New York Hydropathic and Physiological School

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New York Hydropathic and Physiological School

New York Hydropathic and Physiological School was founded by Russell Thacher Trall, MD on October 1, 1853 at 15 Laight Street, in New York City. It is chiefly notable today as one of the first medical schools in the United States to admit women candidates for the Doctor of Medicine degree. New England Female Medical College in Boston was the first, opening its doors in 1848. In 1855 the school graduated 50 physicians, "...about half of which were women."[1] By an act of the New York State Legislature in 1857 the school's name was changed to New York Hygeio-Therapeutic College and the school was authorized to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In 1858 the school graduated another 60 physicians, and again the number of female graduates was about half that number.[2][3]

The school emphasized hydropathy, also known as the "water cure," dietary therapies, sanitation, hygiene, exercise, and abandoning most of the materia medica used by allopathic physicians.[4] Founder Russell T. Trall was one of the first medical advocates of Vegan nutrition[5][6] The school moved to Florence, New Jersey by 1869 and continued in operation until 1875 when it was offered for sale. Trall died in 1877 and is buried in Florence, New Jersey.[7][8][9]


  1. ^ New York Hydropathic & Physiological School, L. F. Fowler, and Mary C. Vaughan. Catalogue of the New York Hydropathic & Physiological School, for 1854-5: With the Opening Address of Mrs. L.F. Fowler, M.D. ; an Essay Delivered Before the Lyceum by Mrs. Mary C. Vaughan ; Prospectus of the School ; List of Graduates. New York: Fowlers & Wells, 1855.
  2. ^ Columbus medical journal: A magazine of medicine and surgery, Volume 32. (1908) Columbus Medical Publishing Co. p.152
  3. ^ K. Patrick Ober, (2010). Mark Twain and medicine: "any mummery will cure". Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
  4. ^ Peter R Eisenstadt, and Laura-Eve Moss. The Encyclopedia of New York State. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press, 2005. Print.
  5. ^ Russell Thatcher Trall, MD (1855). The new hydropathic cook-book: With recipes for cooking on hygienic principles. New York: Fowlers and Wells.
  6. ^ Rusell Thatcher Trall. (1874). The hygeian home cook-book; or, Healthful and palatable food without condiments. New-York: S.R. Wells.
  7. ^ Sandra W. Moss, MD, MA. (2008) Fountains of Youth: New Jersey’s Water Cures. Garden State Legacy #2.
  8. ^ Medical and Surgical Directory of the United States. (1886) Polk & Company
  9. ^ Online Books by R.T. Trall, University of Pennsylvania