this community was already in the second and third generation in Brazil. This community maintained diverse German cultural habits, however the geographic distance and the passage of time brought about perceptible cultural changes. In turn, the second flow occurred in the first decades of the twentieth century. During the Republic of Weimar and due to the consequences of World War I, Germany was in an economic crisis. At the same time, Brazil was experiencing industrial development, especially in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Due to the demand for skilled and technical labor, many Germans immigrated to the country at this time. Evidently, these new immigrants had a greater bond with Germany than the German-Brazilians who arrived in the 19th century.
The newly arrived immigrants from Germany differed from the German-Brazilians. The first were called Reichsdeutsche (Germans of the Reich), while the second were the Volksdeutsche (Germans of the people). Only the born Germans could join the Nazi party. That is why the largest number of Nazis in Brazil lived in São Paulo, since the state was the preferred destination of this new wave of German immigration.
By the mid-1930s, there were more than one million Germans and descendants in Brazil, most in Rio Grande do Sul (600,000) and Santa Catarina (220,000). In 1940, Germans and descendants made up 22.34% of the population of Santa Catarina and 19.3% in Rio Grande do Sul. The German community in the country preserved its culture and language, understood as a manifestation of Germanism, which was possible through the existence of societies, a German-language press, and especially schools. The 1940 census showed that 640,000 people used German as their primary home language in Brazil. Based on the high proportion of members of the German community who used German at home (more than 70%), it was concluded that there was a low level of cultural assimilation of this community.
Adherence to nazism
|Affiliated to the Nazi party in Brazil, among born Germans (1930/1940)|
|State||Affiliated||Populace born in Germany|
|Rio de Janeiro||447||11.519|
|Rio Grande do Sul||439||15.279|
The party under Vargas rule
The pragmatic equidistance
The prohibition and consequences
Plans of Nazi Germany for Brazil
Vargas Estado Novo and nazism
Consequences of Estado Novo nationalism
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The government of the Estado Novo promoted the forced integration of the Germans and they descendants that lived in colonies isolated in the south of Brazil. In various occasion acted with brutality against humble immigrants who had no relations with Nazi Germany.
In 1940, on a visit to Blumenau, city of German colonization in the state of Santa Catarina, Vargas declared: "O Brasil não é inglês nem alemão. É um país soberano, que faz respeitar as suas leis e defende os seus interesses. O Brasil é brasileiro. (...) Porém, ser brasileiro, não é somente respeitar as leis do Brasil e acatar as autoridades. Ser brasileiro é amar o Brasil. É possuir o sentimento que permite dizer: o Brasil nos deu pão; nós lhe daremos o sangue". (The Brazil is not English nor German. Is a sovereign country, that respect your laws and defends your interests. The Brazil is Brazilian. (...) But, be Brazilian, isn't just respect the laws of Brazil and respect the authorities. Be Brazilian is love Brazil. Is to possess the feeling that allows to say: Brazil gave us bread; we will give him our blood".)
The japanese immigrants and italians were also persecuted and forced to "braziliate". The case of the teuto-Brazilians is unique because they formed isolated communities that maintained the traditions and used exclusively the german language.
Nazis in Brazil after the war
After Germany's defeat in World War II, many Nazis convicted as war criminals fled to Brazil and hid among the German-Brazilian communities. The most famous case was Josef Mengele, a doctor who became known as the "Angel of Death" at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Mengele performed medical experiments with living humans, always without anesthesia, for the purpose of researching the perfection of the Aryan race. A good part of the victims of their "scientific experiments" were dwarfs and twin brothers. He lived hidden in the interior of São Paulo from 1970 to 1979, when he drowned in Bertioga, on the coast of São Paulo, without ever having been recognized.
Neo-nazism in Brazil
Currently in Brazil[when?] there are some neo-Nazi groups in action. However, there is often an association between these groups and the descendants of Southern Germans. Historian Rafael Athaides asserts there is no justification for making such a connection. Athaides finds it unlikely that there will be any connection, since a survey of the profile of individuals arrested for neo-Nazism shows that none of them are descendants of historical Nazis. These are misfit young people, "devoid of referential identity and who manipulate the signs of Nazism in the world." To hold the descendants of southern Germans for the support of separatist and neo-Nazi groups happens even when practices described as "neo-Nazi" are practiced by caboclos from the interior of Pará. This type of stereotype is criticized in the work of the historian René Gertz.
Some crimes committed by neo-Nazis caught the attention of the Brazilian press. In 2003, for example, a group of neo-Nazi skinheads forced two young punks to jump off a moving train in Mogi das Cruzes. One of them died and the other lost an arm. In São Paulo, the resurgence of the Nazi movement had its origins in the 1980s, when the "Carecas do ABC" emerged, an extreme right-wing group opposed to the trade union movement led by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who emerged in the same region. Since then, communication over the internet has broadened the boundaries of the movement. The site Valhala88, deactivated in 2007, received 200 thousand visits daily by users of the country.
According to the anthropologist Adriana Dias, from Unicamp, a scholar of the question of neo-Nazism in Brazil, the heated debate in the 2010 presidential election breathed the movement. For her, "the issue of prejudice to the Northeastern [...] comes from the elections of Lula. In Dilma's election, this was much radicalized because the issue of abortion and same-sex marriage." According to Adriana, there are two large age groups of neo-Nazis in Brazil. The first one is between 18 and 25 years old and the second is between 35 and 45 years old and the leader of the first. According to her, the reading of the neo-Nazis is composed of William Patch, Thomas Haden and Miguel Serrano. Currently, the region with the largest number of neo-Nazi sympathizers is the South, with more than 105,000; Internet users who download more than 100 files from neo-Nazi websites are considered sympathizers.
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- Mateus Dalmáz. A imagem do Terceiro Reich na Revista do globo (1933-1945). Editora Edipucrs, 2002
- Sob os olhos da águia: imagens da Argentina peronista na imprensa brasileira dos primeiros anos da Guerra Fria (1946-1955).
- "Mapa da intolerância: região sul concentra maioria dos grupos neonazistas no Brasil". Ebc.com. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
- Fascist? Populist? Debate Over Describing Brazil's Bolsonaro